Clara Peeters

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Vanitas painting by Clara Peeters, ca. 1610. The woman in the painting is probably Clara Peeters, making this a self portrait.

Clara Peeters (1594 – c. 1657) was a still-life painter from the Flemish school in the early seventeenth century.

Life[edit]

Very little is known about the life of Clara Peeters. It is traditionally agreed by scholars that her work appears to indicate she was from Antwerp. The Antwerp community archives includes a record of a Clara Peeters, daughter of Jean (Jan) Peeters, baptized on May 15, 1594 in the Church of St. Walburga.[1] A second document indicates a marriage between Clara Peeters and Hendrick (Henri) Joosen on May 31, 1639, in the same church.[2] If she, indeed, is the Clara Peeters of these two documents, who married Henri Joosen, this would indicate she was 45 years old at her marriage; the average age of brides in the early modern era was about eighteen.[3] Although unusual for her to marry so late, it was not unheard of, especially among female artists. For example, Sofonisba Anguissola, famous sixteenth-century artist, married at nearly forty-years-old.[4] Given the circumstances surrounding marriage at the time, including lack of birth control and high rate of death related to complications in childbirth, waiting to marry after such time as one could be impregnated may have been a strategic move. Some have suggested that in light of there not being any evident work by Peeters after mid 1630’s, she married for financial reasons. She travelled and was established in Amsterdam by 1611, and is documented in The Hague in 1617.[5] Due to the number of apparent copies of her work by various hands, some speculate that at some time she headed a small school of artists.[2] No certificate indicating Peeters' date of death has been found; however, scholars speculate various dates: 1621; after 1654; after 1657; 1659 and 1676.[2]

Training[edit]

Clara’s first paintings (signed and dated 1607 – 1609) are the work of a highly trained artist evident by their high quality; however we have no extant record of her apprenticeship. The 1607 work would have been completed when she was between thirteen-and-fourteen-years-of-age; the technical polish and compositional sophistication of this painting and of her other early works indicate the skill of a highly trained artist.[1] Her work suggests training in Antwerp, the then artistic capital of the Netherlands, a city where artists stressed detail and careful finish in painting.[1]

Determining her apprenticeship is difficult.; most artists as well as apprentices were included in the Artists Guild listings; however, her name is not found in any of the Artists Guild lists in Antwerp nor the surrounding areas of Amsterdam, Haarlem, Delft, Den Hague or Middleburg.[2] Scholars speculate that she may have been the daughter of a painter, and thus not required to be included in the apprenticeship listings. Or, perhaps the answer may be in the fact that the Antwerp Artists’ Guild's lists were lost for the years 1607 to 1628, and some of the names are known only through other documents.[2] Many scholars believe her work closely resembles that of Osias Beert and suppose a relationship between the two: some suggesting she was his pupil. Beert began his career as a still life painter when he became Antwerp Master in 1602,[5] however, as none of his works are dated, their relationship must remain speculative.[1] She has also been closely aligned with Antwerp artists Hans Van Essen and Jan Van der Beeck.[6]Jan Bruegel the elder has also been suggested as a possible teacher.[2]

Although she was not in its listings, at least one painting of Peeters bears the stamp of the Antwerp Guild on its back, indicating she was indeed a member, or at least working on panels made by members of the Antwerp Guild.[2]

Work[edit]

There is much more information about her works than of her life. Peeters clearly signed thirty-one works “CLARA PEETERS” or “CLARA P.”, and dated many of them, leaving a strong record of her work from 1607 –1621.[2] Eighteen of these were completed by the time she was only eighteen-years-old. In addition, another seventy-six works are speculated to be in her oeuvre; however documentation is lacking to assign them affirmatively to Peeters.[2]

Clara was in the earliest group of painters of still lifes and flowers,[6] while this genre was still new. Less-than-ten paintings of flowers and less-than-five of food produced in the Netherlands can be dated before 1608, when she painted her first recorded work.[1] Her paintings of fish and game of 1611 are five-to-twenty years before we find other artists using similar subject matter.[2] Her influence on other Dutch and Flemish artists is evidenced not only by her subject matter, but also in her progressive use of monochrome tonality palette, low viewing angle, more compact format and limited number of objects.

In her works before 1620, Peeters was especially fascinated by the fall of light on metal objects: coins, goblets, pewter dishes, etc. and their reflections. In like manner as Jan van Eyck included his portrait in the reflection of the mirror in Arnolfi Wedding portrait (1434), Peeters made extensive use of this technique. Meticulous in detail, Peeters included miniature self-portraits within the reflections she painted. She depicted herself in the reflection of goblets and gilt-cups of many of her paintings and may well have been the artist to popularize this technique.[2] She was also very skilled at distinguishing textures. In her Still-Life of Fish and Cat,[7] the coat of the cat is almost touchable and the reflections create the illusion of space. Some believe religious symbolism was prevalent in her paintings; here the fish, symbol of Christ, is placed in the position of a cross. Peeters changed her style after 1620 employing a monochromatic color scheme with humble subject matter of stacked cheeses, bread and simple jugs.

Although the highly specialized form of still life she helped develop went out of fashion in Flanders, her contributions to the formation of banquet and breakfast piece in Antwerp at the beginning of the seventeenth century has long been recognized.[1]

Patrons[edit]

Although no record of patrons is available, Peeters was a successful artist. Many aspects of her paintings give the impression that she worked for rich collectors: the size of her works are larger than normal; the composition is typically of expensive objects, coins and jewelry; and many of her works have been found in collections of wealthy individuals. Four of her early works are in the Prado, and one is found listed in a collection from 1627, while another is listed in a document of a notary from in 1628.[2] In 1973 one of her paintings sold at auction from Christies in London for £39,900.[8] And in April 2009, Christies London sold the Peeters' painting they titled, Apples, Cherries, Apricots and other fruit in a Basket, with Pears, Plums,Robins, a Woodpecker, a Parrot and a Monkey Eating Nuts on a Table for about $150,000 (Sale 7714 Lot 24).

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f Harris, Ann Sutherland, Linda Nochlin. Los Angeles County Museum of Art. Women Artists, 1550-1950. Los Angeles; New York: Los Angeles County Museum of Art; Distributed by Random House, 1976. Print.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l Decoteau, Pamela Higgs. Clara Peeters, 1594- ca 1640, Germany, Lingen: Luca Verlag, 1992. Print.
  3. ^ Fairchilds, Cissie C. Women in Early Modern Europe, 1500-1700. Harlow, England; New York: Pearson/Longman, 2007. Print.
  4. ^ Perlingieri, Ilya Sandra. Sofonisba Anguissola: The First Great Woman Artist of the Renaissance. New York: Rizzoli, 1992. Print.
  5. ^ a b Wilenski, R.H. Flemish Painters 1430 – 1830. New York: Viking Press, 1960. Print.
  6. ^ a b Chadwick, Whitney. Women, Art, and Society. New York, N.Y.: Thames and Hudson, 1990. Print.
  7. ^ Still-Life of Fish and Cat in the National Museum of Women in the Arts
  8. ^ Greer, Germaine. The Obstacle Race: The Fortunes of Women Painters and their Work. New York: Farrar, Straus, Giroux, 1979. Print.

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