Clapham

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Coordinates: 51°27′48″N 0°08′02″W / 51.46323°N 0.13394°W / 51.46323; -0.13394

Clapham
Clapham is located in Greater London
Clapham
Clapham
 Clapham shown within Greater London
OS grid reference TQ296637542I2
London borough Lambeth
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region London
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district SW2, SW4, SW9, SW12
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
EU Parliament London
London Assembly Lambeth and Southwark
List of places
UK
England
London

Clapham /ˈklæpəm/ is a district of South London within the London Borough of Lambeth.

History[edit]

Early history[edit]

The present day Clapham High Street is an ancient "diversion" of the Roman military road Stane Street, which ran from London to Chichester. This followed the line of Clapham Road and then onward along the line of Abbeville Road.[1] The ancient status of that military road is recorded on a Roman stone now placed by the entrance of Clapham Library in the Old Town, which was discovered during building operations at Clapham Common South Side in 1912. Erected by vitus Ticinius Ascanius according to its inscription, it is estimated to date from the 1st century.[2][3]

According to the history of the Clapham family maintained by the College of Heralds, in 965 King Edgar of England gave a grant of land at Clapham to Jonas, son of the Duke of Lorraine, and Jonas was thenceforth known as Jonas "de [of] Clapham". The family remained in possession of the land until Jonas's great-great grandson Arthur sided against William the Conqueror during the Norman invasion of 1066 and, losing the land, fled to the north (where the Clapham family remained thereafter, primarily in Yorkshire).

Clapham appears in Domesday Book as Clopeham. It was held by Goisfrid (Geoffrey) de Mandeville and its domesday assets were 3 hides; 6 ploughs, 5 acres (20,000 m2) of meadow. It rendered £7 10s 0d, and was located in Brixton hundred.[4]

Clapham in the 17th-19th century[edit]

In the late 17th century, large country houses began to be built there, and throughout the 18th and early 19th century it was favoured by the wealthier merchant classes of the City of London, who built many large and gracious houses and villas around Clapham Common and in the Old Town. Samuel Pepys spent the last two years of his life in Clapham, living with his friend, protégé at the Admiralty and former servant William Hewer, until his death in 1703.[5]

Clapham Common was also home to Elizabeth Cook, the widow of Captain James Cook the explorer. She lived in a house on the common for many years following the death of her husband. Other notable residents of Clapham Common were Palace of Westminster architect Sir Charles Barry,[6] Norwegian composer Edvard Grieg [7] and 20th century novelist Graham Greene.[8] John Francis Bentley,[9] architect of Westminster Cathedral, lived in the adjacent Old Town.

In the late 18th and early 19th centuries, the Clapham Sect were a group of upper class (mostly evangelical Anglican) social reformers who lived around the Common. They included William Wilberforce, Henry Thornton and Zachary Macaulay, father of the historian Thomas Macaulay, as well as William Smith, M.P., the Dissenter and Unitarian. They were very prominent in campaigns for the abolition of slavery and child labour, and for prison reform. They also promoted missionary activities in Britain's colonies.

Clapham in the 20th and 21st centuries[edit]

After the coming of the railways, Clapham developed as a suburb for commuters into central London, and by 1900 it had fallen from favour with the upper classes. Many of their grand houses had been demolished by the middle of the 20th century, though a number remain around the Common and in the Old Town, as do a substantial number of fine late 18th- and early 19th-century houses. Today's Clapham is an area of varied housing from the large Queen Anne, Regency and Georgian era homes of the Old Town and Clapham Common to the grids of Victorian housing in the Abbeville area; and, as in much of London, the area also has its fair share of council-owned social housing on estates dating from the 1930s and 1960s.

In the early 20th century, Clapham was seen as an ordinary commuter suburb, often cited as representing ordinary people: hence the so-called "Man on the Clapham omnibus". By the 1980s the area had undergone a further transformation, becoming the centre for the gentrification of most of the surrounding area. Clapham's relative proximity to traditionally expensive areas of central London, which had become increasingly unaffordable to all but the wealthy during the course of the 1980s and 1990s, led to an increase in the number of middle-class people living in Clapham. Today the area is in general an affluent place, although its professional residents often live relatively close to significant pockets of social housing.

Local government[edit]

Clapham Holy Trinity was an ancient parish in the county of Surrey.[10] For poor law purposes the parish became part of the Wandsworth and Clapham Union in 1836. The parish was added to the Registrar General London Metropolis area in 1844 and consequently it came within the area of responsibility of the Metropolitan Board of Works in 1855. The population of 16,290 in 1851 was considered too small for the Clapham vestry to be a viable sanitary authority and the parish was grouped into the Wandsworth District, electing 18 members to the Wandsworth District Board of Works.[11] In 1889 the parish was transferred to the County of London and in 1900 it became part of the new Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth. It was abolished as a civil parish in 1904, becoming part of the single Wandsworth Borough parish for poor law. The former Metropolitan Borough of Wandsworth was divided in 1965 and the area of the historic parish of Clapham was transferred to the London Borough of Lambeth.

Geography[edit]

The Clapham postal district is SW4 but historic Clapham includes parts of SW8, SW9 and SW12. Clapham Common is shared with the London Borough of Wandsworth, but Lambeth has responsibility for running the common as a whole. According to the 2001 census Clapham and Stockwell town centre had a joint population of 65,513[12] inhabitants. For administrative and electoral purposes, Clapham is made up of 3 Lambeth wards: Clapham Common, Clapham Town and Thornton ward. Parts of Clapham North lie within the Brixton electoral ward of Ferndale and the Stockwell electoral ward of Larkhall. The portion of the SW4 postcode north of Union Road and Stockwell Station falls within the area of Stockwell. Large parts of South Battersea are often referred to as Clapham because of the location of Clapham Junction railway station and their proximity to Clapham Common as well as their relative distance from Battersea's historic village.

The railway station now known as Clapham Junction was originally named Battersea Junction by its architect to reflect its geographical location.

Clapham Common and Clapham Town[edit]

Clapham High st

Clapham Common is 220 acres of green space, with three ponds and an old bandstand. It is overlooked by a variety of buildings including a number of Georgian and Victorian mansions. It also has Holy Trinity Clapham, an 18th-century Georgian church, important in the history of the evangelical Clapham Sect. Clapham Old Town is nearby, and has a mix of architecture including some Georgian, Victorian and Queen Anne. Clapham Town comprises Clapham High Street and residential streets including Clapham Manor Street, home to Clapham Leisure Centre, as well as Venn Street with an independent cinema, restaurants, and a food market held every weekend throughout the year.

Clapham South[edit]

Clapham South is a largely residential area encompassing the southern parts of the Common including the streets radiating off Clapham Common Southside and Cavendish Road and the southern section of Kings Avenue leading up to Hyde Farm. It also includes a detached part of Clapham to the south of Nightingale Lane and bordered by Nightingale Square, Oldridge Road and Balham Hill. The Balham Hill area is also commonly considered to be Clapham South due to its proximity to the tube station, although technically in Balham. Clapham Common Westside comes under the SW4 Clapham postal district although technically in Battersea. Abbeville Village is a district within Clapham lying between Clapham Common South Side and Clarence Avenue and is synonymous with the Clapham Common electoral Ward. The area is centred on a short stretch of mainly independent shops and restaurants within a longer, otherwise residential road.

Clapham North[edit]

Clapham North lies on either side of Clapham Road and borders Stockwell on Union Road and Stirling Road. There is a Stockwell Town Partnership sign north of Union Road demarcating the boundary between Clapham North and Stockwell. The northern part of Clapham North lying within the Larkhall Ward includes the architecturally significant Sibella conservation area, whilst the southern part lies within Ferndale ward and includes Landor, Ferndale and Bedford roads leading up to Brixton.


Notable former and current residents[edit]

Transport[edit]

Clapham has good transport links to the rest of London and the UK. Three tube stations - Clapham North, Clapham Common and Clapham South - serve the area, in addition to the Victoria line stations in nearby Stockwell and Brixton. There are railway stations at Clapham High Street and Wandsworth Road which link Clapham to Victoria, London Bridge and Clapham Junction. In 2012, the Overground East London tube line was extended to Clapham High Street and Wandsworth Road in the Old Tow.[15] The links Clapham to places like Shepherds Bush, the Docklands, Shoreditch, Highbury and Islington.

There are three railway stations in the area all served by London Overground's East London Line:

Clapham Junction, in neighbouring Battersea is Clapham's nearest major rail station.

London Underground's Northern line runs through the neighbourhood, with three stations. From north to south these are:

Shopping[edit]

There are a number of shopping areas in or near Clapham, including:

  • Clapham High Street
  • Clapham Old Town, which includes pubs and restaurants.
  • Abbeville Road (and Clapham South)
  • Nightingale Lane (near Clapham South)
  • Clapham Junction (Battersea)
  • Northcote Road (Battersea)
  • Brixton High St/Brixton Market (Brixton)
  • Balham High Road/Bedford Hill (Balham)
  • Kings Road (Chelsea)

Nearest places[edit]

Sport[edit]

See also[edit]

References and notes[edit]

  1. ^ "A Short History of Clapham and Stockwell". Lambeth.gov.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 
  2. ^ English Heritage. "Roman Altar in forecourt of number 1 (public library) (1080492)". National Heritage List for England. Retrieved 9 December 2012. 
  3. ^ By hedgiecc Eddie Clarke+ Add Contact. "Photograph of Roman stone at Clapham Library". Flickr.com. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 
  4. ^ Surrey Domesday Book
  5. ^ Old Clapham, John William Grover, A. Bachhoffner, London, 1892. Books.google.com. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 
  6. ^ "Sir Charles Barry plaque listing on Open Plaques". Openplaques.org. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 
  7. ^ "Norway in Britain website Edvard Greig plaque listing". Norway.org.uk. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 
  8. ^ "English Heritage plaque listing for Graham Greene". English-heritage.org.uk. 2011-04-01. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 
  9. ^ "John Francis Bentley plaque listing on Open Plaques". Openplaques.org. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 
  10. ^ http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/unit/10164229
  11. ^ http://www.legislation.gov.uk/ukpga/1855/120/pdfs/ukpga_18550120_en.pdf
  12. ^ lambeth.gov.uk[dead link]
  13. ^ English Heritage Blue Plaque listing.
  14. ^ Wood, Christopher (2006). James Bond, The Spy I Loved. Twenty First Century Publishers. p. 104. ISBN 9781904433538. 
  15. ^ "Surrey Quays to Clapham Junction extension | Transport for London". Tfl.gov.uk. 2012-12-09. Retrieved 2013-03-13. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Daniel Lysons (1792), "Clapham", Environs of London, 1: County of Surrey, London: T. Cadell 
  • James Thorne (1876), "Clapham", Handbook to the Environs of London, London: John Murray