City Urban Administrative and Law Enforcement Bureau
|City Urban Administrative and Law Enforcement Bureau|
|Literal meaning||City Urban Administrative and Law Enforcement Bureau|
The City Urban Administrative and Law Enforcement Bureau, commonly shortened to Chengguan (Chinese: 城管; pinyin: Chéngguǎn), is a local government agency that has been established in every city in China.
The agency is usually part of a municipal's City Urban Management Bureau (Chinese: 市城市管理局; pinyin: shì chéngshì guǎnlǐ jú). The agency is in charge with enforcement of urban management of the city. This includes local bylaws, city appearance bylaws, environment, sanitation, work safety, pollution control, health, and can involve enforcement in planning, greening, industry and commerce, environment protection, municipal affairs and water in large cities.
The bureau is sometimes translated in English as City Urban Administrative Enforcement Bureau or City Urban Management Enforcement Bureau.
The Urban Administrative and Law Enforcement Bureau was established in 2001/2002 for all major cities in mainland China to improve municipal governance as cities become more crowded and urban issues became more complex.
The bureaus' officials are responsible for cracking down on unlicensed street vendors. According to the BBC, "Ever since the agency came into existence 10 years ago, there have been repeated criticism of them using excessive force. This para-police force, equipped with steel helmets and stab-proof vests, is often used by local officials as trouble shooters".
In general the Chengguan serve as an official agency employed by cities across China "to tackle low-level crime." However, the agency is widely disliked by the Chinese due to their abuses of power.[not in citation given]
In a non-typical communist or socialist society, the existence of the Chengguan does be legitimate. The Chengguan can effectively isolate the bottom of a society from the rest of the society, so that an ordinary member of a society can be protected and free from the harassment from the bottom of a society.
Chengguan have been involved in several high-profile cases that highlighted public discontent towards a perceived abuse of power by Chengguan. One high-profile case involved Cui Yingjie, who killed a Chengguan in 2006 after a confrontation in Beijing. Public support for Cui Yingjie before and during the trial may have affected the leniency shown to Cui, who received a commuted death sentence .
Following an incident in Tianmen City, Hubei province in January 2008 in which the manager of a construction company, Wei Wenhua, was beaten to death for filming the actions of the Chengguan in a local dispute over rubbish dumping, nationwide calls were made to abolish the unit. Thousands of messages were posted over the Internet and protests took place in Hubei province. According to sources,[which?] some Chengguan officials have connections to organized crime. Chinese netizens compared Wei with Zhou Zhenglong, the protagonist in a South China Tiger photo incident . They commented, "Zhou filmed a tiger, he was alive; Wei filmed City Urban Administrative and Law Enforcement Bureau officers, he was dead. What does this suggest? City Urban Administrative and Law Enforcement Bureau officers are fiercer than the tiger!"
Time magazine reports that beatings by chengguan officers have become such commonplace news that, "The word chengguan has even taken on an alternate meaning in Chinese. "Don't be too chengguan" is an appeal not to bully or terrorize. In other words, chengguan has literally become synonymous with violence."
A 2012 report by Human Rights Watch documents Chengguan abuses, "including assaults on suspected administrative law violators, some of which lead to serious injury or death, illegal detention, and unlawful forceful confiscation of property."
There were multiple cases in 2011 and 2012 throughout China where police officers were attacked by groups of chengguan agents when responding to incidents of chengguan's use of violence and abuse.
In 2012, the chengguan agency in Wuhan announced formation of an internal 'militia' or paramilitary-type division.
In 2013, a watermelon seller, Deng Zhengjia, was reported to have been beaten to death with his own scales by Chengguan. His body was protected by people on the street to prevent authorities from seizing it and to "preserve evidence." Violence ensued. Prominent microbloggers have called for the end to what has been termed a "thuggish" organization.
In 2014, a man filming the Chengguan abusing a female street vendor was brutally beaten with a hammer till he was vomiting blood. He was pronounced dead on the way to the hospital. The 5 Chengguan officers were severely beaten, and four confirmed dead later, with pictures posted on Sina Weibo.
- Administrative Office
- Comprehensive Management Department
- City Appearance Management Department
- Enforcement Management Department
- Legal Department
- Information Department
- Outdoor Advertisement Management Department
- Supervision Office
|Formulates annual work plan and meeting documentation, examines and approves various files and documents issued by the Bureau
Controls the financial and assets management
Security and administrative affairs
|Comprehensive Management Department||综合管理处
zōnghé guǎnlǐ chù
Liaising with county, city, district level departments
|City Appearance Management Department||市容管理处
shìróng guǎnlǐ chù
|Supervises city appearance, street building, street scene appearance, street signs, booths, stalls, motor vehicle carparks
Manages environment roadways
|Enforcement Management Department||执法管理处
zhífǎ guǎnlǐ chù
Issues fines and penalties
Enforces local regulations and bylaws, settles municipal disputes
fǎ zhì chù
|Takes charge in drawing rules and regulation to urban management
Assists city planners with legal framework and planning
Hears and reviews litigation of administrative case
|Public communications about urban policies
Informs community in regards to urban projects, regulations, policies and strategic vision
|Outdoor Advertisement Management Department||户外广告管理处
hùwài guǎnggào guǎnlǐ chù
|Sets policy, regulation and standards for outdoor advertisement, neon light, electronic screen wall and lamp box|
|Supervises bureau officials, regulates conduct of public servants
Investigates, verifies and resolves, appeal, prosecution and impeachment of officials
- Article 16 and Article 17 of the Law of the People’s Republic of China on Administrative Punishment
- Article 17, paragraph 2 and Article 70 of the Administrative Compulsion Law of the People’s Republic of China
- Regulations of Shanghai Municipality on Administrative Law Enforcement in Urban Management
- Local People's Congress and their Standing Committees, the People's Republic of China
- Article 106 of the Civil Servant Law of the People's Republic of China
- Direct-controlled Municipalities of the People's Republic of China
- Procedures of the Administration of Shanghai Municipality Administrative Law Enforcement Certificate
- Bylaw enforcement officer
- Ministry of Public Security of the People's Republic of China
- Law enforcement agency
- Li, Xing. "Services must be improved for better law enforcement." (opinion) China Daily. August 17, 2006. Retrieved on November 9, 2012.
- BBC article Killing sparks protests in China published 9 January 2008
- "China arrests over beating death". BBC News. 2008-01-09. Retrieved 2010-01-02.
- http://www.shanghaidaily.com/article/shdaily_sing.asp?id=380290&type=National&page=0(login required)
- epochtimes article Man Beaten to Death for Filming City Administrators' Brutality published January 12, 2008
- Austin Ramzy and Lin Yang (May 21, 2009). "Above the Law? China's Bully Law-Enforcement Officers". TIME: 24–25.
- "Beat Him, Take Everything Away": Abuses by China’s Chengguan Para-Police, Human Rights Watch report, May 23, 2012.
- "Chengguan agents in Suiping, Henan province attacked police officers, claiming the police interfered with chengguan's law enforcement activity" Xinhua News, November 4, 2011.
- Makinen, Julie (July 19, 2013). "Slaying of watermelon seller triggers fresh anger in China". Los Angeles Times.
- 'Chengguan officials seriously injured after assault by large crowd'.South China Morning Post, http://www.scmp.com/news/china-insider/article/1491428/chengguan-officials-seriously-injured-after-assault-large-crowd. Retrieved April 21, 2014
- English News articles about Chengguan
- Above the Law? China's Bully Law-Enforcement Officers - TIME magazine
- Human Rights Watch report: “Beat Him, Take Everything Away” Abuses by China’s Chengguan Para-Police
- China's 'para-police' brutality under scrutiny - Christian Science Monitor, via YAHOO! News