|Clarence E. Lightner|
|30th Mayor of Raleigh, North Carolina|
October 1973 – October 1975
|Preceded by||Thomas W. Bradshaw|
|Succeeded by||Jyles Coggins|
August 15, 1921|
Raleigh, North Carolina
|Died||July 8, 2002
Raleigh, North Carolina
|Spouse(s)||Marguerite Massey Lightner|
Clarence Everett Lightner (August 15, 1921 – July 8, 2002) was the first popularly elected Mayor of Raleigh, North Carolina and the first African American elected mayor of a metropolitan (defined as having a population of 50,000 or more) Southern city. Lightner, a Democrat, was also the first and to date only black mayor of Raleigh, serving in office from 1973 to 1975.
His mayoral election gained national attention since only 16% of registered voters in Raleigh were black, and it was unique for a white-majority city to elect a black candidate for mayor. Even more surprising to some was the fact his race was rarely mentioned in the campaign. Lightner came of age in an era when most blacks in the South were still disfranchised, was elected to the City Council two years after passage of the Voting Rights Act, and was elected mayor six years later. Lightner was a man of "dignity and perseverance", who brought people together when he entered public political life, as he had for years in his community work.
In a 1976 book on Southern politics, authors Jack Bass and Walter DeVries wrote "Perhaps no political campaign better reflected changing attitudes on race than the 1973 mayor's race in Raleigh, in which black City Councilman Clarence Lightner won support from a coalition of white suburbanites concerned about urban and suburban sprawl."
Lightner was born in Raleigh to Mammie Blackmon and Calvin E. Lightner, founder of the Lightner Funeral Home and a local leader who ran for office as a nonpartisan with Dr. Manassa T. Pope. Calvin Lightner graduated from Shaw College in Raleigh. Both parents encouraged Clarence to attend college, an ambitious goal in an era when only 1.7% of contemporary black men in the South earned a college degree, and only 5.9% of white men nationwide did so.
Lightner graduated from North Carolina Central University, a historically black college in Durham, North Carolina. Lightner also attended Echols College of Mortuary Science in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania to prepare for working with his father as a funeral director. While attending North Carolina Central University, Lightner was a star athlete and inducted into the CIAA Hall of Fame. He became a member of the Omega Psi Phi fraternity, one of the first founded by African Americans. It was a connection that would provide a lifelong social network.
Lightner served three years in the United States Army during World War II, then returned to Raleigh. Growing up in the state capital, Lightner had the advantages of a city with an educated and politically sophisticated black middle class, of which his parents were part. Despite official discouragement of black voter registration, for instance, with efforts by the Negro Voters League starting in 1931, by 1946 there were 7,000 black voters registered in the city, which was rare in the segregated South. Political activism increased in the postwar years, but most black voters in the South were disfranchised until the passage of the national Voting Rights Act.
After returning home, Lightner became an independent businessman, working with his father to manage the Lightner Funeral Home and Hillside Cemetery. In 1946, he married Marguerite Massey. They had four children: Claire, Debra, Lawrence (who died before his father), and Bruce. Lightner and Marguerite were active members of Davie Street Presbyterian Church, where he served as an elder.
Lightner managed the funeral home for 45 years, succeeding his father as owner of the business. The work made him a cornerstone of the community. He was an active member of professional associations for learning, and served as president of the National Funeral Directors and Morticians Association. Keeping up his fraternal ties, Lightner was chair of the Life Membership Foundation of Omega Psi Phi Fraternity, Inc.
Lightner was among the first African Americans elected to political office following passage of the Voting Rights Act in 1965. He was already well-established as a business and community leader in the city. His leadership stature won him election to Raleigh City Council, where he served from 1967 until 1973, until he was elected as mayor. He defeated G. Wesley Williams in the mayoral campaign. Lightner served as a charter member of the Southern Conference of Black Mayors, the parent organization of the National Conference of Black Mayors.
In his next role in public life, Lightner was appointed chairman of the Southeast Raleigh Improvement Commission from 1993 to 2001, where he created groundwork for business development, implemented the Small Business Success Program, and created an incubation program for small businesses. He had long been a member of the National Business League. As a member of the Democratic National Committee, Lightner was a delegate to the 2000 Democratic National Convention.
Honors and legacy
In recognition of his achievements and support for higher education, Lightner was awarded honorary doctoral degrees from Shaw University, Saint Augustine's College, and North Carolina Central University. He had served as chair of the Board of Trustees of Saint Augustine's College and as a member of the Board of Trustees of North Carolina State University for 10 years.
After Lightner died, his son Bruce founded the Clarence E. Lightner Youth Foundation. The goal of the foundation is to teach middle school students the importance of civic participation and community service. When asked about his father's legacy, Bruce said, "Helping young people to aspire to be as successful as they can in school and life. That would be his legacy."
In 2003, the state legislature passed a joint resolution honoring Lightner's life and achievements, noting his belief that "[W]hat is essential is not the things we do separately, but what we hold in common and what we get done together".
That same year Raleigh announced it would name the new 17-story Raleigh Law Enforcement Center in honor of Lightner. The 305,000 sq ft (28,300 m2) building will be located next to the City Hall and contain offices for the Raleigh Police Department, Raleigh Fire Department, and Wake County Emergency Operations Center and 911 dispatch.
Lightner's name was added to the list of local activists honored at the Martin Luther King Water Monument, located in the MLK Memorial Gardens in Raleigh. The Garden was designed by his son Bruce Lightner.
- "Clarence Lightner -- Mayor, 80". New York Times. 2002-07-12. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
- "Democratic Delegation: North Carolina". The Washington Post. 2000-08-11. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
- "The Life of One Man Who Made a Difference". The Clarence E. Lightner Leadership Endowment Fund. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
- "Lightner's Election Was News". The News & Observer. 2002-07-14. Retrieved 2008-03-18.[dead link]
- "Historical Context for the Pope Family". The Pope House Museum Foundation. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
- Stoops, Nicole S. (2007-02-23). "A Half-Century of Learning: Historical Statistics on Educational Attainment in the United States, 1940 to 2000". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-03-25.
- "Clarence Lightner Honored". News 14 Carolina. 2007-11-15. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
- "Mt. Hope Cemetery". The Political Graveyard. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
- "A Joint Resolution Honoring the Life and Memory of Clarence Lightner, Prominent Civic Leader, Politician and Businessman". North Carolina General Assembly. 2003-06-19. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
- "Raleigh's First Black Mayor Dies". WRAL-TV. 2002-07-09. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
- "Raleigh Law Enforcement Center to Top $225 Million". WRAL-TV. 2008-02-18. Retrieved 2008-03-18.
- "The Martin Luther King Water Monument". The Raleigh/Wake Martin Luther King Celebration Committee. Retrieved 2008-03-18.