Clan Sutherland

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Clan Sutherland
Sutherlarach[1]
Clan member crest badge - Clan Sutherland.svg
Crest: A cat-a-mountain saliant Proper
Motto Sans Peur (Without Fear)[1]
Slogan Ceann na Drochaide Bige!
Profile
Region Highlands
District Sutherland
Plant badge Cotton Sedge[1]
Pipe music The Earl of Sutherland's March
Chief
Countess of Sutherland arms.svg
Elizabeth Millicent Sutherland
The 24th Countess of Sutherland
Seat House of Tongue (by Lairg)[2]
Historic seat Dunrobin Castle

Clan Sutherland is a Highland Scottish clan whose traditional territory is located in the region of Sutherland in northern highlands of Scotland and was one of the most powerful Scottish clans. The clan seat is at Dunrobin Castle, Sutherland. The chief of the clan was also the powerful Earl of Sutherland, however in the early 16th century this title passed through marriage to a younger son of the chief of Clan Gordon.[3]

History[edit]

Origins of the clan[edit]

See also: Freskin

The progenitor of the Clan Sutherland was a Flemish nobleman by the name of Freskin,[4] who was also the progenitor of the Clan Murray.[4][5] It has been claimed that Freskin was Pictish but it is much more likely that he was a Flemish knight, one of a ruthless group of warlords who were employed by the Norman kings to pacify their new realm after the Norman conquest of England.[5] David I of Scotland who was brought up in the English court, employed such men to keep hold of the wilder parts of his kingdom and granted to Freskin lands in West Lothian.[5] The ancient Pictish kingdom of Moray (Moireabh in Scottish Gaelic) was also given to Freskin and this put an end to the remnants of that old royal house.[5] In a series of astute political moves Freskin and his sons inter married with the old house of Moray to consolidate their power.[5] Freskin's descendants were designated by the surname de Moravia ("of Moray" in the Norman language).[5] Freskin's grandson was Hugh de Moravia who was granted lands in Sutherland and was known as Lord de Sudrland.[4][6] Hugh's younger brother, William, was progenitor of the Clan Murray.[4][6][note 2] Hugh's eldest son (also called William) was William de Moravia, 1st Earl of Sutherland.[4] The place name and clan name of "Sutherland" came from it being the 'land to the south' of the Norse Earldom of Orkney and Caithness.[4] Although the senior line of chiefs who were the Earls of Sutherland had the surname 'de Moravia', they often used the territorial surname 'Sutherland' and the younger sons of the family also took the surname 'Sutherland', thus creating the cadet branches of the Clan Sutherland.[4]

Wars of Scottish Independence[edit]

During the Wars of Scottish Independence, chief William de Moravia, 3rd Earl of Sutherland (William Sutherland) fought at the Battle of Bannockburn in 1314, where the English army was defeated.[7] Kenneth de Moravia, 4th Earl of Sutherland (Kenneth Sutherland) was killed at the Battle of Halidon Hill in 1333.[6][7]

William de Moravia, 5th Earl of Sutherland (William Sutherland), whose wife was Margaret, the daughter of Robert the Bruce and sister of David II of Scotland,[6] led the clan at Kilblene where he participated in the siege of Cupar Castle Fife.[7] William, Earl of Sutherland accompanied King David II of Scotland into England where both were captured at the Battle of Neville's Cross in 1346, by Durham.[7] They remained in prison for over ten years before being released. John, the son of the Earl and Princess Margaret, was designated the heir to the Throne over Robert Stewart, who eventually became King Robert II in 1371.

The modern day district of Sutherland

14th-century clan conflicts[edit]

The habitual enemies of Clan Sutherland were the Clan Sinclair of Caithness and the Clan Mackay and Clan McLeod to the west of Sutherland. A feud with the Mackays came to a head when Nicholas Sutherland of Duffus, head of one of the junior branches, murdered the chief of the Clan Mackay and his heir at Dingwall Castle, where they had met in an attempt to patch up the feud. A retaliatory raid by the Mackays on Dornoch took place, where the cathedral was set on fire and many Sutherland men were hanged in the town square.[8] William, 5th Earl of Sutherland was killed by the Mackays in 1370 in feud which lasted for the next four centuries.[6] In 1388 the Earl of Sutherland was a leader of the Scots invading into the west of England. He married Margaret Stewart, daughter of Alexander, Earl of Buchan, a younger son of King Robert II of Scotland.

15th century and clan conflicts[edit]

The Battle of Drumnacoub was fought in 1431 where Angus Du Mackay, chief of Clan Mackay defeated Angus Murray and the Sutherlanders on the slopes of the mountain Ben Loyal near Tongue.[9]

The Battle of Skibo and Strathfleet was fought in 1480 where John MacDonald of Islay, Earl of Ross invaded Sutherland and was defeated by the Clan Sutherland and the Murrays of Aberscross.[10]

According to 17th-century historian Sir Robert Gordon, the Clan Sutherland joined the Clan Mackay in their victory over the Clan Ross at the Battle of Aldy Charrish in 1487.[11] However 19th - 20th-century historian Angus Mackay disputes the Sutherland's presence at the battle stating that it would be unlikely that the Earl of Sutherland at the time would have assisted against the Rosses as he was married to a daughter of the Ross chief of Balnagowan, and also that the feudal superiority of the Sutherlands over the Mackays "nowhere existed save in his own fertile imagination".[12]

16th century and clan conflicts[edit]

A Victorian era, romanticised depiction of a member of the clan by R. R. McIan, from The Clans of the Scottish Highlands, published in 1845.

William Sutherland, 4th Laird of Duffus was killed fighting against the English at the Battle of Flodden Field in 1513.[13]

In 1517 Elizabeth de Moravia, 10th Countess of Sutherland (Elizabeth Sutherland) married Adam Gordon, younger son of Gordon of Huntly.[6] Their son was Alexander Gordon, Master of Sutherland who would become the legal heir to the Earldom of Sutherland and overall chieftainship of the Clan Sutherland.[3] In the same year the Mackays rose up against the Gordons who had taken power in Sutherland which resulted in the Battle of Torran Dubh, where the Mackays were defeated. At the battle the Sutherland force had been led by Alexander Sutherland, brother of Elizabeth, 10th Countess of Sutherland.[14] However the following year in 1518 Alexander Sutherland himself rose up against his sister Elizabeth, 10th Countess of Sutherland and her husband Adam Gordon, but he was defeated at the Battle of Alltachuilain.[15]

The Battle of Alltan-Beath took place in 1542 where Donald Mackay of Strathnaver decided to invade the Clan Sutherland. He burned the village of Knockarthur and looted Strathbrora. The Clan Sutherland led by Hutcheon Murray of Abirscors with Gilbert Gordon of Garty, attacked the Mackays at a place called Ailtan-Beath and much of the stolen booty was recovered. Donald Mackay was captured and imprisoned in Foulis Castle, Ross-shire by commandment of the Queen Regent.[16]

In 1545 at Dingwall, the Earl of Sutherland entered into a bond of manrent with John Mackenzie of Kintail for mutual defense against all enemies, reserving only their allegiance to the youthful Mary, Queen of Scots.[17]

In 1547 John Gordon, 11th Earl of Sutherland led the clan against the English army at the Battle of Pinkie Cleugh.[7]

In 1555 the Battle of Garbharry was fought, which was the last battle between the Clan Mackay and the Clan Sutherland.[18] In 1586 the Battle of Leckmelm took place where the Sutherlands, Mackays and MacLeods defeat the Clan Gunn.[19]

In 1588 Castle Sinclair Girnigoe withstood a siege by the Earl of Sutherland and in 1590 George Sinclair, 5th Earl of Caithness, invaded Sutherland resulting in the Battle of Clynetradwell.[20]

17th century and Civil War[edit]

In the 17th century the Clan Sutherland began to acquire the reputation for enthusiastic and pious Protestantism. This is probably what made the Gordon Earls of Sutherland begin to distance themselves from their Gordon Earl of Huntly (Clan Gordon) cousins who were Catholics and later Jacobites. In 1645 John Gordon, 14th Earl of Sutherland led the clan against the royalists at the Battle of Auldearn but was defeated.[7]

In 1650, the Clan Sutherland along with the Clan Munro and the Clan Ross joined forces with the Scottish Argyll Government to fight against James Graham, 1st Marquess of Montrose and his royalist army of foreigners, who they defeated at the Battle of Carbisdale.[21]

In 1685, John Gordon, 16th Earl of Sutherland, raised men of the Clan Sutherland to oppose the Archibald Campbell, 9th Earl of Argyll's expedition.[7] The Earl of Sutherland also raised two regiments from the clan after the Glorious Revolution of 1688.[7] The second of which he was a Colonel in command in Flanders in 1694.[7]

18th century and Jacobite risings[edit]

Jacobite rising of 1715[edit]

During the Jacobite rising of 1715, John Gordon, 16th Earl of Sutherland who later resumed the surname Sutherland, called out his men to fight for George I of Great Britain.[6] The Clan Sutherland garrisoned Inverness Castle against the Jacobites.[6]

Jacobite rising of 1719[edit]

In 1719, a detachment of men from the Clan Sutherland fought for the British government at the Battle of Glenshiel where they helped to defeat the Jacobites. The Earl and chief of Clan Sutherland had been of the surname Gordon ever since the early 16th century, however John Gordon, 16th Earl of Sutherland resumed the surname of Sutherland and was officially recognized as chief of Clan Sutherland by the Court of the Lord Lyon in 1719.

Jacobite rising of 1745[edit]

The Clan Sutherland also supported the British government during the Jacobite rising of 1745. At the start of the rising William, 17th Earl of Sutherland and chief of Clan Sutherland reconciled with their ancient enemies, the Mackays, settling the ancient feud.[6] In 1745 the fighting force of the Clan Sutherland was given as 2,000 men.[22] During the rising, Jacobites under George Mackenzie, 3rd Earl of Cromartie occupied the Sutherland's Dunrobin Castle,[6] and the Earl of Sutherland narrowly escaped them through a back door.[7] He then sailed for Aberdeen where he joined the Duke of Cumberland's army.[7] However this same Jacobite force under the Earl of Cromartie was defeated by the Clan Sutherland militia,[6] who formed an Independent Highland Company, in what became known as the Battle of Littleferry.[23] However despite all these efforts by the Earl of Sutherland to defeat the Jacobites, including his victory at Littleferry, he struggled to prove to the parliament in London that he had not had Jacobite sympathies.[24][25]

Disputed chiefship[edit]

The chief of Clan Sutherland was the Earl of Sutherland. When William Sutherland, 18th Earl of Sutherland died in 1766 he left an only daughter, Elizabeth.[6] This led to a legal battle over the succession to the title.[6] Elizabeth's right to succeed as a woman was challenged firstly by George Sutherland of Forse, who was a direct male descendant of the original de Moravia/Sutherland Earls of Sutherland and secondly by Sir Robert Gordon of Gordonstoun who was a direct male descendant of the later Gordon Earls of Sutherland.[6] The case was heard by the House of Lords on 21 March 1771 and it decided in favour of Elizabeth.[6] She married George Leveson-Gower, Marquess of Stafford who later became the first Duke of Sutherland in 1833.[6] The Duke set up businesses on the coast and ruthlessly cleared his tenants off the land, abandoning the customary obligations of a Scottish clan chief.[6]

Upon the death of the fifth Duke of Sutherland, the chiefship and of the clan and the earldom of Sutherland devolved upon his niece, Elizabeth Sutherland, 24th Countess of Sutherland,[6] the current chief of Clan Sutherland.

Castles[edit]

  • Dunrobin Castle is the seat of the Earl of Sutherland, chief of the Clan Sutherland.
  • Dornoch Castle given to John Gordon, 11th Earl of Sutherland in 1557 by the Bishop of Caithness.
  • Duffus Castle was the seat of the Sutherland of Duffus branch of the clan.
  • Forse Castle was the seat of the Sutherland of Forse branch of the clan.
  • Aberscross Castle near Dornoch, Sutherland was the seat of the Murrays or Morrays of Aberscross, a sept of the Clan Sutherland, they were the principal vassals of the Earl of Sutherland and were charged with the defense of the shire. Their name appears predominantly on the front line in the feuds with the Mackays and Sinclairs. Aberscross Castle fell into ruin in the 17th century.[26] (The name of the original line of Earls of Sutherland was "de Moravia" which means "of Moray" or "of Murray"). Aberscross Castle was held by the de Moravia (Murray) family from when they first moved to Sutherland at the end of the twelfth century.[27]

Clan Profile[edit]

  • Gaelic Names: Suithearlarach (Singular) & Na Suithearlaraichean (Collective)
  • Motto: "Sans Peur" (French for "Without Fear")
  • Slogan: "Ceann na Drochaide Bige!" (Gaelic for "The Head of the Little Bridge!")
  • Pipe Music: "The Earl of Sutherland's March"
  • Crest: A cat-a-mountain saliant Proper
  • Supporters: Two savages wreathed head and middle with laurel, holding batons in their hands proper.
  • Plant Badge: Butcher's Broom, Cotton Sedge
  • Animal Symbol: Cat.
  • Arms (Earl of Sutherland as recorded for the fifteenth Earl, 1719):
  • Shield: Gules, three mullets Or, on a bordure of the second a double tressure flory counterflory of the first.

Tartans[edit]

Clan Sutherland tartan.
  • Old Sutherland (Ancient)
  • Old Sutherland (Dress)
  • Old Sutherland (Modern)
  • Old Sutherland (Muted)
  • Old Sutherland (Weathered)
  • Sutherland (Modern)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Clan Sutherland Profile scotclans.com. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  2. ^ clanchiefs.org
  3. ^ a b Gordon, Sir Robert (1580–1657). (1813). A Genealogical History of the Earldom of Sutherland. pp.85-106.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g Sutherland, Malcolm. (1996). A Fighting Clan, Sutherland Officers: 1250 – 1850. p. 3. Avon Books. ISBN 1-897960-47-6.
  5. ^ a b c d e f Way, George and Squire, Romily. (1994). Collins Scottish Clan & Family Encyclopedia. (Foreword by The Rt Hon. The Earl of Elgin KT, Convenor, The Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs). pp. 284 - 285.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n o p q r Way, George and Squire, Romily. (1994). Collins Scottish Clan & Family Encyclopedia. (Foreword by The Rt Hon. The Earl of Elgin KT, Convenor, The Standing Council of Scottish Chiefs). pp. 332 - 333.
  7. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Sutherland, Malcolm. (1996). A Fighting Clan, Sutherland Officers: 1250 – 1850. pp. 7 - 9. Avon Books. ISBN 1-897960-47-6.
  8. ^ Clan Sutherland History ihug.co.nz. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
  9. ^ Gordon, Sir Robert. (1580 -1656). A Genealogical History of the Earldom of Sutherland. p.65 - 66.
  10. ^ ’Conflicts of the Clans’ published in 1764 by the Foulis press, written from a manuscript wrote in the reigh of James VI of Scotland.
  11. ^ Mackay, Robert. (1829). History of the Clan and House of the Name MacKay. pp. 86. Quoting from Gordon, Sir Robert (1580–1656), A Genealogical History of the Earldom of Sutherland.
  12. ^ Mackay, Angus. (1906). Book of Mackay. (St Andrews University). Printed by William Rae, Wick. Pages 70 -71.
  13. ^ Sutherland, Malcolm. (1996). A Fighting Clan, Sutherland Officers: 1250 – 1850. p. 11. Avon Books. ISBN 1-897960-47-6.
  14. ^ Mackay, Robert. (1829). History of the House and Clan of the Name MacKay. pp.100 - 106: Quoting from Gordon, Sir Robert. (1580 -1656) A Genealogical history of the Earldom of Sutherland.
  15. ^ Gordon, Sir Robert. A Genealogical History of the Earldom of Sutherland. Originally written between 1615 and 1630. Re-published in 1813. Pages 95 – 97.
  16. ^ Mackay, Robert. (1829). History of the House and Clan of the Name MacKay. pp. 114 - 118: Quoting from Gordon, Sir Robert. (1580 -1656). A Genealogical history of the Earldom of Sutherland.
  17. ^ Mackenzie, Alexander. History of the Mackenzies, with genealogies of the principal families of the name (1894). [1]
  18. ^ Mackay Robert. "History of the House and Clan of the Name MacKay" (1829). p.126 - 127. Quoting Gordon, Sir Robert. (1580 - 1656). "Genealogical History of the Earldom of Sutherland".
  19. ^ Gordon, Sir Robert. (1580 - 1656) "Genealogical History of the Earldom of Sutherland" .p.183.
  20. ^ Gordon, Sir Robert. A Genealogical History of the Earldom of Sutherland. Originally written between 1615 and 1630. Re-published in 1813. Pages 202 - 203.
  21. ^ Battle of Carbisdale scotwars.com. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
  22. ^ "The Scottish Clans and Their Tartans". W. & A. K. Johnston Limited. Edinburgh and London. 1886. Page 95.
  23. ^ Simpson, Peter. (1996). The Independent Highland Companies, 1603 - 1760. pp. 135 - 136. ISBN 0-85976-432-X.
  24. ^ Clan Sutherland History clansutherland.org. Retrieved 4 May 2013.
  25. ^ Sutherland, Malcolm. (1996). A Fighting Clan, Sutherland Officers: 1250 – 1850. p. 32. Avon Books. ISBN 1-897960-47-6.
  26. ^ Early History of the Clan Murray (Clann Mhoraidh) in New Scotland (Nova Scotia) chebucto.ns.ca Retrieved 1 Jan 2012
  27. ^ Coventry, Martin. (2008). Castles of the Clans: The Strongholds and Seats of 750 Scottish Families and Clans. pp. 446. ISBN 978-1-899874-36-1.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ The Keiths who were septs of the Clan Sutherland were in fact a branch of the Clan Keith of Aberdeenshire who had settled in Sutherland and Caithness.
  2. ^ The chiefs of the Clan Sutherland and Clan Murray shared a common ancestor in the direct male line. The surname of both families was originally "de Moravia" meaning "of Moray" or "of Murray" and as a result there were some people by the name of Murray who were septs of the Clan Sutherland in the far north. Most notably the Murrays or Morays of Aberscross who were the principal vassals of the Earl of Sutherland and were charged with the defense of the shire.

External links[edit]