City College of New York

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The City College of New York
CCNY seal
Latin: Collegii Urbis Nov Eborac
Motto Respice, Adspice, Prospice (Latin)
Motto in English Look behind, look here, look ahead
Established 1847
Type Public
Endowment $131 million[1]
President Dr. Lisa Staiano-Coico
Provost Dr. Maurizio Trevisan
Academic staff 581 (full-time)
914 (part-time)
Admin. staff 401
Students 16,161
Undergraduates 13,113
Postgraduates 3,048
Location New York City, NY, USA
Campus Urban
Colors Lavender      and Black     
Athletics NCAA Division IIICUNYAC (North)
Sports 16 sports teams
Nickname Beavers
Mascot Beaver
Affiliations CUNY
APLU
AASCU
Website ccny.cuny.edu
CCNY logo flush left.svg

The City College of the City University of New York (more commonly referred to as the City College of New York, or simply City College, CCNY, or City) is a senior college of the City University of New York (CUNY) in New York City. It is the oldest of City University's twenty-three institutions of higher learning.[2] City College's thirty-five acre Manhattan campus along Convent Avenue from 130th Street to 141st Street[3] is on a hill overlooking Harlem; its neo-Gothic campus was mostly designed by George Browne Post, and many of its buildings are landmarks.

CCNY was the first free public institution of higher education in the United States[4] and is considered the flagship campus of the CUNY public university system.[5] The college accounts 11 winners of the Nobel Prize among its alumni.

History[edit]

Early history – 19th century[edit]

Shepard Hall, rear entrance, looking east from Convent Avenue, City College of New York, 2010.
City College of New York in 2010, North Campus, looking west. Wingate Hall on the left, Townsend Harris Hall in the background.

The City College of New York was originally founded as the Free Academy of the City of New York in 1847 by wealthy businessman and president of the Board of Education Townsend Harris.[6] A combination prep school and college, it would provide children of immigrants and the poor access to free higher education based on academic merit alone.

The Free Academy was the first of what would become a system of municipally-supported colleges. Hunter College, the second, was founded as a women's institution in 1870. Brooklyn College, the third, was established as a coeducational institution in 1930.

In 1847, New York State Governor John Young had given permission to the Board of Education to found the Free Academy, which was ratified in a statewide referendum. Founder Townsend Harris proclaimed, "Open the doors to all… Let the children of the rich and the poor take their seats together and know of no distinction save that of industry, good conduct and intellect."

Dr. Horace Webster, a West Point graduate, was the first president of the Free Academy. On the occasion of The Free Academy's formal opening, January 21, 1849, Webster said:

The experiment is to be tried, whether the children of the people, the children of the whole people, can be educated; and whether an institution of the highest grade, can be successfully controlled by the popular will, not by the privileged few.[7]

A view of the original entrance to Shepard Hall, the main building of City College of New York, in the early 1900s, on its new campus in Hamilton Heights, from St. Nicholas Avenue looking up westward to St. Nicholas Terrace.

In 1847, a curriculum was adopted which had nine main fields: mathematics, history, language, literature, drawing, natural philosophy, experimental philosophy, law, and political economy. The Academy's first graduation took place in 1853 in Niblo's Garden Theatre,[8] a large theater and opera house on Broadway, near Houston Street at the corner of Broadway and Prince Street.

Even in its early years, the Free Academy showed tolerance for diversity, especially in comparison to its urban neighbor, Columbia College, which was exclusive to the sons of wealthy families. The Free Academy had a framework of tolerance that extended beyond the admission of students from every social stratum. In 1854, Columbia's trustees denied Oliver Wolcott Gibbs, a distinguished chemist and scientist, a faculty position because of Gibbs's Unitarian religious beliefs. Gibbs was a professor and held an appointment at the Free Academy since 1848.[9] (In 1863, Gibbs went on to an appointment at Harvard University, the Rumsford Professorship in Chemistry, where he had a distinguished career. In 1873, he was awarded an honorary degree from Columbia with a unanimous vote by its Trustees with the strong urging of President Barnard.[10][11]) Later in the history of CCNY, in the early 1900s, President John H. Finley gave the College a more secular orientation by abolishing mandatory chapel attendance.[12] This change occurred at a time when more Jewish students were enrolling in the College.

In 1866, the Free Academy, a men's institution, was renamed the College of the City of New York. In 1929, the College of the City of New York became the City College of New York.[13][14][15] Finally, the institution became known as the City College of the City University of New York when CUNY was formally established as the umbrella institution for New York City's municipal-college system in 1961. The names City College of New York and City College, however, remain in general use.

With the name change in 1866, lavender was chosen as the College's color. In 1867, the academic senate, the first student government in the nation, was formed. Having struggled over the issue for ten years, in 1895 the New York State legislature voted to let the College build a new campus. A four-square block site was chosen, located in Manhattanville, within the area which was enclosed by the North Campus Arches; the College, however, quickly expanded north of the Arches (see below).

Statue of Alexander S. Webb, second president of CCNY

Like President Webster, the second president of City College was a West Point graduate. The second president, General Alexander S. Webb, assumed office in 1869. One of the Union's heroes at Gettysburg, General Webb was the commander of the Philadelphia Brigade. When the Union Army repulsed the Confederates at Cemetery Hill, General Webb played a central role in the battle. Coddington[16] wrote about Webb's conduct during Pickett's Charge: "Refusing to give up, [Webb] set an example of bravery and undaunted leadership for his men to follow...." In 1891, while still president of City College, he was awarded the Congressional Medal of Honor for heroism at Gettysburg. A full-length statue of Webb, in full military uniform, stands in his honor at the heart of the campus.[17]

College library bookplate from era the institution was named the College of the City of New York

The College's curriculum under Webster and Webb combined classical training in Latin and Greek with more practical subjects like chemistry, physics, and engineering. One of the outstanding Nineteenth Century graduates of City College was the Brooklyn-born George Washington Goethals, who put himself through the College in three years before going on to West Point. He later became the chief engineer on the Panama Canal. General Webb was succeeded by John Huston Finley in 1903. Finley relaxed some of the West Point-like discipline that characterized the College, including compulsory chapel attendance.[12] Phi Sigma Kappa placed its sixth oldest chapter on the campus in 1896, flourishing until 1973, and whose alumni still provide scholarships to new students entering the CCNY system.[18] Delta Sigma Phi [5] was founded at CCNY in 1899 as a Jewish and Christian Fraternity, however the chapter did not last long due to Delta Sigma Phi becoming exclusively Christian in 1914. The founding of another national fraternity, Zeta Beta Tau, took place at City College on December 1898 by Dr. Richard Gottheil who aimed at establishing a Jewish Fraternity with Zionist ideals. This chapter, however, has become defunct.[19]

20th century[edit]

Education courses were first offered in 1897 in response to a city law that prohibited the hiring of teachers who lacked a proper academic background. The School of Education was established in 1921. The college newspaper, The Campus, published its first issue in 1907, and the first degree-granting evening session in the United States was started. Separate Schools of Business and Civic Administration and of Technology (Engineering) were established in 1919. Students were also required to sign a loyalty oath. In 1947, the College celebrated its centennial year, awarding honorary degrees to Bernard Baruch (class of 1889) and Robert F. Wagner (class of 1898). A 100-year time capsule was buried in North Campus.

Until 1929, City College had been an all-male institution. During that time, specifically in 1909, the first chapter of Sigma Alpha Mu fraternity was founded.[20] In 1930, CCNY admitted women for the first time, but only to graduate programs. In 1951, the entire institution became coeducational.

In the years when top-flight private schools were restricted to the children of the Protestant establishment, thousands of brilliant individuals (including Jewish students) attended City College because they had no other option. CCNY's academic excellence and status as a working-class school earned it the titles "Harvard of the Proletariat", the "poor man's Harvard", and "Harvard-on-the-Hudson".[21]

Even today, after three decades of controversy over its academic standards,[citation needed] no other public college has produced as many Nobel laureates who have studied and graduated with a degree from a particular public college (all graduated between 1935 and 1954).[22] CCNY's official quote on this is "Nine Nobel laureates claim CCNY as their Alma Mater, the most from any public college in the United States."[23][24] This should not be confused with Nobel laureates who teach at a public university; UC Berkeley boasts 19.

In its heyday of the 1930s through the 1950s, CCNY became known for its political radicalism. It was said that the old CCNY cafeteria in the basement of Shepard Hall, particularly in alcove 1, was the only place in the world where a fair debate between Trotskyists and Stalinists could take place.[25][26] Being part of a political debate that began in the morning in alcove 1, Irving Howe reported that after some time had passed he would leave his place among the arguing students in order to attend class. When he returned to the cafeteria late in the day, he would find that the same debate had continued but with an entirely different cast of students.[25] Alumni who were at City College in the mid-20th century said that City College in those days made UC Berkeley in the 1960s look like a school of conformity.[citation needed]

The municipality of New York was considerably more conformist than CCNY students and faculty. The Philosophy Department, at the end of the 1939–1940 academic year, invited the British mathematician and philosopher Bertrand Russell to become a professor at CCNY. Members of the Catholic Church protested Russell’s appointment. A woman named Jean Kay filed suit against the Board of Higher Education to block Russell’s appointment on the grounds that his views on marriage and sex would adversely affect her daughter’s virtue, although her daughter was not a CCNY student. Russell wrote “a typical American witch-hunt was instituted against me.”[27] Kay won the suit, but the Board declined to appeal after considering the political pressure exerted.[28] Also see the Bertrand Russell Case.

Russell took revenge in the preface of the first edition of his book An Inquiry into Meaning and Truth, which was published by the Unwin Brothers in the UK (the preface was not included in the U.S. editions). In a long précis that detailed Russell’s accomplishments including medals awarded by Columbia University and the Royal Society and faculty appointments at Oxford, Cambridge, UCLA, Harvard, the Sorbonne, Peking (the name used in that era), the LSE, Chicago, and so forth, Russell added, “Judicially pronounced unworthy to be Professor of Philosophy at the College of the City of New York.”

Many City College alumni served in the U.S. Armed Forces during the Second World War. A total of 310 CCNY alumni were killed in the War. Prior to World War II, a large number of City College alumni—relative to alumni of other U.S. colleges—volunteered to serve on the Republican side in the Spanish Civil War. Thirteen CCNY alumni were killed in Spain.[29]

In 1945, Professor William E. Knickerbocker, Chairman of the Romance Languages Department, was accused of anti-semitism by four faculty members. They claimed that “for at least seven years they have been subjected to continual harassment and what looks very much like discrimination ....” by Knickerbocker.[30] Four years later Knickerbocker was again accused of anti-semitism, this time for denying honors to high-achieving Jewish students.[31][32] About the same time, Professor William C. Davis of the Economics Department was accused by students of maintaining a racially segregated dormitory at Army Hall.[31][33] Professor Davis was the dormitory’s administrator. CCNY students, many of whom were World War II veterans, launched a massive strike in protest against Knickerbocker and Davis.[31][34] The New York Times called the event "the first general strike at a municipal institution of higher learning."[34] Also see the Knickerbocker Case.

In 1955, a City College student named Alan A. Brown founded the economics honor society, Omicron Chi Epsilon. The purpose of the society was to confer honors on outstanding economics students, organize academic meetings, and publish a journal. In 1963, Omicron Chi Epsilon merged with Omicron Delta Gamma, the other economics honor society, to form Omicron Delta Epsilon, the current academic honor society in economics.[35]

During a 1969 takeover of South campus,[36] under threat of a riot, African American and Puerto Rican activists and their white allies demanded, among other policy changes, that City College implement an aggressive affirmative action program.[6] At some point, campus protesters began referring to CCNY as "Harlem University." The administration of the City University at first balked at the demands, but instead, came up with an open admissions or open-access program under which any graduate of a New York City high school would be able to matriculate either at City College or another college in the CUNY system. Beginning in 1970, the program opened doors to college to many who would not otherwise have been able to attend college. The increased enrollment of students, regardless of college preparedness, however, challenged City College's and the University's academic reputation and strained New York City's financial resources.[6][37]

City College began charging tuition in 1976. In 1999, the CUNY Board of Trustees voted to eliminate remedial classes at all CUNYs Senior Colleges, thereby eliminating a central pillar of the policy of Open Admissions and effectively ending it.[38] Students who could not meet the academic entrance requirements for CUNY's Senior Colleges were forced to enroll in the system's community colleges, where they could prepare for an eventual transfer to one of the 4-year institutions. Since this decision, all CUNY senior colleges, especially CCNY, have begun to rise in prestige nationally, as evinced by school rankings and incoming freshman GPA and SAT scores. In addition, the end of open admissions sparked a change in CUNY's student demographics, with the number of Black and Hispanic students decreasing and the number of White and Asians students increasing.[39]

As a result of the 1989 student protests and building takeovers concerning tuition increases, a community action center was opened on the campus called the Guillermo Morales/Assata Shakur Community and Student Center, located in the NAC building. The center was named after 1960s CCNY student activists and convicted terrorists Assata Shakur and Guillermo Morales.[40][41] On October 20, 2013, City College closed the Guillermo Morales/Assata Shakur Community and Student Center.[42]

CCNY's new Frederick Douglass Debate Society defeated Harvard and Yale at the "Super Bowl" of the American Parliamentary Debate Association in 1996. In 2003, the College's Model UN Team was awarded as an Outstanding Delegation at the National Model United Nations (NMUN) Conference, an honor that it would repeat for four years in a row.

The U.S. Postal Service issued a postcard commemorating CCNY's 150th Anniversary, featuring Shepard Hall, on Charter Day, May 7, 1997.

21st century[edit]

Engineering School

The City University of New York began recruiting students for the University Scholars program in the fall 2000, and admitted the first cohort of undergraduate scholars in the fall 2001. CCNY was one of five CUNY campuses, on which the program was initiated. The newly admitted scholars became undergraduates in the college's newly formed Honors Program. Students attending the CCNY Honors College are awarded free tuition, a cultural passport that admits them to New York City cultural institutions for free or at sharply reduced prices, a notebook computer, and an academic expense account that they can apply to such academic-related activities as study abroad. These undergraduates are also required to attend a number of specially developed honors courses. In 2001 CUNY initiated the CUNY Honors College, renamed Macaulay Honors College in 2007.[43] Both the CCNY Honors Program and the CCNY chapter of the Macaulay Honors College are run out of the CCNY Honors Center.

In October 2005, Dr. Andrew Grove, a 1960 graduate of the Engineering School in Chemical Engineering, and co-founder of Intel Corporation, donated $26 million to the Engineering School, which has since been renamed the Grove School of Engineering.[44] It is the largest donation ever given to the City College of New York.

In 2009, the School of Architecture moved into the former Y Building,[45] which was gutted and completely remodeled under the design direction of architect Rafael Viñoly. Also in 2009, school was renamed the Bernard and Anne Spitzer School of Architecture in honor of the $25 million gift the Spitzers gave to the school.[46]

Campus history[edit]

The Free Academy at Lexington Avenue and 23rd Street in New York City in the 1800s.
The main City College building, Shepard Hall, looking West from St. Nicholas Avenue to Shepard Hall's main entrance on St. Nicholas Terrace (1907)

Downtown[edit]

City College was originally situated in downtown Manhattan, in the Free Academy Building, which was CCNY's home from 1849 to 1907. The building was designed by James Renwick, Jr. and was located at Lexington Avenue and 23rd Street. According to some sources, it was the first Gothic Revival college building on the East Coast.[47] Renwick's building was demolished in 1928, and replaced in 1930 with a 16-story structure that is part of the present-day Baruch College campus.

North Campus[edit]

CCNY then moved to its current location in the upper Manhattan village of Manhattanville in 1906, when the Collegiate Gothic campus was erected.[48][49][50][51]

This new campus was designed by George Browne Post.

According to CCNY's published history, "The Landmark neo-Gothic buildings of the North Campus Quadrangle were designed by the noted architect George Browne Post. They are superb examples of English Perpendicular Gothic style and are among the first buildings, as an entire campus, to be built in the U.S. in this style. Groundbreaking for the Gothic Quadrangle buildings took place in 1903".

The original neo-Gothic buildings on the new upper Manhattan campus were as follows:

  • Shepard Hall, standing on its own, across the street from the campus quadrangle on Convent Avenue
  • Baskerville Hall
  • Compton Hall
  • Harris Hall
  • Wingate Hall
Shepard Hall tower, seen from Harlem

Shepard Hall, the largest building and the centerpiece of the campus, was modeled after a Gothic cathedral plan with its main entrance on St. Nicholas Terrace.[52] It has a large chapel assembly hall called the Great Hall, which has a mural painted by Edwin Blashfield called "The Graduate".[53][54][55]

Harris Hall, named in the original architectural plans as the Sub-Freshman Building, housed City College's preparatory high school, Townsend Harris High School, from 1906 until it moved in 1930 downtown to the School of Business.[56]

Wingate Hall was named for George Wood Wingate (Class of 1858), an attorney and promoter of physical fitness. It served as the College's main gymnasium between 1907 and 1972.[57][58][59]

Baskerville Hall for many years housed the Chemistry Department, was also known as the Chemical Building, and had one of the largest original lecture halls on the campus, Doremus lecture hall.[60] It currently houses HSMSE, The High School for Mathematics, Science, and Engineering.

Compton Hall was originally designed as the Mechanical Arts Building.[61]

A stone grotesque on a CCNY building from 1906, holding a model of Shepard Hall.

Five of these new Gothic campus buildings opened in 1906. The sixth, Goethals Hall,[62] was completed in 1930. The new building was named for George Washington Goethals, the CCNY civil engineering alumnus who, as mentioned above in the section on the history of the College, went on to become the chief engineer of the Panama Canal. Goethals Hall housed the School of Technology (engineering) and adjoins the Mechanical Arts Building, Compton Hall.

The six Gothic buildings are connected by a tunnel, which closed to public use in 1969.[63]

Six hundred grotesques on the original Gothic buildings represent the practical and the fine arts.[64][65]

The North Campus Quadrangle contains four great arches on the main avenues entering and exiting the campus:

  • the Hudson Gate on Amsterdam Avenue[66]
  • the George Washington Gate at 138th Street and Convent Avenue
  • the Alexander Hamilton Gate at the northern edge of Convent Avenue
  • the Peter Stuyvesant Gate at St. Nicholas Terrace. (The Archway and north pedestrian arch over the north side of St. Nicholas Terrace was dismantled prior to March 25, 1927 when ground was broken for the soon to be completed Bowker Library fronting on St. Nicholas Terrace)

Lewisohn Stadium (demolished)[edit]

The former Adolph Lewisohn Stadium, now the site of the North Academic Center (1915)

In the early 1900s, after most of the Gothic campus had been built, CCNY President John H. Finley wanted the College to have a stadium because the existing facilities for the College’s athletic teams were inadequate. New York City did not provide the money needed to build a stadium; however, the municipal government donated to the College two city blocks south of the campus which were open park land. Finley’s wish for a stadium moved forward when in 1912 businessman and philanthropist Adolph Lewisohn expressed interest in financing construction of the stadium. Lewisohn donated $75,000 for the stadium’s construction and Finley commissioned architect Arnold W. Brunner to design Lewisohn Stadium, which was influenced by Finley's memories of a small rock-hewn theatre in the Trastevere section of Rome.[67]

Lewisohn Stadium was built as a 6,000-seat stadium, with thousands more seats available on the infield during concerts, and was dedicated on May 29, 1915, two years after Dr. Finley had left his post at the College and Dr. Sidney Edward Mezes had become CCNY's fourth president. The stadium's dedication was enhanced by a performance of "The Trojan Women", produced by Granville Barker and Lillian McCarthy. College graduation services were held in Lewisohn for many years. Also deep under the grandstand seats was the college rifle range. It was used by ROTC students for basic handling of firearms.

Other demolished buildings[edit]

A separate library building originally planned in 1912 for the campus was never built but ground was broken on March 25, 1927 for a free-standing library to be built on St. Nicholas Terrace, between St. Nicholas & 141st St. Only 1/5 of the original library plan was constructed at a cost of $850,000, far above the $150,000 alumni had collected to establish a library at the original Amsterdam Avenue & 140th St. site. The Bowker/Alumni Library stood at the present site of the Steinman Engineering building until 1957.[68]

The Hebrew Orphan Asylum was erected in 1884 on Amsterdam Avenue between 136th and 138th Street, and was designed by William H. Hume.[69] It was already there when City College moved to upper Manhattan. When it closed in the 1940s, the building was used by City College to house members of the U.S. Armed Forces assigned to the Army Specialized Training Program (ASTP). From 1946 to 1955, it was used as a dormitory, library, and classroom space for the College. It was called "Army Hall" until it was demolished in 1955 and 1956.[70][71]

In 1946, CCNY purchased a former Episcopal orphanage on 135th Street and Convent Avenue (North campus), and renamed it Klapper Hall, after Paul Klapper (Class of 1904) Professor and the Dean of School of Education and who was later the first president of Queens College/CUNY (1937–1952). Klapper Hall was red brick in Georgian style and it served until 1983 as home of the School of Education.[72]

Postwar buildings[edit]

Steinman Hall, which houses the School of Engineering, was erected in 1962 on the north end of the campus, on the site of the Bowker Library and the Drill Hall to replace the facilities in Compton Hall and Goethals Hall, and was named for David Barnard Steinman (CCNY Class of 1906), a well known civil engineer and bridge designer.[73]

In 1963, the Administration Building was erected on the North Campus across from Wingate Hall. It houses the College's administration offices, including the President's, Provost's and the Registrar's offices. It was originally intended as a warehouse to store the huge number of records and transcripts of students since 1847.[74][75] In early 2007, the Administration Building was formally named The Howard E. Wille Administration Building, in honor of Howard E. Wille, class of 1955, a distinguished alumnus and philanthropist.[76]

In 1971, the Marshak Science Building was completed on the site of the former Jasper Oval, an open space previously used as a football field.[77][78] The building was named after Robert Marshak, renowned physicist and president of CCNY (1970–1979). The Marshak building houses all science labs and adjoins the Mahoney Gymnasium and its athletic facilities including a swimming pool and tennis courts.[79]

North Academic Center (2011)

In the 1970s, construction of the massive North Academic Center (NAC) was initiated. It was completed in 1984, and replaced Lewisohn Stadium and Klapper Hall. The NAC building houses hundreds of classrooms, two cafeterias, the Cohen Library, student lounges and centers, administrative offices, and a number of computer installations. Designed by architect John Carl Warnecke, the building has received criticism for its lack of design and outsize scale in comparison to the surrounding neighborhood.

Within the NAC, a student lounge space was created outside the campus bookstore, and murals celebrating the history of the campus were painted on the doors of the undergraduate Student Government.[80] Founded in 1869, it claims to be the oldest continuously operating student government organization in the country.

The first floor of the Administration Building was given a postmodern renovation in 2004. The first floor houses the admissions office and the registrar's office. The upper floors house the offices of the president and provost.

The New York Landmarks Preservation Commission made the North Campus Quadrangle buildings and the College Gates official landmarks in 1981. The buildings in the Quadrangle were put on the State and National Register of Historic Places in 1984. In the summer of 2006, the historic gates on Convent Avenue were restored.

South Campus[edit]

1950s aerial view of the old South Campus of City College, bought in 1953 from Manhattanville College of the Sacred Heart. The photo is taken from the south looking northeast.
Annotated 1950s aerial view of the main part of the old South Campus of City College, with many former CCNY buildings marked with their names. (Click on photo to enlarge)

In 1953, CCNY bought the campus of the Manhattanville College of the Sacred Heart (which, on a 1913 map, was shown as The Convent of the Sacred Heart), which added a south section to the campus. This expanded the campus to include many of the buildings in the area between 140th Street to 130th Street, from St. Nicholas Terrace in the east to Amsterdam Avenue in the west.

Former buildings of the Manhattanville College campus to be used by CCNY were renamed for City College's purposes: Stieglitz Hall; Downer Hall; Wagner Hall, the prominent Finley Student Center, which contained the very active Buttenweiser Lounge; Eisner Hall; Park Gym; Mott Hall; and others.

As a result of this expansion, the South Campus of CCNY primarily contained the liberal arts classes and departments of the College. The North Campus, also as a result of this expansion, mostly housed classes and departments for the sciences and engineering, as well as Klapper Hall (School of Education), and the Administration Building.

In 1957, a new library building was erected in the middle of the campus, near 135th Street on the South Campus, and named Cohen Library, after Morris Raphael Cohen, an alumnus (Class of 1900) and celebrated professor of philosophy at the College from 1912 to 1938. When the Cohen Library moved to the North Academic Complex in the early 1980s, the structure was renamed the 'Y' building, and housed offices, supplies, the mail room, etc. The building was eventually gutted and renovated to become the home of the School of Architecture in 2009 (see below).

In the 1970s, many of the old buildings of the South Campus[81] were demolished, some that had been used by the Academy of the Sacred Heart. The buildings remaining on the South Campus at this time were the Cohen Library (later moved into the North Academic Center), Park Gym (now the Structural Biology Research Center (NYSBC) [82]), Eisner Hall (built in 1941 by Manhattanville College of the Sacred Heart as a library, later remodeled and housed CCNY's Art Department and named for the chairman of the Board of Higher Education in the 1930s),[83] the Schiff House (former President's residence, now a child care center), and Mott Hall (formerly the English Department, now a New York City Department of Education primary school[84]).

Some of the buildings that were demolished at that time were Finley Hall (housed The Finley Student Center, student activities center, originally built in 1888–1890 as Manhattanville Academy's main building, and purchased in 1953 by City College),[85] Wagner Hall (housed various social science and liberal arts departments and classes, originally built as a dormitory for Manhattanville Academy, and was named in honor of Robert F. Wagner Sr., member of the Class of 1898, who represented New York State for 23 years in the United States Senate),[86] Stieglitz Hall, and Downer Hall, among others.

New buildings were erected on the South Campus, including Aaron Davis Hall in 1981, and the Herman Goldman sports field in 1993. In August 2006, the College completed the construction of a 600-bed dormitory, called "The Towers"[87][88][89] There are plans to rename The Towers after a distinguished alumnus or donor.

The building that formerly housed Cohen Library, i.e., the 'Y' Building mentioned above, became the new home for the School of Architecture, with the renovation headed by architect Rafael Viñoly. Near the 133rd Street gate, a new science building is under construction in order to relieve pressure from Marshak Hall, which had a beam collapse in 2005. Part of this project is the elimination of the Herman Goldman sports field, a controversial move that will dramatically alter the South Campus.

In 2007, two new buildings had been proposed for the South Campus site by the Dormitory Authority of the State of New York (DASNY). One was a four story City College of New York Science Building, to serve as an adjunct to the Marshak Science Building on the North Campus, and the other was a six story City University of New York Advanced Science Research Center (CUNY ASRC).[90][91][92][93]

Campus location[edit]

The College is located between West 130th and West 141st Street in Manhattan, along Convent Avenue and St. Nicholas Terrace, between Amsterdam and St. Nicholas Avenues. The campus is served by the following transportation options:

Academics[edit]

The City College of New York is organized into five schools plus The Macaulay Honors College. The five schools of the City College of New York are The College of Liberal Arts and Sciences, which is divided into three divisions (The Division of Humanities and the Arts, The Division of Social Science, and The Division of Science), The Bernard and Anne Spitzer School of Architecture, The School of Education, The Grove School of Engineering, and The Sophie B. Davis School of Biomedical Education.

The College offers the Bachelor of Arts (B.A.), Bachelor of Science (B.S.), Bachelor of Science in Education (B.S. Ed.), Bachelor of Engineering (B.E.), Bachelor of Fine Arts (B.F.A.), Bachelor of Architecture (B.Arch.) degrees at the undergraduate level, and the Master of Arts (M.A.), Master of Science (M.S.), Master of Science in Education (M.S.Ed.), Master of Engineering (M.E.), Master of Fine Arts (M.F.A.), Master of Architecture (M.Arch.), Master of Landscape Architecture (M.L.A.), Master of Urban Planning (M.U.P.) Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) degrees at the graduate level.

Physics[edit]

The City College of New York has had a long and distinguished history in physics. Three of its alumni went on to become Nobel laureates in physics: Robert Hofstadter in 1961,[94] Arno Penzias in 1978,[95] and Leon Lederman in 1988.[96] Albert Einstein gave the first of his series of United States lectures at the City College of New York in 1921.[97] Other distinguished alumni and past faculty in the field are Mark Zemansky, Clarence Zener, Mitchell Feigenbaum, and Leonard Susskind. Current faculty include Robert Alfano[98] and Michio Kaku.[99]

[edit]

The design of the three-faced college seal has its roots in the 19th century, when Professor Charles Anthon was inspired by views of Janus, the Roman god of beginnings, whose two faces connect the past and the future. He broadened this image of Janus into three faces to show the student, and consequently, knowledge, developing from childhood through youth into maturity.

The seal was redesigned for the college's Centennial Medal in 1947 by Albert P. d'Andrea (class of 1918).[100][101] Professor d'Andrea, having immigrated from Benevento, Italy, in 1901, joined the faculty immediately after graduation and was Professor of Art and Chairman of the Art Department from 1948 to 1968.

In 2003, the college decided to create a logo distinct from its seal, with the stylized text "the City College of New York."[102]

Rankings[edit]

U.S. News and World Report in 2013 ranked City College 43rd among Regional Universities in the North ("Regional Universities" are defined as institutions that offer a broad range of undergraduate programs, some master’s degree but few, if any, doctoral programs. CUNY uses the CUNY Graduate Center for its doctoral programs). It also placed 8th among Top Public Regional Universities in the North.[103]

The Princeton Review in 2012, 2013 and 2014, three consecutive years, included City College of New York in its annual "Best Colleges" guidebook [104][105]

The Princeton Review in 2014 placed CCNY in its "Best Value Colleges List," which included just 75 public universities nationwide. In its profile of City College, the book’s editors praised the school for its “astonishingly low cost,” “great engineering program,” “strong ties to research collaborators and institutions,” and an art program that’s “also one of the best” in the metro area. [106]

The 2014 America's Best Colleges ranked by Forbes.com placed City College at #215 overall and #92 in the Northeast, ranking CCNY #1 among all CUNYs and ahead of NYC privates such as Saint John's University and Pace University. [107]

Washington Monthly in 2013 placed CCNY 43rd among 684 Master's Universities (defined as "institutions awarding more than 50 masters degrees and fewer than 20 doctoral degrees in a given year"). The rankings were based on the school's "contribution to social good in three broad categories: social mobility (recruiting and graduating low-income students), Research (producing cutting-edge scholarship and PhDs), and Service (encouraging students to give back to their country)." CCNY ranked 29th in social mobility and 1st in research. [108]

In 2014, The Center for World University Rankings placed CCNY at #294 on a list of the best #1000 universities world-wide. Among U.S.A. universities, CCNY placed at #114. This ranking was the highest among CUNY schools. [109]

Athletics[edit]

CCNY is the only team in men's college basketball history to win both the National Invitation Tournament and the NCAA Tournament in the same year, 1950. However, this accomplishment was overshadowed by the CCNY point shaving scandal in which seven CCNY basketball players were arrested, in 1951, for taking money from gamblers to affect the outcome of games. The scandal led to the decline of CCNY from a national powerhouse in Division I basketball to a member of Division III and damaged the national profile of college basketball in general.

The College currently fields nine men's teams (Baseball, Basketball, Cross Country, Indoor/Outdoor Track and Field, Soccer, Tennis, Volleyball) and eight women's varsity athletic teams (Basketball, Cross Country, Fencing, Indoor/Outdoor Track and Field, Soccer, Tennis, Volleyball). The Department also offers a men's Lacrosse club. The Beavers have won 1 NCAA Division I championship (Men's Basketball) and over 70 City University of New York Athletic Conference (CUNYAC) Championships since 1966. The Beavers have also won 2 Division III Eastern College Athletic Conference (ECAC) Championships in the program's history, (1) Men's Volleyball, (1) Women's Basketball. The Beavers also have a successful history in NCAA Division III Track and Field. The Lady Beavers have placed within the top 3 multiple times, (5-times) Indoor Women, (2-times) Outdoor Women. The Men's and Women's Track teams combined have over 25 All-Americans since 1980.

Art[edit]

The City College of New York and its resident art collection were founded in 1847. The collection contains roughly one thousand eight hundred works of art ranging from the historical to the contemporary. There were two major points in the college’s history when most of the artwork in the collection was obtained; the first was at the founding of the institution and the second was in the 1970s when much of the campus underwent renovation and expansion. Also a larger portion of the collection was obtained through donations and the Percent for Arts program. This is a government program which helps institutions acquire art for their campuses. Often when new buildings are under construction at City College funding is provided through the Percent for Arts for new artwork, which is usually large sculpture or installation.

There is currently no museum at City College, thus much of the collection is not on view for the student population of public. Works that are in the collection which can always be seen are the public sculptures and installations spread throughout the campus. The drawings, prints and photos which comprise the collection are housed within the libraries as a part of the City College archive, where individuals can make appointments to view the works. Some notable works from the collection include some Keith Haring prints and Edward Curtis’s The North American Indian.

Student involvement with the collection is minimum but there is some. At the moment graduate students in museum studies are working to develop an inventory of the collection. There are times when they host small exhibitions of works in the collection but there is no allotted gallery space for this. Undergraduate students mostly interact with the collection through their classes; aside from that most of their experiences with this collection come from the public sculptures around campus.

Presidents[edit]

(source: The Adolph Lewisohn Plaza of Honor website – archived copy)

Distinguished alumni and other notables associated with the College[edit]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

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  2. ^ CUNY's list of its 23 institutions
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  4. ^ "... the founding, in 1847, of the Free Academy, the very first free public institution of higher education in the nation.", Baruch College history website. [1]
  5. ^ Karen W. Arenson
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  7. ^ Association of the Bar of the City of New York, Report of the Commission on the Future of CUNY: Part I Remediation and Access: To Educate the "Children of the Whole People", 1999. [2]
  8. ^ "Niblo's Garden" – Demolished Theatres, musicals101.com
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  10. ^ Cf. Bender, p. 273, footnotes.
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  12. ^ a b Cf. Bender, pp. 291–292
  13. ^ Rudy,Willis, The College of the City of New York: A History 1847–1947, City College Press 1949. Also issued as a thesis by Columbia University. Reprinted in 1977 by the Arno Press.
  14. ^ Minutes, Trustees, Board of Higher Education, 1929, p. 194
  15. ^ Subway College, in Time magazine, October 28, 1946.
  16. ^ Coddington, Edwin B. The Gettysburg campaign; a study in command, Scribner's, 1984.
  17. ^ The statue is on the east side of Convent Avenue near both Shepherd Hall and the Administration Building.
  18. ^ Rand, Frank Prentice; Ralph Watts, James E. Sefton (1993), All The Phi Sigs - A History, Grand Chapter of Phi Sigma Kappa 
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  20. ^ "Historical Information". Sigma Alpha Mu. Retrieved October 28, 2011. 
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  22. ^ see article Nobel Prize laureates by university affiliation
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  25. ^ a b "Arguing the World" – PBS documentary, 1997.
  26. ^ "Finding My Way to the Alcoves" – Joseph Dorman, film director of "Arguing the World".
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  32. ^ This Wiki writer’s personal communication with a 1949 student striker, 1989.
  33. ^ "William C. Davis, Educator, Is Dead". New York Times. August 16, 1948. p. 33. 
  34. ^ a b Goodman, Walter E. (April 16, 1984). "C.C.N.Y. Alumni Recall 1949 Strike". New York Times. p. B10. 
  35. ^ Omicron Delta Epsilon – The International Economics Honor Society
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  44. ^ Grove School of Engineering Video Coordinates: 40°49′10″N 73°57′00″W / 40.8194°N 73.9500°W / 40.8194; -73.9500
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  51. ^ "Panoramic View of The College of The City of New York" (c.1906)" (archived 2006)
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  57. ^ "Modern View of Wingate Hall entrance"
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  59. ^ "Old postcard of Wingate Hall/Harris Hall"
  60. ^ "Old Postcard: College of the City of New York: Chemical Building (Baskerville Hall)" (archived 2008)
  61. ^ "Old Postcard: College of the City of New York: Mechanical Arts Building (Compton Goethals Hall)" (archived 2008)
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  67. ^ "Old Postcard: (Lewisohn) Stadium of the City College of New York", CCNY Libraries exhibitions website
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  73. ^ "The Lost World of CCNY: Architectural Gems of Our Past: Architectural model of David B. Steinman Hall by Lorimar and Rose", CCNY Libraries exhibitions website, and Archives, City College of New York
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  78. ^ "Old View of CCNY from the Street"
  79. ^ "Marshak Science Building CCNY" – CCNY website
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  82. ^ Structural Biology Research Center website
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  84. ^ Mott Hall School website
  85. ^ "The Lost World of CCNY: Architectural Gems of Our Past: John H. Finley Hall", CCNY Libraries Exhibitions website
  86. ^ “The Lost World of CCNY: Architectural Gems of Our Past: Wagner Hall”, CCNY Libraries Exhibitions website
  87. ^ CCNY Towers website
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  90. ^ "ASRC News". Asrc.cuny.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
  91. ^ "Dormitory Authority of the State of New York: The City College of New York Science Building and The City University of New York Advanced Science Research Center: Phases I and II Project", 2007.
  92. ^ "Draft Environmental Impact Statement for The City College of New York Science Building and The City University of New York Advanced Science Research Center Project, Borough of Manhattan, New York County, New York (December 21, 2007)", The Dormitory Authority of the State of New York, December 21, 2007.
  93. ^ "Fall 2009 CCNY Campus Map with proposed additions", Integrated Global Water Cycle Observations (IGWCO) Workshop and Meeting, Feb 23–26, 2010 at CCNY.
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  99. ^ "Michio Kaku — Science Division Forum". Forum.sci.ccny.cuny.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
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  101. ^ "Albert P. D'Andrea: sculpted relief portrait of Townsend Harris", CCNY Exhibitions website.
  102. ^ CCNY new 2003 logo
  103. ^ "US News 2014 ranking". Ccny.cuny.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
  104. ^ "Princeton Review Selects CCNY as One of Nation’s Best Colleges". Ccny.cuny.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
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  106. ^ "Princeton Review Best Value 2014". Ccny.cuny.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
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  108. ^ "Washington Monthly ranking". Ccny.cuny.edu. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
  109. ^ "CWUR 2014 | Top 1000 Universities". Cwur.org. Retrieved 2014-08-22. 
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  112. ^ "Temple University Provost Lisa Staiano-Coico Appointed President of The City College of New York", CUNY Announcement, April 26, 2010

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]