Citrobacter freundii

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Scientific classification
Kingdom: Bacteria
Phylum: Gammaproteobacteria
Order: Enterobacteriales
Family: Enterobacteriaceae
Genus: Citrobacter
Species: freundii

Citrobacter freundii are facultative anaerobic Gram-negative bacilli of the Enterobacteriaceae family.[1] The bacteria are long rod-shaped with a typical length of 1-5 μm.[2] Most C. freundii cells are surrounded by several flagella used for locomotion, but a few are non-motile. It can be found in soil, water, sewage, food and the intestinal tracts of animals and humans.[2] It is classified under the family of Enterobacteriaceae. The Citrobacter genus was discovered in 1932 by Werkman and Gillen. Cultures of C. freundii were isolated and identified in the same year from soil extracts.[2]

As an opportunistic pathogen, C. freundii is responsible for a number of significant opportunistic infections. It is known to be the cause of a number of nosocomial infections of the respiratory tract, urinary tract, blood and many other normally sterile sites in patients.[3] C. freundii represents about 29% of all opportunistic infections.[3]

Surprisingly, this infectious microbe in humans plays a positive role in the environment. C. freundii is responsible for reducing nitrate to nitrite in the environment.[4] This conversion is an important and crucial stage in the nitrogen cycle. The bacteria also helps in recycling nitrogen.[4]

Citrobacter freundii has also been investigated for biodegradation of tannic acid used in tanneries.[4]

For metabolism, C. freundii has an ability to grow on glycerol as the sole carbon and energy source. Within its cell, a bacterial microcompartment can be found, which is capable of processing propanediol.[5]


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  2. ^ a b c Wang, J. T.; Chang, S. C.; Chen, Y. C.; Luh, K. T. (2000). "Comparison of antimicrobial susceptibility of Citrobacter freundii isolates in two different time periods". Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi 33 (4): 258–262. PMID 11269372.  edit
  3. ^ a b Whalen, J. G.; Mully, T. W.; English, J. C. (2007). "Spontaneous Citrobacter freundii Infection in an Immunocompetent Patient". Archives of Dermatology 143 (1): 124–125. doi:10.1001/archderm.143.1.124. PMID 17224563.  edit
  4. ^ a b c Puchenkova, S. G. (1996). "Enterobacteria in areas of water along the Crimean coast". Mikrobiolohichnyi zhurnal (Kiev, Ukraine : 1993) 58 (2): 3–7. PMID 8983520.  edit
  5. ^ Pang, A.; Warren, M. J.; Pickersgill, R. W. (2011). "Structure of PduT, a trimeric bacterial microcompartment protein with a 4Fe–4S cluster-binding site". Acta Crystallographica Section D Biological Crystallography 67 (2): 91–96. doi:10.1107/S0907444910050201. PMID 21245529.  edit