Clan Stewart

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Clan Stuart)
Jump to: navigation, search
Clan Stewart
Stiùbhard[1]
Clan member crest badge - Clan Stewart.svg
Crest: Due to a lack of a chief, members sometimes use the badge belonging to the Earl of Galloway. A pelican Argent, winged Or, in her nest feeding her young, Proper.
Motto Virescit vulnere virtus (Courage grows strong at a wound)[1]
Profile
Region Lowlands and Highlands
District Renfrewshire, Teviotdale and Lauderdale.
Plant badge Thistle[1]
Pipe music Bratach Bhan nan Stiubhartach (The white banner of the Stewarts)[1]
Blason Famille Stuart.svg
Clan Stewart has no chief, and is an armigerous clan
Commander The Earl of Galloway is considered to be the senior cadet, but is not chief. The senior cadet is Randolph Stewart, 13th Earl of Galloway.

Clan Stewart (Gaelic: Stiùbhard) is a Lowland Scottish clan. The clan is recognised by Court of the Lord Lyon, however it does not have a clan chief recognised by the Lord Lyon King of Arms. Because the clan has no chief it can be considered an armigerous clan; however the Earls of Galloway are now considered to be the principal branch of this clan,[2] and the crest and motto of The Earls of Galloway's arms are used in the Clan Stewart crest badge. The Court of the Lord Lyon recognises two other 'Stewart' clans, Clan Stuart of Bute and Clan Stewart of Appin. Clan Stuart of Bute is the only 'Stewart' clan at present which has a recognised chief.[3]

History[edit]

Origins of the clan[edit]

The Stewarts who became monarchs of Scotland were descended from a family who were seneschals of Dol in Brittany, France.[4] After the Norman conquest of England the Stewarts acquired estates in England.[4] Walter Flaad or Walter fitz Alan, the Steward came to Scotland when David I of Scotland claimed his throne.[4] It is from their office as Stewards that the surname Stewart came from.[5] Walter was created High Steward of Scotland and was granted large estates in Renfrewshire and East Lothian.[4] Walter was one of the commanders of the royal army which defeated Somerled of the Isles (ancestor of Clan Donald) at the Battle of Renfrew in 1164.[4] (See: Walter fitz Alan).

Wars of Scottish Independence[edit]

During the Wars of Scottish Independence, James Stewart, 5th High Steward of Scotland swore fealty to Edward I of England.[4] However he later supported William Wallace and also king Robert the Bruce in the struggle for Scottish independence.[4]

Royal House of Stewart[edit]

Main article: House of Stuart

Walter Stewart, 6th High Steward of Scotland married Marjory, daughter of king Robert the Bruce.[4] When Robert's son, David II of Scotland died, he was succeeded by Walter Stewart's son, Robert II of Scotland.[4] King Robert II had many sons, the eldest, John, succeeded to the throne of Scotland as Robert III of Scotland.[4] The royal line of male Stewarts was uninterrupted until the reign of Mary Queen of Scots.[4] As a family the Stewarts (Stuarts) held the throne of Scotland and later England until the death of Anne, Queen of Great Britain in 1714.[4]

Albany Stewarts[edit]

Clan Stewart tartan, as published in 1842 in the dubious Vestiarium Scoticum.
Main article: Duke of Albany

The Duke of Albany is a peerage title that was bestowed on the younger sons in the Scottish and later the British royal family, particularly in the House of Stuart. Robert II's third son was Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany who was Regent of Scotland during the reigns of his father, brother and nephew, James I of Scotland.[4] Robert II's fourth son was Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan who was famed as the Wolf of Badenoch, who was responsible for the destruction of Elgin Cathedral.[4]

When James I of Scotland became of age he curbed the power of his cousins, the Albany Stewarts.[4] He beheaded Murdoch Stewart, Duke of Albany, son of Robert Stewart, 1st Duke of Albany.[4] Two of Murdoch's sons, Walter and Alexander (Alasdair), were both executed as well.[6][7]

Main branches of the clan[edit]

A Victorian era, romanticised depiction of a member of the clan by R. R. McIan, from The Clans of the Scottish Highlands, published in 1845.

Apart from the royal house of Stewart, the three main branches of the clan that settled in the Scottish Highlands during the 14th and 15th centuries were the Stewarts of Appin, Stewarts of Atholl and Stewarts of Balquhidder.[4] Today the Earls of Galloway are considered the senior line of the Clan Stewart.[4]

Stewarts of Appin[edit]

Main article: Clan Stewart of Appin

The Stewarts of Appin descend from Sir John Stewart of Bonkyl, son of Alexander Stewart, 4th High Steward of Scotland.[4] Sir John's younger son, James Stewart, was killed in 1333 at the Battle of Halidon Hill.[4] His grandson married the heiress of the Lord of Lorne (chief of Clan MacDougall).[4] He was the first Stewart Lord of Lorne.[4] The Stewarts of Appin supported the royalist cause during the Civil War of the 17th century and also supported the deposed Stuart monarchs during the Jacobite rising of 1715 and Jacobite rising of 1745.[4]

Stewarts of Atholl[edit]

The Stewarts of Atholl are descended from a son of Alexander Stewart, Earl of Buchan (the Wolf of Badenoch).[4] James Stewart built a strong castle at Garth where he settled at the end of the 14th century.[4] Queen Joanna, widow of James I of Scotland married the Black Knight of Lorne who was descended from the fourth High Steward.[4] Their son was John Stewart of Balveny who was granted the Earldom of Atholl by his half-brother, James II of Scotland.[4] He supported his brother, commanding the royal forces that opposed the rebellion by the Lord of the Isles.[4] The fifth Stewart Earl of Atholl died with no male issue and his daughter married William Murray, second Earl of Tullibardine, who succeeded as Earl of Atholl.[4] Many Stewarts continued to live in the Atholl area with many claiming descent from the Wolf of Badenoch.[4] They were mainly transferred by allegiance to the Murray Earls of Atholl and were known as Atholl men.[4] This is maintained today with the Atholl Highlanders, Europe's only legal private army.[4] General David Stewart of Garth, an Athollman, was an officer in the Black Watch regiment and his book, Sketches of the Highlanders and Highland Regiments, popularized his homeland in Victorian England.[4]

Stewarts of Balquhidder[edit]

Stewarts came to Balqhidder in about 1490 when William Stewart, grandson of the only son of the Duke of Albany to escape the persecution of James I, was appointed ballie of the Crown lands of Balquhidder.[4]

Stuarts of Bute[edit]

Main article: Clan Stuart of Bute

The chiefs of the Clan Stuart of Bute are descended from John, younger son of Robert Stewart who reigned as Robert II of Scotland.[8]

Castles[edit]

undiffered arms of stewart
Stewart of Stewart
Arms of Stuart of Albany
Stuart of Albany
Arms of Stuart of Buchan
Stuart, Earl of Buchan
Arms of Stewart of Barclye
Stewart of Barclye
Arms of Stewart of Garlies
Stewart of Garlies
Arms of Stewart of Minto
Stewart of Minto
Arms of Stewart of Physgill
Stewart of Physgill
Arms of Stewart of Bute
Stewart of Bute
Arms of Stuart of Bute
Stuart of Bute
Arms of Stewart of Moray
Stuart, Earl of Moray
Arms of Stewart of Atholl
Stewart of Atholl
Arms of Stewart of Rothesay
Stewart of Rothesay
Arms of Stewart of Carrick
Stewart, Earl of Carrick
Arms of Stewart of Ross
Stewart, Duke of Ross
Arms of Stewart of Strathearn
Stewart, Earl of Strathearn
Arms of Stewart of Galloway
Stewart, Earl of Galloway
Arms of Stuart of Darnley
Stuart of Darnley
Arms of Stuart, Earl of Lennox
Stuart of Lennox
Arms of Stewart of Ardvorlich
Stewart of Ardvorlich
Arms of Stewart of Avandale
Stuart, Lord Avandale
Arms of Stuart, Lord Ochiltree
Stuart, Lord Ochiltree

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d Clan Stewart Profile scotclans.com. Retrieved 13 December, 2013.
  2. ^ myclan.com
  3. ^ Nelker, Gladys P., The Clan Steuart, 1970
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r s t u v w x y z aa ab ac ad ae af ag ah Way, George and Squire, Romily. Collins Scottish Clan & Family Encyclopedia. (Foreword by The Rt Hon. The Earl of Elgin KT, Convenor, The Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs). Published in 1994. Pages 459 - 461.
  5. ^ Clan Stewart rampantscotland.com. Retrieved 11 November, 2013.
  6. ^ Walter Stewart familysearch.org. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  7. ^ Alexander Stewart familysearch.org. Retrieved 16 June 2013.
  8. ^ Way, George and Squire, Romily. Collins Scottish Clan & Family Encyclopedia. (Foreword by The Rt Hon. The Earl of Elgin KT, Convenor, The Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs). Published in 1994. Pages 330 - 331.

External links[edit]