Born in Alexandria, Virginia, Goodson attended Annandale High School his freshman and sophomore seasons before moving to Wilbert Tucker Woodson High School. He was the Annandale team MVP, setting a school record for goals and points by a sophomore in 1998. He then went on to win the Virginia State High School Soccer title playing for W.T. Woodson High School in 2000. He played his club soccer with the Braddock Road Warhawks, winning the 1999 U-17 national championship. Goodson played three years of soccer at the University of Maryland, which he joined in 2000. After redshirting in 2001, Goodson helped anchor the defense of one of the best teams in college soccer. In his career at Maryland, Goodson played 66 games, registering 10 goals and 11 assists. In 2003, he spent the collegiate offseason with the Boulder Rapids Reserve.
After his junior year, Goodson signed a Project-40 with Major League Soccer (MLS), entering the 2004 MLS SuperDraft as an underclassman, where he was drafted seventh overall by the then-Dallas Burn. In his first year with the Burn, Goodson played only 247 league minutes in five games; however, he saw extended action in Cup competitions and exhibitions. He became a starter in 2005, the year the team was renamed FC Dallas.
Goodson got married to Kelsey Dawson on January 31, 2009, in Tacoma, Washington. The couple were featured on an episode of HGTV's House Hunters International, searching for an apartment in Copenhagen after Goodson's transfer to Brøndby IF. He purchased an apartment valued at $900,000.