Civil Aviation Administration of China

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Civil Aviation Administration of China

中国民用航空局
Agency overview
Formed 1949
Jurisdiction  People's Republic of China
Headquarters Dongcheng District, Beijing
Agency executive Li Jiaxiang, Administrator of CAAC
Parent agency Ministry of Transport
Website www.caac.gov.cn
CAAC headquarters
Flight Inspection Center of CAAC

The Civil Aviation Administration of China (CAAC; simplified Chinese: 中国民用航空局; traditional Chinese: 中國民用航空局; pinyin: Zhōngguó Mínyòng Hángkōng Jú), formerly the General Administration of Civil Aviation of China (simplified Chinese: 中国民用航空总局; traditional Chinese: 中國民用航空總局; pinyin: Zhōngguó Mínyòng Hángkōng Zongjú), is the aviation authority under the Ministry of Transport of the People's Republic of China. It oversees civil aviation and investigates aviation accidents and incidents.[1] As the aviation authority responsible for China, it concluded civil aviation agreements with other aviation authorities, including those of the Special Administrative Regions of the People's Republic of China which are categorized as "special domestic".[2] The agency is headquartered in Dongcheng District, Beijing.[3]

The CAAC does not share the responsibility of managing China's airspace with the Central Military Commission under the regulations in the Civil Aviation Law of the People's Republic of China (中华人民共和国民用航空法, Zhōnghuá Rénmín Gònghéguó Mínyòng Hángkōng Fǎ). Being subordinate to military traffic, non-commercial civil aviation is rather restricted. General and private aviation in mainland China is relatively rare compared to developed countries.

History[edit]

CAAC was formed on November 2, 1949, shortly after the founding of the People's Republic of China, to manage all non-military aviation in the country, as well as provide general and commercial flight service (similar to Aeroflot in the Soviet Union). It was initially managed by the People's Liberation Army Air Force.

CAAC Ilyushin Il-62 at Moscow Sheremetyevo Airport in 1974

In 1963, China departed from its policies of Marxist self-sufficiency with a purchase of six Vickers Viscount aircraft from Great Britain, followed in 1971 with four Hawker Siddeley Trident aircraft from Pakistan International Airlines. In August 1971 the airline purchased six Trident 2E's directly from Hawker Siddeley.[4] The country also placed provisional orders for three Concorde aircraft. With the 1972 Nixon visit to China the country ordered 10 Boeing 707 jets. In December 1973 it took the unprecedented step of borrowing £40 million from Western banks to fund the purchase of 15 additional Trident jets. Russian built Ilyushin Il-62 aircraft were used on long range routes during the 1970s and 1980s.

In 1980 the airline was transferred to the direct control of the State Council.

In 1987 the airline division of CAAC was divided up into a number of airlines, each named after the region of China where it had its hub. Since then, CAAC acts solely as a government agency and no longer provides commercial flight service.

In March 2008, CAAC was made a subsidiary of the newly created Ministry of Transport, and its official Chinese name was slightly adjusted to reflect it being no longer a ministry-level agency. Its official English name has remained Civil Aviation Administration of China.

CAAC as an airline[edit]

CAAC
中国民航
CAAC logo.JPG
IATA
CA
ICAO
CCA
Callsign
CAAC
Founded 1949
Ceased operations 1987 (Split into six airlines)
Hubs Beijing Capital
Shanghai Hongqiao
Guangzhou Baiyun
Chengdu Shuangliu
Xi'an Xiguan (closed in 1991)
Shenyang Taoxian
Destinations 85 Cities, In 25 Countries (As of 1987)
Parent company State Council
Headquarters Beijing, China
Key people Director of the General Office

CAAC began operating scheduled domestic flights to cities in China in 1949.

In 1962, CAAC began operating international services, initially to other countries in the Communist bloc such as the Soviet Union, Mongolia, North Korea, Burma, Bangladesh, North Vietnam, and Cambodia.[5] By the mid-1980s, CAAC had long-haul service to the United States, Europe, the Middle East, and Australia, mainly using American Boeing aircraft, while continuing to use Soviet aircraft on routes to Eastern Europe.[6]

The Boeing customer code for CAAC was J6, which was inherited by Air China until 1999.

Separation[edit]

In 1987, CAAC split into 6 separate airlines each named after the geographic region of the location of their headquarters and main operation areas:

CAAC used the IATA code CA on international flights only, domestic flights were not prefixed with the airline code.

CAAC aircraft livery featured Chinese national flag on the vertical stabilizer, with blue stripes and Chinese version of CAAC logo (autographed by Zhou Enlai) on a white fuselage.

CAAC's fleet in 1987[edit]

General aviation[edit]

Fleet retired before 1987[edit]

Major incidents[edit]

  • On September 26, 1961, a CAAC Shijiazhuang Y-5, 18188, struck the side of a mountain, killing all 15 on board.[7]
  • On March 14, 1979, a CAAC Hawker Siddeley Trident 2E, registration B-274, crashed into a factory in Beijing on climbout from Xijiao Airport during a training flight, killing all 12 on board and 32 on the ground.[9]
  • On April 26, 1982, CAAC Flight 3303, a Hawker Siddeley Trident 2E, registration B-266, crashed into a mountain near Yangsuo while on approach to Guilin, killing all 112 people on board.
  • On May 5, 1983, a CAAC Hawker Siddeley Trident 2E, registration B-296, was hijacked and landed at a U.S. military base in South Korea. The incident marked the first direct negotiations between South Korea and China, which did not have formal relations at the time.[11]
  • On September 14, 1983, a CAAC Hawker Siddeley Trident 2E, registration B-264, collided with an Ilyushin Il-28 fighter jet while taxiing at Guilin Airport. Eleven of 106 on board were killed.[12]
  • On January 18, 1985, CAAC Flight 5109, an Antonov An-24B, registration B-434, crashed in drizzle and fog while performing a missed approach to Jinan, killing 38 of the 41 on board.[13]
  • On December 15, 1986, a CAAC Antonov An-24RV, registration B-3413, crashed while attempting to return to Lanzhou after an engine failed due to icing, killing 6 of the 44 on board.[14]
  • On August 31, 1988, CAAC Flight 301, a Hawker Siddeley Trident 2E, registration B-2218, struck approach lights at Kai Tak Airport and struck a lip, collapsing the right main landing gear; the aircraft then slid off the runway into Kowloon Bay, killing 7 of the 89 on board. The cause was undetermined, but windshear may have been a factor.
  • On December 16, 1989, CAAC Flight 981 (operated by Air China), a Boeing 747-200BM, registration B-2448, was hijacked while flying the Beijing-Shanghai-San Francisco-New York route. The hijacker's intended destination was Gimpo International Airport in Seoul, South Korea, but after South Korean authorities refused permission to land, the aircraft landed in Fukuoka Airport in Fukuoka, Japan. The hijacker was injured after being pushed out of the aircraft and was apprehended by Japanese authorities. The rest of the passengers and the crew were unharmed, and the aircraft returned to Beijing later that day.

See also[edit]

Affiliated universities[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ [1][dead link]
  2. ^ the citation is in the treaty "Air Services Arrangement between the Mainland and the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region" which calls intranational service as "specially managed domestic" this needs a proper ref statement.
  3. ^ "English." Civil Aviation Administration of China. Retrieved on June 9, 2009. "北京市东城区东四西大街155号."
  4. ^ Tridents for China, Flight International, 2 September 1971, p. 348
  5. ^ 1964 timetable scans
  6. ^ 1985 route map
  7. ^ Accident description for 18188 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 21 January 2013.
  8. ^ Accident description for B-492 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 21 January 2013.
  9. ^ Accident description for B-274 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 21 January 2013.
  10. ^ Accident description for B-202 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 21 January 2013.
  11. ^ Hijacking description for B-296 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 21 January 2013.
  12. ^ Accident description for B-264 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 21 January 2013.
  13. ^ Accident description for B-434 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 21 January 2013.
  14. ^ Accident description for B-3413 at the Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved on 21 January 2013.

External links[edit]