Citizendium

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Citizendium
Web address citizendium.org
Slogan An encyclopedia project—and more!
Commercial? No
Type of site
Internet encyclopedia project
Registration Optional (required to edit pages)
Available in English
Content license
CC-BY-SA 3.0
Created by Larry Sanger
Launched 23 October 2006 (pilot)
25 March 2007 (public)
Alexa rank
positive decrease 286,796 (October 2014)[1]
Larry Sanger, founder and former editor-in-chief of Citizendium

Citizendium (/ˌsɪtɨˈzɛndiəm/ SIT-i-ZEN-dee-əm; "the citizens' compendium of everything")[2] is an English-language wiki-based free encyclopedia project launched by Larry Sanger, who co-founded Wikipedia in 2001.[3][4]

It was first announced in September 2006 as a fork of the English Wikipedia,[5] but that idea was abandoned prior to its March 2007 public launch in favor of emphasizing original articles. The project aims to improve on the Wikipedia model by providing increased reliability.[6] It hopes to achieve this by requiring virtually all contributors to use their real names, by strictly moderating the project for unprofessional behavior, by providing what it calls "gentle expert oversight" of everyday contributors, and also through its "approved articles". Approved articles have undergone a form of peer-review by topic experts with credentials, and are closed to real-time editing.[7][8]

By 27 October 2011, the site had fewer than 100 active members.[9] As of August 2013, it had 16,484 articles, of which 165 had achieved editorial approval, and around 10 contributors making at least 20 edits a month.[10] The managing editor is Anthony Sebastian.[11]

Founder viewpoints[edit]

Sanger said in a 17 October 2006 press release that Citizendium "will soon attempt to unseat Wikipedia as the go-to destination for general information online".[12] In August 2007, he captioned its pages "The world needs a more credible free encyclopedia."[13] The project began its pilot phase in October and November 2006.

On 18 January 2007, a change of plans was announced. Sanger announced on the CZ mailing list that only articles marked "CZ Live", those which have been or will soon be worked on by Citizendium contributors, would remain on the site, and all other articles forked from Wikipedia would be deleted. Not all Citizendium contributors were supportive of this change, but Sanger emphasized that this deletion was "an experiment" and a new set of Wikipedia articles could be uploaded if the experiment were deemed unsuccessful.[14]

Planning for succession of editor-in-chief[edit]

In May 2009, Sanger reduced his direct activity at Citizendium, and, in a message on 30 July 2009, he reminded those on the Citizendium-l mailing list of his previously declared intention not to serve as editor-in-chief for more than two or three years after the start of the project.[15] Sanger has reiterated his call for the Citizendium community to prepare an orderly process for choosing a new Editor-in-Chief. Sanger said that he was spending more time on his WatchKnow project,[16] partly because he needs to earn an income—he said the "Citizendium project doesn't earn me a dime"—and partly because the Citizendium community had demonstrated that it could function effectively without his close, daily involvement, and because "there are squeakier wheels in my life just now". He added that stepping aside may "precipitate something of a constitutional crisis, considering that we [Citizendium] never adopted a proper charter". Citizendium finally ratified its charter in September 2010.[17] On 22 September 2010, Sanger stepped down as editor-in-chief[18] and subsequently gave up editorial powers and rights to the project. Sanger did not appoint a successor or interim Editor-in-Chief, and the project's financial position did not become clear until after his departure.[19]

Nature of the project[edit]

Fork of Wikipedia[edit]

According to statements and essays on Citizendium,[20][21][22] the project was initially intended to begin as a fork of Wikipedia, carrying a copy of each article—under the rules of the GNU Free Documentation License—as it existed on Wikipedia at the time of Citizendium's launch.[23] However, after initiating the idea of not forking, and then soliciting comments on the matter from Citizendium mailing list and web forum members, Sanger said that a complete fork at launch was not a "foregone conclusion".[24] On 18 January 2007, Sanger announced that the pilot would, as an experiment, only carry articles that had been, or would soon be, worked on by Citizendium contributors, instead of a complete set of Wikipedia articles. He stated that the experiment "represents a reconception of our project's basic aim".[14]

No announcement has yet been made on Citizendium editions in languages other than English, but Sanger has stated in his essays that they may be forthcoming after the English-language version is established and successfully working. In a review of Andrew Keen's book The Cult of the Amateur, Sanger comments ironically on Keen's favorable treatment of Citizendium: "The first example of a 'solution' he offers is the Citizendium, or the Citizens' Compendium, which I like to describe briefly as Wikipedia with editors and real names. But how can Citizendium be a solution to the problems he raises, if it has experts working without pay, and the result is free? If it succeeds, won't it contribute to the decline of reference publishing?"[25]

Project goal[edit]

The stated aim of the project is to create a "new compendium of knowledge" based on the contributions of "intellectuals", defined as "educated, thinking people who read about science or ideas regularly".[26] Citizendium aimed to foster an expert culture and a community that encourages participants (to be called "authors") to "respect" the expert contributions (by what he referred to as a "gentle process of guidance").

An appeals process for disagreements between editors and authors, and between different editors, was planned, according to a provisional "Citizendium Policy Outline" published by Sanger.[27]

On the Citizendium blog, Sanger wrote this caveat about the provisional outline: "This is a work in progress. Therefore, I hope the Wikipedia article about the Citizendium will not say tomorrow that CZ will have features X, Y, and Z. These are in most cases negotiable policy ideas, a place for the invitees to the policy project to work from." Sanger also stated that future versions of the policy outline would be posted on the restricted-access pilot wiki: "The most current version will be available on the pilot project wiki. To see that, you'll have to be a member of the pilot project." Experts are required to verify their qualifications openly, for transparency and publicly accepted authority.[27] This contrasts with the open and largely anonymous nature of Wikipedia,[28] where subject specialists have neither any verifiable special knowledge of their subject nor agreed special status. Sanger stated that editors would not have pre-approval rights over edits by ordinary authors, though editors would have somewhat undefined authority over articles that fall within their specific area of expertise.

Contrast to Wikipedia[edit]

Many of Citizendium's proposed policies are attempts to correct perceived flaws in the original design and the public image of Wikipedia that have led to problems with Wikipedia's acceptance as a valid and trustworthy resource.[29] Some academics maintain that Wikipedia is a valuable starting point for inquiry, but (as its co-founder Jimmy Wales concurs)[30] should not be used as a sole or principal source of information.[31] Some schools and universities accept no references to Wikipedia in formal papers, while other educational institutions have limited its use to being merely a pointer to external sources.[32]

Regarding Wikipedia, Sanger wrote that "this arguably dysfunctional community is extremely off-putting to...academics" and as such appears "committed to amateurism".[26] In his December 2007 essay on Citizendium's content license, Sanger said: "We are not in business to put Wikipedia out of business. But we do hope to outdo them in value—that is, in quality, quantity (in the fullness of time), and in the maturity and responsibility of our community. [...] On balance, I remain a fan of the project I engineered. I merely think we can do better—and so we should try."[33]

Building on Sanger's experience from other collaborative encyclopedias,[34] Citizendium represents an effort to establish a scholarly and credible online encyclopedia.[8][35] Sanger aims to improve upon the wiki-based encyclopedia model by bringing more accountability and academic quality to articles.[36] In an interview with CNET News in 2007 Sanger explained the reasons for starting a Wikipedia alternative:

I think we absolutely need another wiki—first of all, simply because Wikipedia lacks credibility, unfortunately. It's a good starting place, as people say—on some subjects anyway—but it isn't really what we want out of a reliable reference resource. And frankly, I don't think that the Wikipedia community is prepared to make the changes that I think need to be made in order to transform Wikipedia into something that's really reliable.[37]

Citizendium is wiki-based, and several aspects set it apart from Wikipedia.[38][39][40] Prospective contributors on Citizendium are required to sign in using real names.[41][42] Users of Wikipedia may contribute anonymously, or create a username. This username does not necessarily have a connection with their real name.[43][44] Experts in their field of expertise have a role in the Citizendium community to approve articles on the basis of accuracy.[8] The Good Article and the Featured Article systems on Wikipedia employs a review by editors.[45] Wikipedia is perceived to promote consensus and not truth[46] and verifiability is the inclusion criteria – reporting on what other sources have to say.[47] Citizendium experts have the final say for article content[48][49] and it is not necessary to cite a source for a content decision on Citizendium.[50] Citizendium attempts to prevent future wiki-vandalism in the tradition of Stephen Colbert,[7] who once asked viewers of his show The Colbert Report to add false information to Wikipedia's article about elephants.[51]

Policies and structure[edit]

Unlike Wikipedia, Citizendium does not allow anonymous editing. Participants must register under their real names with a working email address.

Sanger decided that Citizendium administrators, or sysops, would be called "constables", and need a bachelor's degree to qualify. He also instituted a minimum "maturity" requirement—25 years of age—for constables.[27] The "head" constable is the Chief Constable (D. Matt Innis), and the head editor is the Managing Editor.[52]

Originally, Sanger operated as Editor-in-Chief, the "main individual in charge", part of and answerable to a Board of Directors. Sanger stated that final decisions about management structure will not be made "until more of the (future) primary stakeholders are on the scene".[53] In a Citizendium blog entry of 10 November 2006, constable Sarah Tuttle announced the formation of an "executive committee" consisting of herself, Sanger and eleven others, which works on issues of "long term governance" of the project.[54]

Citizendium articles are subject to an "approval" process after they have achieved reasonable quality. An "editor" can determine when an article is ready to be approved. If the article is approved it is then locked, and further editing takes place on a separate "draft" version which may eventually replace the current approved version. There is a dispute-resolution process for disagreements about which version should be selected as approved.[27]

In a 26 October 2006 post to the Citizendium web forum, then Managing Editor David Marshall indicated that the approved version of an article, if it exists, will be the default version displayed to a visitor to the site. If a contributor wishes to modify or add to the article, login will be necessary to work on the "dynamic wiki page" open to editing:

All reader searches will auto-forward to the most recently approved version of the page (assuming that a version has been approved). Once at an approved page, the reader will be given the option to register/log in as an author and move to the dynamic wiki page in current use for development purposes.[55]

The project is being carried out under the auspices of the Citizendium Foundation,[52] and was initially phased under the Tides Center as an incubator project.[56] In September 2010, the Tides Center officially withdrew direct financial support for the project.[citation needed]

Content[edit]

Breakdown of articles in December 2007

Citizendium original articles are available under the Creative Commons Attribution ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License (cc-by-sa).[57] "Articles that originated in part from Wikipedia are also available under [the] GNU Free Documentation License [version] 1.2."[58] The decision for a commercial-allowable license for its original articles comes on the heels of extended community debate, with about half of Citizendium contributors preferring a non-commercial license.[59][60][61] The decision was announced on 21 December 2007, about a year after the launch of the pilot project, with Larry Sanger's essay on the reasoning behind the decision.[33]

History[edit]

Number of articles from launch of the pilot project until March 2012.

Pilot project[edit]

The project was announced by Sanger on 15 September 2006, at the Wizards of OS 4 conference in Berlin. He gave no deadline for the full launch of the wiki.[62][63] However, on 2 October 2006, Sanger released a pilot project announcement that envisioned a fully functioning wiki within "one to two months".

In an apparent attempt to quicken the pace of the project, on 2 October 2006, Citizendium web forum moderator Peter Hitchmough suggested what he called an "alpha test" of the concept. Hitchmough proposed the forking of a limited number of Wikipedia articles to a site where Citizendium web forum and mailing list members could "rewrite a complete section" of Wikipedia content.[64]

Larry Sanger reacted enthusiastically to the idea and at first suggested his already existing Textop wiki as the site for the alpha test. Sanger later posted that Textop would not be a good choice, but showed continued interest in the proposal. He envisioned a "restricted-access" wiki where the idea could be tried and requested further discussion.[65]

No access to the pilot version of Citizendium, even read-only, was allowed to the general public. Sanger stated: "Only invited people will be able to view and edit the pilot project wiki."[66] Sanger also said that constables for the pilot project will be chosen by the chief constable.[67]

In a press release on 17 October 2006, Sanger announced: "the fledgling Citizendium Foundation will launch a six-week pilot project open to potential contributors by invitation". Several editors and other project leaders were named. It was also announced that the Citizendium Foundation had "started the process of applying for 501(c)(3) status [non-profit status]" and had "received a firm commitment for a significant seed grant from a foundation, as well as small personal donations".[12] In a follow-up post to the press release, Sanger said that the initial group allowed access to the pilot would consist of "ten editors, three constables, six authors, and me."[68]

The pilot project began operations on 23 October 2006.[69] On 8 November, Larry Sanger reported that 263 user names had access to the pilot wiki, 183 articles on the wiki were "live" (meaning "someone is or intends to be working on them") and there were about 300 total edits to the wiki on 7 November.[70]

Creation rate (articles per day) until March 2012.

In a 17 January 2007 post to the Citizendium forum, Sanger stated that "we have had only 10–20 (very) active people out of 500 accounts created". As a result, Sanger decided to delete all articles besides those marked "CZ live" from the pilot project in an attempt to motivate greater participation.[71] On 22 January 2007, Citizendium experimented with a new self-registration procedure: read/write access was granted automatically after creation of the account.[72] There were a few instances of vandalism after this change, though the vandalism was quickly reverted.[73] On 19 January, Sanger announced the formal organization of Citizendium as a legal non-profit organization.[74]

On 16 February 2007, in response to rising site vandalism, automatic account creation[72] was put on hold while increased protections were being put in place to counter vandalism.[75] The next day, page moves were limited to constables as an additional measure against vandalism.[76] In addition, Sanger continued the process of un-forking the Citizendium from Wikipedia by inviting contributors to delete any Wikipedia content that had changed only superficially since it was imported.

Inauguration[edit]

Default style of the homepage through early 2008; users can choose from a number of "skins", or formats.

On 25 March 2007, Citizendium ended its pilot phase and went live, into its beta phase, and the site became publicly readable.[77] The launch coincided with a feature-length Associated Press article that ran widely, with a title in USA Today of "Citizendium aims to be better Wikipedia".[78]

The day prior to launch, Sanger released an essay, "Why the Citizendium Will (Probably) Succeed" in which he stated that activity at Citizendium grew from 100 edits a day in the first month to over 500 prior to launch.[79] After the launch, on 27 March 2007, a press release quotes Sanger as saying "You don't have to choose between content and accountability. We have shown that we can create open and credible content. We can, in fact, be open to all sorts of participants, but still hold people to higher standards of content and behavior as a community."[80]

Sometime after the launch, it was noted that Citizendium's family-friendly policy would mean the project would likely tend to avoid articles on slang terms for sexual activity, and particularly explicit articles on sexual practices.[81] The Citizendium has a "professionalism" policy for editors, which Sanger said is different from most online communities.[82]

On 29 June 2007, Sanger announced an initiative via the project-wide mailing list that he dubbed "Citizendium 2.0". Characterizing his comments as a "project planning document", Sanger detailed a series of initiatives designed to launch Citizendium into its next phase of development. The document outlined plans for a judicial board, an advisory board, a personnel manager, a new chairman of the editorial council, wider participation in the project by volunteers, a system of subpages for articles, and an expanded article checklist.[83]

Later developments[edit]

Number of users making at least one edit in a given month, until the end of 2013.

At the project's one-year anniversary in September 2007, Citizendium included 3000 articles written and revised by 2000 people.[84] A number of media reports appeared in late October and early November 2007 about the anniversary of Citizendium. A story in the Financial Times quoted Larry Sanger predicting strong growth for the project: "At some point, possibly very soon, the Citizendium will grow explosively – say, quadruple the number of its active contributors, or even grow by an order of magnitude. And it will experience that growth over the course of a month or two, and its growth will continue to accelerate from that higher rate."[85] (See chart at right; active contributors slowly went upwards during the remainder of 2007, then bubbled higher in the first quarter of 2008, but after that point steadily declined.)

Citizendium was honored on 5 December 2007, as an award finalist of the Society for New Communications Research. The Society describes itself as a nonprofit global think-tank "dedicated to the advanced study of new communications tools, technologies and emerging modes of communication, and their effect on traditional media, professional communications, business, culture and society". The Society chose Citizendium for an award because it considered it "a leading organization" in these respects.[86]

Library writer Walt Crawford noted in April 2009 that Citizendium appeared to be in an "extended lull", with a constant rate of creation of new articles at around 13–14 per day and a decline in the number of active authors.[87] In August 2009, Richard Waters wrote in the Financial Times technology blog: "At best, Citizendium could be called a qualified success. Launched in March 2007, as of August 2009 it had 11,810 articles – 2,999,674 fewer than the English-language version of Wikipedia."[88] Mathieu O'Neil, Principal Researcher at the Australian Department of Broadband, Communication and the Digital Economy, wrote in a March 2010 article on crowdsourcing that "new participants to Wikipedia know that their contributions will have a significant audience; becoming a Wikipedia editor is trivial and instantaneous; since it lacks this immediate quality, Citizendium failed to attract the crowd".[89]

The project had a core of 25 contributors who made more than 100 edits a month, with 90 participants making at least one edit, during March 2010. Median word count dropped from 468 words per article in October 2007 to 151 in May 2010.[90] In June 2010, the number of users making 1, 20 or 100 edits per month all were at their lowest point since the project went public in March 2007.[90] By October 2011, only about a dozen members made edits on a typical day.[9] The number of approved articles remains at around 1% of the total.

Financial endangerment[edit]

A financial report was issued in late 2010 and updated periodically. Beginning in early 2011, the report re-emphasized concern about a lack of funds. According to the Management Council's estimate in the October revision of the report, Citizendium would be able to afford to continue running the server until approximately January 2012. The Management Council continues to search for a university, philanthropist, or any other source of funding to take on or help with server costs.[91] Larry Sanger reported in November 2011 that the project collected enough donations to keep the server running "for several months".[92]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Citizendium.org Site Info". Alexa Internet. Retrieved 2014-10-12. 
  2. ^ "CZ:About – Citizendium". En.citizendium.org. Retrieved 2013-11-18. 
  3. ^ Bergstein, Brian (25 March 2007). "Sanger says he co-started Wikipedia". MSNBC. Associated Press. Retrieved 25 March 2007. The nascent Web encyclopedia Citizendium springs from Larry Sanger, a philosophy Ph.D. who counts himself as a co-founder of Wikipedia, the site he now hopes to usurp. The claim doesn't seem particularly controversial — Sanger has long been cited as a co-founder. Yet the other founder, Jimmy Wales, isn't happy about it. 
  4. ^ Moody, Glyn (13 July 2006). "This time, it'll be a Wikipedia written by experts". The Guardian (London). Retrieved 25 March 2007. Larry Sanger seems to have a thing about free online encyclopedias. Although his main claim to fame is as the co-founder, along with Jimmy Wales, of Wikipedia, that is just one of several projects to produce large-scale, systematic stores of human knowledge he has been involved in. [...] "[Jimmy Wales] saw that I was essentially looking for employment online and he was looking for someone to lead Nupedia ... [...]" Career: 1992–1996, 1997–1998 Graduate teaching associate, OSU; 2000–2002 Editor-in-chief, Nupedia; Co-founder and "chief organiser", Wikipedia [...]. 
  5. ^ Andrew Orlowski."Wikipedia founder forks Wikipedia, More experts, less fiddling?", The Register, 18 September 2006. In software engineering, a project fork occurs when developers take a copy of source code from one software package and start independent development on it, creating a distinct piece of software.
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  7. ^ a b McCarthy, Caroline (23 January 2007). "Citizendium: Wikipedia co-founder Sanger's Wikipedia riva l". CNET News. Retrieved 13 April 2009. 
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  15. ^ Larry Sanger [Citizendium-l] My recent absence
  16. ^ "WatchKnow". WatchKnow. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  17. ^ "CZ:Charter". Citizendium, en.citizendium.org. 23 September 2010. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
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  22. ^ "CZ:Statistics". Citizendium. 4 March 2012. Retrieved 1 April 2012. 
  23. ^ Larry Sanger. "Why we should fork all at once", Citizendium-l mail list, 29 September 2006.
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  25. ^ Larry Sanger (17 July 2007). "Review of Keen's "Cult of the Amateur"". Citizendium Blog. Retrieved 21 May 2011. 
  26. ^ a b Larry Sanger. "Toward a New Compendium of Knowledge (longer version)", Citizendium.
  27. ^ a b c d Larry Sanger. "Citizendium Policy Outline", Citizendium.
  28. ^ Rosenzweig, Roy (2006). "Can History Be Open Source? Wikipedia and the Future of the Past". The Journal of American History 1: 117–146. doi:10.2307/4486062. 
  29. ^ Youngwood, Susan (1 April 2007). "Wikipedia: What do they know; when do they know it, and when can we trust it?". Vermont Sunday Magazine (Rutland Herald). Retrieved 5 April 2007. Perhaps the most important thing to understand about Wikipedia — both its genius and its Achilles heel — is that anyone can create or modify an entry. Anyone means your 10-year-old neighbor or a Nobel Prize winner — or an editor like me, who is itching to correct a grammar error in that Wikipedia entry that I just quoted. Entries can be edited by numerous people and be in constant flux. What you read now might change in five minutes. Five seconds, even.  — Susan Youngwood.
  30. ^ "Wikipedia Founder Discourages Academic Use of His Creation". The Chronicle of Higher Education. 12 June 2006. Retrieved 10 August 2007. 
  31. ^ Maggie Morris (22 February 2007). "Expert: Wikipedia won't go away, so learn how to use it". PhysOrg.com. Retrieved 9 August 2007. [Purdue University assistant professor Sorin Matei] recommends Wikipedia be used as a search engine that acts as a springboard to other resources and that it never be cited as a primary source of information. 
  32. ^ Chen, Lysa (28 March 2007). "Several colleges push to ban Wikipedia as resource". The Chronicle Online. Retrieved 26 January 2010. 
  33. ^ a b Sanger, Larry (22 December 2007). "An explanation of the Citizendium license". Retrieved 22 December 2007. 
  34. ^ Sidener, Jonathan (September 23, 2006). "Wikipedia co-founder looks to add accountability, end anarchy". The San Diego Union-Tribune. Retrieved 2007-03-25. The origins of Wikipedia date to 2000, when Sanger was finishing his doctoral thesis in philosophy and had an idea for a Web site. 
  35. ^ Dawson, Christopher (February 23, 2007). "Citizendium seeks to be the Wikipedia you can cite". ZDNet. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  36. ^ LeClaire, Jennifer (March 27, 2007). "Wikipedia Cofounder Launches Citizendium". NewsFactor Network. Retrieved 2007-03-27. 
  37. ^ Tiwari, Neha (April 5, 2007). "Wikipedia today, Citizendium tomorrow". CNET. Retrieved 2007-04-05. Sanger now believes that the world deserves something better than his former start-up when it comes to online research. 
  38. ^ Frith, Holden (March 26, 2007). "Wikipedia founder launches rival online encyclopaedia". The Times (London). Retrieved 2007-03-27. 
  39. ^ Appel, Justin (February 23, 2007). "More 'reliable' Wikipedia soon to launch". eSchool News. Retrieved 2007-04-05. 
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  42. ^ Read, Brock (April 5, 2007). "Citizendium's Creator in His Own Words". The Chronicle of Higher Education. Retrieved 2007-04-05. 
  43. ^ Thompson, Bill (December 16, 2005). "What is it with Wikipedia?". BBC News. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  44. ^ Maxcer, Chris (March 9, 2007). "Wikipedia Ain't Broke, but Needs Fixing". LinuxInsider (ECT News Network). Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  45. ^ Murley, Diane (2008). "In Defense of Wikipedia". Law Library Journal. Retrieved 2009-04-28. 
  46. ^ Kamm, Oliver (August 16, 2007). "Wisdom? More like dumbness of the crowds". The Times (London). Retrieved 2007-08-16. Wikipedia seeks not truth but consensus, and like an interminable political meeting the end result will be dominated by the loudest and most persistent voices. 
  47. ^ Hendry, Andrew (June 6, 2007). "Who's behind Wikipedia?". Computer World. Retrieved 2009-02-13. 
  48. ^ Fisher, Ken (September 19, 2006). "New Citizendium to correct Wikipedia's wrongs?". Ars Technica. Retrieved 2007-03-25. 
  49. ^ Orlowski, Andrew (September 18, 2006). "Wikipedia founder forks Wikipedia". More experts, less fiddling? (The Register). Retrieved 2007-03-25. Larry Sanger describes the Citizendium project as a "progressive or gradual fork," with the major difference that experts have the final say over edits. 
  50. ^ Sanger, Larry. "CZ:We aren't Wikipedia". Citizendium. Retrieved 2007-10-04. 
  51. ^ McCarthy, Caroline (August 1, 2008). "Colbert speaks, America follows: All hail Wikiality". CNET. 
  52. ^ a b Larry Sanger. "Constables, editors, and the Citizendium Foundation", Citizendium-l mail list, 23 September 2006.
  53. ^ Larry Sanger. "How should we manage growth?", Citizendium forum, 2 October 2006.
  54. ^ Sarah Tuttle. "Your executive committee", Citizendium blog, 10 November 2006.
  55. ^ David Marshall. "My ideas on presenting consistently high quality content", Citizendium forum, 26 October 2006.
  56. ^ "Project Directory: Citizendium Foundation". The Tides Center. Archived from the original on 29 September 2007. Retrieved 5 June 2007. 
  57. ^ Sanger, Larry (21 December 2007). "The Citizendium encyclopedia project picks a Creative Commons license". Retrieved 25 December 2007. 
  58. ^ "Citizendium:Main Page". Citizendium. Retrieved 14 September 2009. 
  59. ^ "CZ:Should we permit or disallow commercial use of CZ-originated articles?". Citizendium. Retrieved 7 October 2007. 
  60. ^ Larry Sanger (19 November 2007). "A fascinating license question". Retrieved 21 November 2007. 
  61. ^ "CZ:License_Essays". Retrieved 4 November 2007. 
  62. ^ Larry Sanger. "Citizendium launch plan as of 26 September", Citizendium-l mail list, 27 September 2006.
  63. ^ WOS video stream containing Sanger's announcement
  64. ^ Peter Hitchmough. "Proposal: Fork Wikipedia and launch with some A1-class model subjects", Citizendium forum, 2 October 2006.
  65. ^ Larry Sanger. "Administrivia: interesting pilot project proposal", Citizendium-l mail list, 2 October 2006.
  66. ^ Larry Sanger. "Call for applications to participate in the Citizendium Pilot Project", Citizendium.
  67. ^ Larry Sanger. "Pilot Project Application Review Procedure", Citizendium-l mail list, 13 November 2006.
  68. ^ Larry Sanger. "Ad hoc steering group kicked off", Citizendium-l mail list, 18 October 2006.
  69. ^ Jason Potkanski. "Developers Wanted: forge.citizendium.org Open", Citizendium-l mail list, 23 October 2006.
  70. ^ Larry Sanger. "Stats", Citizendium blog, 8 November 2006.
  71. ^ Larry Sanger. "Would you contribute more if the wiki were blank?", Citizendium forum, 17 January 2007.
  72. ^ a b Larry Sanger. "Self-registration begins!", Citizendium-l mail list, 22 January 2007. The first act of vandalism was carried out via an account named 'Chris Nguyen', to vandalise three pages including the main one and that of Larry Sanger, apparently before the announcement was made. The account was indefinitely blocked a little over half an hour after the first improper edit.
  73. ^ Citizendium pilot wiki. "Main page revision history", 23 January 2007.
  74. ^ Larry Sanger. Upcoming announcements; your help requested, Citizendium-l mail list, 19 January 2007
  75. ^ Vandal Assault, at the Citizendium Blog[dead link]
  76. ^ "Page moves now require constable help; and semi-automated hand-approval of new accounts?", Citizendium-l mail list, 17 February 2007
  77. ^ Larry Sanger. "We have launched", Citizendium blog, 25 March 2007
  78. ^ Bergstein, Brian (25 March 2007). "Citizendium aims to be better Wikipedia". Associated Press.  "This week, Sanger takes the wraps off a Wikipedia alternative, Citizendium. His goal is to capture Wikipedia's bustle but this time, avoid the vandalism and inconsistency that are its pitfalls." — Brian Bergstein.
  79. ^ Larry Sanger. "Why the Citizendium Will (Probably) Succeed", Citizendium, March 2007.
    "Our activity has grown from 100 edits per day in the first month to over 500 prior to launch. Every day, a large variety of people from many fields sign on and do some work. This is all in a period in which the project has been visible only to those who have applied to the project. In addition, while it has received a fair bit of press, we have done very little in the way of recruitment—but with good results when we have. More aggressive recruitment is our trump card, which we haven't played."
  80. ^ Larry Sanger. Citizendium Opens its Free Online Encyclopedia Project to the Public Citizendium, 27 March 2007.
    "The modest success of our pilot project shows that there is hope that we can correct exactly the sort of abuses that people demonize Web 2.0 for," said the project's Editor-in-Chief, Wikipedia co-founder Dr. Larry Sanger. "You don't have to choose between content and accountability. We have shown that we can create open and credible content. We can, in fact, be open to all sorts of participants, but still hold people to higher standards of content and behavior as a community."
  81. ^ Sanger, Larry. "CZ:Family-Friendly Policy". Citizendium. Retrieved 7 June 2007. Probably, we will not have graphic depictions of the sex act or photographs of human sex organs; we will have few articles about pornography; we will not catalog every sex position and every fetish; we will not have gratuitous, and truly shocking and disgusting, pictures of gore (e.g., crime scene photos); and so forth. 
  82. ^ Sanger, Larry. "CZ:Professionalism". Citizendium. Retrieved 15 July 2007. The Citizendium differs significantly from other online communities in its commitment to professionalism--that is, professional behavior--and low tolerance for incivility and disruption. For there to be efficient content output and motivated contributors it is crucial that we all treat each other "professionally," and each other's work respectfully. 
  83. ^ Larry Sanger (29 June 2007). "Toward CZ 2.0". Citizendium-l. Retrieved 29 June 2007. 
  84. ^ (French) Comment le web change le monde : l'alchimie des multitudes, Francis Pisani et Dominique Piotet, éd. Pearson, 2008 (ISBN 978-2-7440-6261-2), p. 120
  85. ^ Waters, Richard (5 November 2007). "Citizendium vs Wikipedia". Financial Times (London). Retrieved 15 November 2007. 
  86. ^ Report: http://www.newsobserver.com/1566/story/803518.html. The Society for New Communications Research website: http://www.sncr.org. Also see Citizendium Blog entry.
  87. ^ Crawford, Walt, Cites & Insights Volume 9, Number 5 (April 2009), ISSN 1534-0937.
  88. ^ "Citizendium founder ready to jump ship". The Financial Times, blogs.ft.com. 25 August 2009. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  89. ^ O'Neil, M., 2010: Shirky and Sanger, or the cost of crowdsourcing. Journal of Science Communication 09(01) C04.
  90. ^ a b "CZ:Statistics". Citizendium, en.citizendium.org. 28 March 2007. Retrieved 8 December 2010. 
  91. ^ "CZ:Financial report". Citizendium, en.citizendium.org. 15 March 2011. Retrieved 17 March 2011 
  92. ^ Sawers, Paul (19 November 2011). "Larry Sanger on co-founding Wikipedia and how online education could change the world". The Next Web. Retrieved 3 January 2011. 

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