Citroën DS

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Citroën DS
1974 Citroen D-Special 02.jpg
1974 Citroën D Special
Overview
Manufacturer Citroën
Also called Citroën ID
Production 1955–1975
1,455,746 (worldwide)
1,330,755 (France)
Assembly Paris, France
Mangualde, Portugal
Slough, England, United Kingdom
Heidelberg, Victoria, Australia[1]
Johannesburg, South Africa
Koper, Yugoslavia
Designer Flaminio Bertoni
Body and chassis
Class Mid-size luxury car / Executive car
Body style 4-door sedan
5-door Safari station wagon
2-door convertible
Layout MF layout
Related Citroën SM
Powertrain
Engine
  • 1,911 cc (116.6 cu in) I4 (DS/ID 19)
  • 1,985 cc (121.1 cu in) I4 (DS 20)
  • 2,175 cc (132.7 cu in) I4 (DS 21)
  • 2,347 cc (143.2 cu in) I4 (DS 23)
Transmission 3-speed automatic
4-speed manual
5-speed manual
4-speed semi-automatic
Dimensions
Wheelbase 3,124 mm (123.0 in)[2]
Length 4,826 mm (190.0 in) (saloon)
4,991 mm (196.5 in) (estate)
Width 1,791 mm (70.5 in)
Height 1,464 mm (57.6 in) (saloon)
1,537 mm (60.5 in) (estate)
Curb weight 1,270 kg (2,800 lb)(saloon)
1,384 kg (3,051 lb)(estate)
Chronology
Predecessor Citroën Traction Avant
Successor Citroën CX

The Citroën DS (French, pronounced roughly "seat row en day ess", French pronunciation: ​[si.tʁo.ɛn de.ɛs]) is a four-door, front-engine, front-wheel-drive mid-size car manufactured and marketed by the French company Citroën from 1955 to 1975. It came in sedan, wagon/estate and convertible body configurations. Italian sculptor and industrial designer Flaminio Bertoni and the French aeronautical engineer André Lefèbvre styled and engineered the car. Paul Magès developed the hydropneumatic self-levelling suspension. This car is distinguished by its aerodynamic, futuristic body design and innovative technology.

The DS set new standards in ride quality, handling, and braking.[3][4] Citroën sold 1,455,746 cars, including 1,330,755  built at the manufacturer's original mass-production plant in Paris at the Quai André-Citroën (previously the Quai de Javel).[5]

The DS came third in the 1999 Car of the Century competition that recognized the world's most influential auto designs, and it was named the most beautiful car of all time by Classic & Sports Car magazine.[6]

Model history[edit]

After 18 years of secret development as the successor to the Traction Avant, the DS 19 was introduced on 5 October 1955 at the Paris Motor Show. In the first 15 minutes of the show, 743 orders were taken, and orders for the first day totalled 12,000.[7]

Contemporary journalists said the DS pushed the envelope in the ride vs. handling compromise possible in a motor vehicle.[8]

To a France still deep in reconstruction after the devastation of World War II, and also building its identity in the post-colonial world, the DS motor car was a symbol of French ingenuity.[citation needed] The DS was distributed to many territories throughout the world.[9]

Turn indicators were mounted in the upper corners of the rear window.

It also posited the nation's relevance in the Space Age, during the global race for technology of the Cold War.[original research?] Structuralist philosopher Roland Barthes, in an essay about the car, said that it looked as if it had "fallen from the sky".[10] An American advertisement summarised this selling point: "It takes a special person to drive a special car".[11]

The ID19 followed the DS19's example in using a punning name. While "DS" is pronounced in French as "Déesse" (goddess), "ID" is pronounced as "Idée" (idea).

The DS was the first mass production car with front power disc brakes.[12] It also featured hydropneumatic suspension including an automatic leveling system and variable ground clearance,[13] power steering and a semi-automatic transmission (the transmission required no clutch pedal, but gears still had to be shifted by hand[14]), though the shift lever controlled a powered hydraulic shift mechanism in place of a mechanical linkage, and a fibreglass roof which lowered the centre of gravity and so reduced weight transfer. Inboard front brakes (as well as independent suspension) reduced unsprung weight. Different front and rear track widths and tyre sizes reduced the unequal tyre loading, which is well known to promote understeer, typical of front-engined and front-wheel drive cars.[15]

As with all French cars, the DS design was affected by the tax horsepower system, which effectively mandated very small engines. Unlike the Traction Avant predecessor, there was no top-of-range model with a powerful six-cylinder engine. Citroën had planned an air-cooled flat-6 engine for the car, but did not have the funds to put the prototype engine into production.

The DS placed fifth on Automobile Magazine's "100 Coolest Cars" listing in 2005.[16] It was also named the most beautiful car of all time by Classic & Sports Car magazine after a poll of 20 world-renowned car designers, including Giorgetto Giugiaro, Ian Callum, Roy Axe, Paul Bracq, and Leonardo Fioravanti.[6]

Motorsport[edit]

DS19 at the 1956 1000 Lakes Rally

The DS was successful in motorsports like rallying, where sustained speeds on poor surfaces are paramount, and won the Monte Carlo Rally in 1959. In the 1000 Lakes Rally, Pauli Toivonen drove a DS19 to victory in 1962.

In 1966, the DS won the Monte Carlo Rally again, with some controversy as the competitive BMC Mini-Cooper team was disqualified due to rule infractions. Ironically, Mini was involved with DS competition again two years later, when a drunk driver in a Mini in Sydney Australia crashed into the DS that was winning the 1968 London–Sydney Marathon, 98 miles from the finish line.[17] The DS was still competitive in the grueling 1974 London-Sahara-Munich World Cup Rally, where it won over 70 other cars, only 5 of which even completed the entire race.[18][19]

Technical innovation – hydraulic systems[edit]

In conventional cars, hydraulics are only used in brakes and power steering. In the DS they were also used for the suspension, clutch and transmission, although the later ID19 did have manual steering and a simplified power-braking system.

At a time when few passenger vehicles had independent suspension on all wheels, the application of the hydraulic system to the car's suspension system to provide a self-levelling system was an innovative move. This suspension allowed the car to achieve sharp handling combined with very high ride quality, frequently compared to a "magic carpet".[20][21]The hydropneumatic suspension used was pioneered the year before, on the rear of another car from Citroën, the top of range Traction Avant 15CV-H.

Impact on Citroën brand development[edit]

The 1955 DS cemented the Citroën brand name as an automotive innovator, building on the success of the Traction Avant, which had been the world's first mass-produced unitary body front-wheel-drive car in 1934.[22] In fact, the DS caused such a huge sensation that Citroën was apprehensive that future models would not be of the same bold standard. No clean sheet new models were introduced from 1955 to 1970.

The DS was a large, expensive executive car and a downward brand extension was attempted, but without result. Throughout the late 1950s and 1960s Citroën developed many new vehicles for the very large, profitable market segments between the 2CV and the DS, occupied by vehicles like the Peugeot 403, Renault 16 and Ford Cortina, but none made it into production.[23][24][25] Either they had uneconomic build costs, or were ordinary "me too" cars, not up to the company's high standard of innovation. As Citroën was owned by Michelin from 1934 to 1974 as a sort of research laboratory, such broad experimentation was possible. Michelin after all was getting a powerful advertisement for the capabilities of the radial tyre Michelin had invented, when such experimentation was successful.

New models based on the small, utilitarian 2CV economy car were introduced, notably the 1961 Ami. It was also designed by Flaminio Bertoni and aimed to combine Three-box styling with the chassis of the 2CV. The Ami was very successful in France, but less so on export markets. Many found the styling controversial, and the car noisy and underpowered.[26] The Dyane, was a modernised 2CV with a hatchback, competed with the 2CV inspired Renault 4 Hatchback. All these 2 cylinder models were so small, so there remained a wide market gap to the DS range all through the 1960s.

In 1970, Citroën finally introduced a car to target the mid-range - the Citroën GS, which won the "European car of the Year" for 1971 and sold a spectacular 2.5 million units. It combined a small 55 horsepower flat-4 air-cooled engine with Hydropneumatic suspension. The intended 106 horsepower Wankel rotary-engined version with more power did not reach full production.

Replacing the DS[edit]

The DS remained popular and competitive throughout its production run. Its peak production year was 1970. Certain design elements like the somewhat narrow cabin, column-mounted gearstick, and separate fenders began to seem a little old-fashioned in the 1970s.

Citroën invested enormous resources to design and launch an entirely new vehicle in 1970, the SM, which was in effect a thoroughly modernized DS, with similar length, but greater width.

The SM had a different purpose than replacing the 15 year old DS design however - it was meant to launch Citroën into a completely new luxury grand touring market segment. Only fitted with a costly, exotic Maserati engine, the SM was faster and much more expensive than the DS. The SM was not designed to be a practical 4-door saloon suitable as a large family car, the key market for vehicles of this type in Europe. Typically, manufacturers would introduce low-volume coupés based on parts shared with an existing saloon, not as unique models, a contemporary example being the Mercedes-Benz SLC-Class. The SM's high price and limited utility of the 2+2 seating configuration, meant the SM as actually produced could not seize the mantle from the DS.

So, while the design funds invested would allow the DS to be replaced by two cars - a 'modern DS' and the smaller CX, it was left to the CX alone to provide Citroën's large family or executive car in the model range.[5]

The last DS came off the production line on 24 April 1975 - the manufacturer had taken the elementary precaution of building up approximately eight-month's of inventory of the "break" (estate/station wagon) version of the DS, to cover the period till Autumn 1975 when the estate/station wagon version of the CX would be introduced.[5]

Development[edit]

The DS always maintained its size and shape, with easily removable, unstressed body panels, but certain design changes did occur. During the 20 year production life. Improvements were made on an ongoing basis.

Series 2 - Nose redesign in 1962[edit]

1956 Citroën DS in the Museum der Autostadt Wolfsburg, showing Series 1 (1955–62) original nose
Citroën DS Convertible – Series 2 (1963–1967) – redesigned nose
1974 Citroën DS23 Pallas – Series 3 (1968–1976) with four headlights under glass
Directional headlight detail of a DS21

In September 1962, the DS was restyled with a more aerodynamically efficient nose, better ventilation and other improvements. It retained the open two headlamp appearance, but was available with an optional set of driving lights mounted on the front fenders.

Series 3 - Nose redesign in 1967 with Directional headlights[edit]

In late 1967, for the 1968 model year, the DS and ID was again restyled, by Robert Opron, who also styled the 1970 SM and 1974 CX. This version had a more streamlined headlamp design, giving the car a notably shark-like appearance. This design had four headlights under a smooth glass canopy, and the inner set swivelled with the steering wheel. This allowed the driver to see "around" turns, especially valuable on twisting roads driven at high speed at night.

Behind each glass cover lens, the inboard high-beam headlamp swivels by up to 80° as the driver steers, throwing the beam along the driver's intended path rather than uselessly across the curved road. The outboard low-beam headlamps are self-leveling in response to pitching caused by acceleration and braking.[27]

However, this feature was not allowed in the US at the time (see World Forum for Harmonization of Vehicle Regulations), so a version with four exposed headlights that did not swivel was made for the US market.

This 'turning headlight' feature was new to the market - it had only been seen before on the very rare three headlight 1935 Tatra 77A. 45 years later, it is now a commonly available feeature, even in the United States.

ID 19 submodel to extend brand downwards[edit]

The 1955 DS19 was significantly more expensive than the car it replaced, the Citroën Traction Avant. This did impact potential sales in a country still recovering economically from World War II, so a cheaper submodel, the Citroën ID, was introduced in 1957. The ID shared the DS's body but was less powerful and luxurious. Although it shared the engine capacity of the DS engine (at this stage 1,911 cc), the ID provided a maximum power output of only 69 hp compared to the 75 hp claimed for the DS19.[28] Power outputs were further differentiated in 1961 when the DS19 acquired a Weber-32 twin bodied carburetter, and the increasing availability of higher octane fuel enabled the manufacturer to increase the compression ratio from 7.5:1 to 8.5:1.[28] A new DS19 now came with a promised 83 hp of power.[28] The ID19 was also more traditional mechanically: it had no power steering and had conventional transmission and clutch instead of the DS's hydraulically controlled set-up. Initially the basic ID19 was sold on the French market with a price saving of more than 25% against the DS, although the differential was reduced at the end of 1961 when the manufacturer quietly withdrew the entry level ID19 "Normale" from sale.[28] A station wagon variant, the ID Break, was introduced in 1958.

New Green Hydraulic Fluid[edit]

The original hydropneumatic system used a vegetable oil liquide hydraulique végétal (LHV), similar to that used in other cars at the time, but later switched to a synthetic fluid liquide hydraulique synthétique (LHS). Both of these had the disadvantage that they are hygroscopic, as is the case with most brake fluids. Disuse allows water to enter the hydraulic components causing deterioration and expensive maintenance work. The difficulty with hygroscopic hydraulic fluid was exacerbated in the DS/ID due to the extreme rise and fall in the fluid level in the reservoir, which went from nearly full to nearly empty when the suspension extended to maximum height and the six accumulators in the system filled with fluid. With every "inhalation" of fresh moisture- (and dust-) laden air, the fluid absorbed more water.

For the 1967 model year, Citroën introduced a new mineral oil-based fluid liquide hydraulique minéral (LHM). This fluid was much less harsh on the system. LHM remained in use within Citroën until the Xantia was discontinued in 2001.

LHM required completely different materials for the seals. Using either fluid in the incorrect system would completely destroy the hydraulic seals very quickly. To help avoid this problem, Citroën added a bright green dye to the LHM fluid and also painted all hydraulic elements bright green. The former LHS parts were painted black.

All models, including the station wagon and ID, were upgraded at the same time. The hydraulic fluid changed to the technically superior LHM (Liquide Hydraulique Minéral) in all markets except the US, where the change did not take place until January 1969, due to local regulations.

Manufacture[edit]

The DS was primarily manufactured in Paris, with other manufacturing facilities in the United Kingdom, South Africa, the former Yugoslavia (mostly Break Ambulances), and Australia.

Australia constructed their own D variant in the 1960s at Heidelberg, Victoria, identified as the ID 19 "Parisienne."[29] Australian market cars were fitted with options as standard equipment such as the "DSpecial DeLuxe" that were not available on domestic European models.

Until 1965 cars were assembled at the manufacturer's Slough premises, to the west of London, using a combination of French made semi CKD kits and locally sourced components, some of them machined on site.[30] A French electrical system superseded the British one on the Slough cars in 1962, giving rise to a switch to "continental style" negative earthing. After 1965 cars for the British market were imported fully assembled from the company's French plant.[30] The British-built cars are distinguished by their leather seats, wooden dashboards, and (on pre-1962 cars) Lucas-made electrics.

DS in the United States[edit]

US-spec 1969 Citroën DS with exposed headlights

The DS was sold in the United States from 1956 to 1972, reaching 38,000 units sold. Despite the DS's popularity in Europe, it didn't sell well in the United States. While promoted as a luxury car, it did not have the basic features that American buyers expected to find on such a vehicle, such as an automatic transmission, air conditioning, power windows, or a powerful engine. The DS was designed specifically to address the French market, with punitive Tax horsepower taxation of large engines and very poor roads - it's no great mystery that it was a fish out of water when those constraints were removed.[31]

The DS was fairly expensive, with a 115 hp (86 kW) example costing $4,170[32] - whilst the asking price at the same time was $5,660 for a 375 hp (280 kW) Cadillac Calais 4 door sedan in 1969.[33]

US regulations at the time also banned one of the car's more advanced features: its composite headlamps with aerodynamic covered lenses. Based on legislation that dated from 1940, all automobiles sold in the U.S. were required to have round, sealed beam headlamps that produced a meager 75,000 lumens. Once technology is codified into law via the political process, it becomes difficult to change - lobbyists for 'better' are outnumbered by the lobbyists for 'status quo.' The powerful quartz iodine swiveling headlamps designed for the 1968 model DS represented so many performance improvements at once that they were far beyond what the regulations could allow. Even the aerodynamic headlight covers were illegal - as seen on the 1968 Jaguar E-Type. It took the lobbying muscle of Ford to point out that the government was requiring two contradictory things - safety, by ensuring that all headlights were best-of-breed circa 1940, and fuel economy through the CAFE standard - by definition, cars with poor Aerodynamics are sacrificing fuel economy.[34] Composite bulb lamps and aerodynamic covered headlights weren't permitted until 1983.

The hydraulic fluid change in 1967 was another brain teaser for U.S. automotive regulators at the Department of Transportation - they had approved what they considered safe - DOT 3 brake fluid. This completely different fluid - the technically superior LHM (Liquide Hydraulique Minéral) - took them time to analyze. Approval finally came January 1969, so half the U.S. cars in 1969 use red fluid and half use green fluid.

Design variations[edit]

Citroën DS Station Wagon – also known as the Safari, Break, Familiale, or Wagon
Citroën DS Cabriolet d'Usine (Factory Convertible)
Chapron non-works convertible

Pallas[edit]

In 1965 a luxury upgrade, the DS Pallas (after Greek goddess Pallas), was introduced. This included comfort features such as better noise insulation, a more luxurious (and optional leather) upholstery and external trim embellishments. From 1966 the Pallas model received a driver's seat with height adjustment.

Station Wagon, Familiale, and Ambulance[edit]

A station wagon version was introduced in 1958. It was known by various names in different markets (Break in France, Safari and Estate in the UK, Wagon in the US, and Citroën Australia used the terms Safari and Station-Wagon). It had a steel roof to support the standard roof rack. 'Familiales' had a rear seat mounted further back in the cabin, with three folding seats between the front and rear squabs. The standard Break had two side-facing seats in the main load area at the back. The Ambulance configuration was similar to that of the Break, but with a 60/30 split in the rear folding seat to accommodate a stretcher. A 'Commerciale' version was also available for a time.

Convertible[edit]

Rarest and most collectable of all DS variants, a convertible was offered from 1958 until 1973. The Cabriolet d'Usine (factory convertible) were built by French carrossier Henri Chapron, for the Citroën dealer network. It was an expensive car, so only 1,365 were sold.[35]These DS convertibles used a special frame which was reinforced on the sidemembers and rear suspension swingarm bearing box, similar to, but not identical to the Break (Station Wagon) frame.

Chapron variations[edit]

In addition, Chapron also produced a few coupés, non-works convertibles and special sedans (including the "Prestige",[36] same wheelbase but with a central divider, and the "Lorraine" notchback).

Bossaert Coupe[edit]

Between 1959 and 1964, Hector Bossaert produced a coupé on a DS chassis shortened by 470 mm (18 12 inches).[37] While the front end remained unchanged, the rear end featured notchback styling.[37]

The Reactor[edit]

In 1965, noted American auto customizer Gene Winfield created The Reactor, a Citroën DS chassis, with a turbocharged 180 hp (130 kW) flat-six engine from the Corvair driving the front wheels.[38] Since the DS already had the engine behind the front wheels, the longer engine meant only one row of seats. This was draped in a streamlined, low slung, aluminum body.

The Reactor was seen in American Television programs of the era, such as Batman episodes 110 ("Funny Feline Felonies") and 111 (driven by Catwoman Eartha Kitt),[39] and Bewitched, which devoted the episode 3.19 ("Super Car") to the Reactor.[40]

Technical details[edit]

Mid-60's interior
DS ambulance, in Rio de Janeiro
Swedish-spec Citroën DS with headlight wipers

Suspension[edit]

In a hydropneumatic suspension system, each wheel is connected, not to a spring, but to a hydraulic suspension unit consisting of a hydraulic accumulator sphere of about 12 cm in diameter containing pressurised nitrogen, a cylinder containing hydraulic fluid screwed to the suspension sphere, a piston inside the cylinder connected by levers to the suspension itself, and a damper valve between the piston and the sphere. A membrane in the sphere prevented the nitrogen from escaping. The motion of the wheels translated to a motion of the piston, which acted on the oil in the nitrogen cushion and provided the spring effect. The damper valve took place of the shock absorber in conventional suspensions. The hydraulic cylinder was fed with hydraulic fluid from the main pressure reservoir via a height corrector, a valve controlled by the mid-position of the anti-roll bar connected to the axle. If the suspension was too low, the height corrector introduced high-pressure fluid; if it was too high, it released fluid back to the fluid reservoir. In this manner, a constant ride height was maintained. A control in the cabin allowed the driver to select one of five heights: normal riding height, two slightly higher riding heights for poor terrain, and two extreme positions for changing wheels. (The correct term, oleopneumatic (oil-air), has never gained widespread use. Hydropneumatic (water-air) continues to be preferred overwhelmingly.)

The DS did not have a jack for lifting the car off the ground. Instead, the hydraulic system enabled wheel changes with the aid of a simple adjustable stand. To change a flat tyre, one would adjust the suspension to its topmost setting, insert the stand into a special peg near the flat tyre, then readjust the suspension to its lowermost setting. The flat tyre would then retract upwards and hover above ground, ready to be changed. This system, used on the SM also, was superseded on the CX by a screw jack that, after the suspension was raised to the high position, lifted the tire clear of the ground. The DS system, while impressive to use, sometimes dropped the car quite suddenly, especially if the stand was not placed precisely or the ground was soft or unlevel.

Source and reserve of pressure[edit]

The central part of the hydraulic system was the high pressure pump, which maintained a pressure of between 130 and 150 bar in two accumulators. These accumulators were very similar in construction to the suspension spheres. One was dedicated to the front brakes, and the other ran the other hydraulic systems. (On the simpler ID models, the front brakes operated from the main accumulator.) Thus in case of a hydraulic failure, the first indication would be that the steering became heavy, followed by the gearbox not working; only later would the brakes fail.

Two different hydraulic pumps were used. The DS used a seven-cylinder axial piston pump driven off two belts and delivering 175 bar (2,540 psi) of pressure. The ID19, with its simpler hydraulic system, had a single-cylinder pump driven by an eccentric on the camshaft.

Gearbox and clutch[edit]

1969 Pallas interior with Hydraulic gear selector – mounted top right of steering column with unusual single spoke steering wheel. Note the "mushroom" brake pedal. (The pedal on the left is the parking brake.)

Hydraulique or Citromatic[edit]

The DS was initially offered only with the "hydraulique" four-speed semi-automatic (bvh—"boîte de vitesses hydraulique") gearbox.

This was a four-speed gearbox and clutch, operated by a hydraulic controller. To change gears, the driver flicked a lever behind the steering wheel to the next position and eased-up on the accelerator pedal. The hydraulic controller disengaged the clutch, engaged the nominated gear, and re-engaged the clutch. The speed of engagement of the clutch was controlled by a centrifugal regulator sensing engine rpm and driven off the camshaft by a belt, the position of the butterfly valve in the carburettor (i.e., the position of the accelerator), and the brake circuit. When the brake was pressed, the engine idle speed dropped to an rpm below the clutch engagement speed, thus preventing friction while stopped in gear at traffic lights. When the brake was released, the idle speed increased to the clutch dragging speed. The car would then creep forward much like automatic transmission cars. This drop in idle throttle position also caused the car to have more engine drag when the brakes were applied even before the car slowed to the idle speed in gear, preventing the engine from pulling against the brakes.

Manual - 4 speed and 5 speed[edit]

The later and simpler ID19 had the same gearbox and clutch, manually operated. This configuration was offered as a cheaper option for the DS in 1963. The mechanical aspects of the gearbox and clutch were completely conventional and the same elements were used in the ID 19. In September 1970, Citroën introduced a five-speed manual gearbox, in addition to the original four-speed unit.[41]

Fully Automatic[edit]

In September 1970 Citroën introduced a 3-speed fully automatic Borg-Warner gearbox.[42] The full-automatic transmissions were intended for the US market, but Citroën withdrew the DS from the US in 1972, so most automatic DSs, fuel-injected DS 23 sedans with air conditioning, were sold in Australia.

Engines[edit]

Cutaway model shows engine set far back from front wheels ("MF layout"), and partially reveals configuration of the oleopneumatic suspension.

The DS was originally designed around an air-cooled flat-six based on the design of the 2-cylinder engine of the 2CV, similar to the motor in the Porsche 911. Technical and monetary issues forced this idea to be scrapped.

Thus, for such a modern car, the engine of the original DS 19 was also old-fashioned. It was derived from the engine of the 11CV Traction Avant (models 11B and 11C). It was an OHV four-cylinder engine with three main bearings and wet liners, and a bore of 78 mm (3.1 in) and a stroke of 100 mm (3.9 in), giving a volumetric displacement of 1911 cc. The cylinder head had been reworked; the 11C had a reverse-flow cast iron cylinder head and generated 60 hp (45 kW) at 3800 rpm; by contrast, the DS 19 had an aluminium cross-flow head with hemispherical combustion chambers and generated 75 hp (56 kW) at 4500 rpm. Apart from these details, there was very little difference between the engines: even the locations of the cylinder head studs were the same, so that it was possible to put the cylinder head of a DS on a Traction Avant engine and run it.[citation needed]

Like the Traction Avant, the DS had the gearbox mounted in front of the engine, with the differential in between. Thus some consider the DS to be a mid engine front-wheel drive car.

The DS and ID powerplants evolved throughout its 20-year production life. The car was underpowered and faced constant mechanical changes to boost the performance of the four-cylinder engine. The initial 1911 cc three main bearing engine (carried forward from the Traction Avant) of the DS 19 was replaced in 1965 with the 1985 cc five-bearing wet-cylinder motor, becoming the DS 19a (called DS 20 from September 1969).

The DS 21 was also introduced for model year 1965. This was a 2175 cc, five main bearing engine; power was 109 hp[14] This engine received a substantial increase in power with the introduction of Bosch electronic fuel injection for 1970, making the DS one of the first mass-market cars to use electronic fuel injection. Power of the carbureted version also increased slightly at the same time, owing to the employment of larger inlet valves.

Lastly, 1973 saw the introduction of the 2347 cc engine of the DS 23 in both carbureted and fuel-injected forms. The DS 23 with electronic fuel injection was the most powerful production model, producing 141 hp (105 kW).

IDs and their variants went through a similar evolution, generally lagging the DS by about one year. ID saloon models never received the DS 23 engine or fuel injection, although the Break/Familiale versions received the carburetted version of the DS 23 engine when it was introduced, supplemented the DS20 Break/Familiale.

The top of the range ID model, The DSuper5 (DP) gained the DS21 engine (the only model that this engine was retained in) for the 1973 model year and it was mated to a five-speed gearbox. This should not be confused with the 1985 cc DSuper fitted with an optional "low ratio" five-speed gearbox, or with the previous DS21M (DJ) five-speed.

In popular culture[edit]

1969 Citroën DS 21 Pallas originally owned by actor Ken Berry of F Troop - note vinyl roof and C-Pillars - dealer added
Citroën DS 21 from The Mentalist

President Charles de Gaulle survived an assassination attempt at Le Petit-Clamart near Paris on August 22, 1962, planned by Algerian War veteran Jean-Marie Bastien-Thiry. The plan was to ambush the motorcade with machine guns, disable the vehicles, and then close in for the kill. De Gaulle praised the unusual abilities of his unarmoured DS with saving his life – the car was peppered with bullets, and the shots had punctured the tyres, but the car could still escape at full speed.[43] This event was accurately recreated in the 1973 film The Day of the Jackal.


Beyond de Gaulle and the French aristocracy, the roomy DS also appealed to French taxi drivers. Outside of France, it drew an eclectic customer mix, such as Cosmonaut Yuri Gagarin, painter Marc Chagall, and actors Ken Berry and Jeff Bridges.[44][45][46][47]

As a symbol of 'France,' the DS was frequently used to establish a French location in many film and television productions, for example I Dream of Jeannie's "My Master, the Spy" (ep 2.18). The mere presence of a DS could also establish a future setting, like Back to the Future Part II, where a modified Citroen DS was featured as a taxi cab when the main characters went 30 years into the future (2015), or the Uma Thurman film Gattaca.

The DS can also establish the character as an out-of-the ordinary American, as with Scarface (1983 film), where the character played by Al Pacino follows his journalist nemesis (driving a DS) through New York City on the way to the United Nations, with the intent of activating a car bomb to prevent him from exposing Pacino's drug cartel, or Pee-wee's Big Adventure, with a DS convertible at a drive-in theater. Recently, in the television series The Mentalist, the psychic protagonist Patrick Jane drives a platinum blue Citroen DS 21 Pallas around present day Sacramento California.

Very few cars have motion picture films made basically about them - the DS has two - The Goddess of 1967 about a Japanese man purchasing a DS (goddess or déesse in French) in Australia, and 1995's Icelandic-Japanese road movie Cold Fever.

  • Citroen DS at the Internet Movie Cars Database has over 1,000 entries for the DS range of models on film.

Legacy[edit]

Citroën DS values have been rising[48] – a 1973 DS 23 Injection Electronique "Decapotable" (Chapron Convertible) sold for EUR €176,250 (USD $209,738) at Christie's Retromobile in February 2006.[49] and a similar car sold by Bonhams in February 2009 brought EUR €343,497 (USD $440,436).[50] On 18 September 2009 a 1966 DS21 Decapotable Usine was sold by Bonhams for a hammer price of UK£131,300. Bonhams sold another DS21 Decapotable (1973) on 23 January 2010 for EUR €189,000.[51]

The DS's beloved place in French society was demonstrated in Paris on 9 October 2005 with a celebration of the 50th anniversary of its launch. 1,600 DS cars drove in procession past the Arc de Triomphe.[52]

From 2005 to 2008, a young Frenchman called Manuel Boileau travelled around the world in a 1971 DS ambulance. It was an 80,000 kilometer journey across 38 countries called Lunaya World Tour. While traveling through Laos, he located the forlorn 1974 DS Prestige belonging to Sisavang Vatthana, the last King of the Kingdom of Laos, which is now preserved and restored by specialists in Bangkok.[53]

In 2010, Peugeot Citroën created a new brand - the DS brand.[54] At the moment, this brand ranges across three models, the DS3, DS4 and DS5. These cars are intended to be high quality, high specification variations on existing models, but with differing mechanics and bodywork. The DS3, launched in March 2010, is based on Citroen's new C3, but is more customisable and unique, bearing resemblances to the original DS, with its "Shark Fin" side pillar. These have created their own niches, with the DS4 being a mix of a crossover and a coupe and the DS5 mixing a coupe and estate resembling a shooting brake. Both feature hybrid-diesel engines to maximise efficiency.

Production figures[edit]

Citroen DS production chart
  • 1955: 69
  • 1956: 9,868
  • 1957: 28,593
  • 1958: 52,416
  • 1959: 66,931
  • 1960: 83,205
  • 1961: 77,597
  • 1962: 83,035
  • 1963: 93,476
  • 1964: 85,379
  • 1965: 89,314
  • 1966: 99,561
  • 1967: 101,904
  • 1968: 81,860
  • 1969: 82,218
  • 1970: 103,633
  • 1971: 84,328
  • 1972: 92,483
  • 1973: 96,990
  • 1974: 40,039
  • 1975: 847[55]


References[edit]

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  2. ^ Cardew, Basil (1966). Daily Express Review of the 1966 Motor Show. London: Beaverbrook Newspapers Ltd. 
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  4. ^ Car Magazine October 2012
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Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]