Citrobacter

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Citrobacter
Citrobacter freundii.jpg
Citrobacter freundii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Proteobacteria
Class: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Citrobacter
Werkman and Gillen, 1932
Species

C. amalonaticus
C. braakii
C. diversus
C. farmeri
C. freundii
C. gillenii
C. koseri
C. murliniae
C. rodentium
C. sedlakii
C. werkmanii
C. youngae

Citrobacter is a genus of Gram-negative coliform bacteria in the Enterobacteriaceae family.

The species C. amalonaticus, C. koseri, and C. freundii can use citrate as a sole carbon source. Citrobacter species are differentiated by their ability to convert tryptophan to indole, ferment lactose, and use malonate.[1]

Citrobacter shows the ability to accumulate uranium by building phosphate complexes.[2]

Clinical significance[edit]

These bacteria can be found almost everywhere in soil, water, wastewater, etc. They can also be found in the human intestine. They are rarely the source of illnesses, except for infections of the urinary tract and infant meningitis and sepsis.[3][4]

C. freundii strains have inducible ampC genes encoding resistance to ampicillin and first-generation cephalosporins. In addition, isolates of Citrobacter may be resistant to many other antibiotics as a result of plasmid-encoded resistance genes.

References[edit]

This article incorporates information from the German Wikipedia.
  1. ^ Lipsky BA, Hook III EW, Smith AA, et al.: Citrobacter infections in humans: Experience at the Seattle Veterans Administration Medical Center and a review of the literature. Rev Infect Dis 1980; 2:746-760.
  2. ^ L. E. Macaskie, R. M. Empson, A. K. Cheetham, C. P. Grey, A. J. Skarnulis (1992). "Uranium bioaccumulation by a Citrobacter sp. as a result of enzymically mediated growth of polycrystalline HUO2PO4". Science 257 (5071): 782–784. Bibcode:1992Sci...257..782M. doi:10.1126/science.1496397. PMID 1496397. 
  3. ^ V. Drelichman; J. D. Band (1985). "Bacteremias due to Citrobacter diversus and Citrobacter freundii. Incidence, risk factors, and clinical outcome". Archives of Internal Medicine 145 (10): 1808–1810. doi:10.1001/archinte.145.10.1808. PMID 3899035. 
  4. ^ Badger, J.D.; M.F. Stins and K.S. Kim (1999). "Citrobacter freundii Invades and Replicates in Human Brain Microvascular Endothelial Cells". Infection and Immunity 67 (8): 4208–15. PMC 96726. PMID 10417193. 

External links[edit]