IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line

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This article is about a rapid transit line. For the surface (bus, formerly streetcar) line along Broadway and Seventh Avenue, see Broadway Line (lower Manhattan surface).
IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line
NYCS-line-trans-Bway7th.svg
Train services that use the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line have been colored red since 1979.
Overview
Type Rapid transit
System New York City Subway
Termini Van Cortlandt Park – 242nd Street
South Ferry
Borough Hall
Stations 44
Daily ridership 1,093,105 (south of 96 Street)
348,027 (north of 96 Street)[1]
Operation
Opening 1904-1919
Owner City of New York
Operator(s) New York City Transit Authority
Character Underground (Most of Manhattan)
Elevated (125th Street and North of Inwood)
Technical
No. of tracks 1–4
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
Electrification Direct Current traction

The IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line (also known as the Seventh Avenue Line or the West Side Line) is a New York City Subway line. It is one of several lines that serves the A Division (IRT), stretching from South Ferry in Lower Manhattan north to Van Cortlandt Park – 242nd Street in Riverdale, Bronx.[2][3] The Brooklyn Branch,[4] from the main line at Chambers Street southeast through the Clark Street Tunnel to Borough Hall in Downtown Brooklyn, is also part of the Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line.[5]

Description[edit]

The south end of the Brooklyn Branch is unclear. In a 1981 list of "most deteriorated subway stations", the MTA listed Borough Hall and Clark Street stations as part of the IRT New Lots Line.[6] However, as of 2007, emergency exit signs label Borough Hall as an IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line station, and the two parts of Borough Hall are signed as being along the Broadway – Seventh Avenue and IRT Eastern Parkway Lines. The chaining designations "K" (Clark Street Tunnel) and "M" (Joralemon Street Tunnel) join and become "E" (Eastern Parkway Line) at Borough Hall.

The line is also known as the IRT West Side Line, since it runs along the west side of Manhattan; the part north of 42nd Street was built as part of the first subway in New York. The line serves places such as Lincoln Center, Columbia University, and the City College of New York.

Train services that use the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line are colored tomato red on subway signage and literature. The line is served by the 1 2 3 trains, which operate together over much of the line. In the past, the 1 train operated as a skip-stop service in tandem with the 9, which was discontinued after May 27, 2005; from 1994 onward, this skip-stop separation existed only in Upper Manhattan during rush hours.

An unused third track along much of the line north of 96th Street has been used in the past for peak direction express service, at least between 96th Street and 137th Street.[7] Currently, this center track is used only during construction reroutes.

It is the only line to have elevated stations in Manhattan.

IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line
Van Cortlandt Park – 242nd Street
240th Street Yard
238th Street
231st Street
Marble Hill – 225th Street
Hudson Line (Metro-North)
Broadway Bridge
over Harlem River
215th Street
207th Street Yard
207th Street
Dyckman Street
191st Street
181st Street
168th Street IND Eighth Avenue Line
157th Street
145th Street
137th Street Yard
137th Street – City College
125th Street
116th Street – Columbia University
Cathedral Parkway – 110th Street
103rd Street
IRT Lenox Avenue Line
96th Street
91st Street(closed)
86th Street
79th Street
72nd Street
66th Street – Lincoln Center
IND Eighth Avenue Line
59th Street – Columbus Circle
IND Sixth Avenue Line
IND Queens Boulevard Line
50th Street BMT Broadway Line
42nd Street Shuttle
IRT Flushing Line
Times Square – 42nd Street
34th Street – Penn Station
Pennsylvania Station
on Northeast Corridor Line
28th Street
23rd Street
18th Street
14th Street
BMT Canarsie Line
IND Sixth Avenue Line
IND Eighth Avenue Line
Christopher Street – Sheridan Square
Houston Street
Canal Street
Franklin Street
Chambers Street
Chambers Street(IND Eighth Avenue Line)
Park Place
World Trade Center(IND Eighth Avenue Line)
BMT Broadway Line
IRT Lexington Avenue Line
BMT Nassau Street Line
Cortlandt Street(closed)
IND Eighth Avenue Line
Fulton Street
Wall Street
Rector Street
South Ferry (closed)Staten Island Ferry
South Ferry loops
South Ferry(IRT Lexington Avenue Line)
Joralemon Street Tunnel | Clark Street Tunnel
under East River
Clark Street
Borough Hall
IRT Eastern Parkway Line
Emergency exit, Furman Street, Brooklyn
1915 Seventh Avenue subway collapse with car fallen in tunnel

Clark Street Tunnel[edit]

The Clark Street Tunnel carries the 2 3 trains under the East River between the boroughs of Manhattan and Brooklyn. It was opened for revenue service on Tuesday, April 15, 1919, relieving crowding on the Joralemon Street Tunnel and providing passengers with a direct route to travel between Brooklyn and the west side of Manhattan.[8] It is about 5,900 feet long, with about 3,100 feet underwater.

Construction of the tunnel began on October 12, 1914, using a tunneling shield in conjunction with compressed air. The tunnel was designed by civil engineer Clifford Milburn Holland, who would later serve as the first chief engineer of the Holland Tunnel.[9][10] The north tube was holed through on November 28, 1916.[11]

On December 28, 1990, an electrical fire in the Clark Street Tunnel trapped passengers on a subway train for over half an hour, killed two people, and injured 149 passengers.[12]

History[edit]

When the first subway opened between 1904 and 1908, one of the main service patterns was the West Side Branch, running from Lower Manhattan to Van Cortlandt Park via what is now the IRT Lexington Avenue Line, 42nd Street Shuttle, and IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line. Both local and express trains were operated, with express trains using the express tracks south of 96th Street. Express trains ran through to Atlantic Avenue in Brooklyn during rush hours, while other express trains and all local trains turned around at City Hall or South Ferry.[13][14][15]

The first portion of the Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line south of Times Square – 42nd Street, a shuttle to 34th Street – Penn Station, opened on June 3, 1917.[16] This shuttle was extended south to South Ferry, with a shorter shuttle on the Brooklyn Branch between Chambers Street and Wall Street, on July 1, 1918.[17] Finally, the new "H" system was implemented on August 1, 1918, joining the two halves of the Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line and sending all West Side trains south from Times Square.[18]

On September 22, 1915 there was an explosion during construction of the 7th Avenue subway station between 23rd and 25th Street that caused the tunnel to collapse.[19]

The local tracks ran to South Ferry, while the express tracks used the Brooklyn Branch to Wall Street, extended into Brooklyn to Atlantic Avenue via the Clark Street Tunnel on April 15, 1919.[20] Extensions of the Eastern Parkway Line and the connecting Nostrand Avenue Line and New Lots Line opened in the next few years, with the end result being that West Side trains ran to Flatbush Avenue or New Lots Avenue.

On February 6, 1959, the 1 train became the West Side local. Previously, 1 trains ran express along the West Side and into Brooklyn, and the 3 was the local service to South Ferry. Since then, 1 train service has remained consistent.

On August 21, 1989, the 1/9 weekday skip-stop service was formed.[21] Skip-stop service operated north of 137th Street – City College.

In 1994, midday skip-stop service was discontinued.[22] By this time, 1 trains only skipped Marble Hill – 225th, 207th and 145th Streets and 9 trains only skipped 238th, 215th, Dyckman and 157th Streets.

After September 11, 2001, 1 trains had to be rerouted since the IRT Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line ran directly under the World Trade Center site and was heavily damaged in the collapse of the Twin Towers. It ran only between 242nd Street and 14th Street, running local north of and express south of 96th Street; the 9 train and skip-stop service were suspended at this time. On September 19, after a few switching delays at 96th Street, service was changed. 1 trains made all local stops from 242nd Street to New Lots Avenue via the Clark Street Tunnel and IRT Eastern Parkway Line, to replace 3 trains, which terminated at 14th Street, at all times except late nights, when it terminated at Chambers Street in Manhattan instead. On September 15, 2002, 1 trains returned to South Ferry and the 9 train and skip-stop service was restored.[23]

On May 27, 2005, the 9 train and skip-stop service was discontinued.[22]

On March 16, 2009, the 1 local via the South Ferry loop was discontinued and a new South Ferry terminal station opened.[24] This was the first new station to open since 1989 when the IND 63rd Street Line stations opened. Both loops at South Ferry remain in service to short-turn trains (such as the 5 train when it doesn't run to Brooklyn), but the platforms are now closed to passengers. The loop station reopened in April 2013 after the station that was built in 2009 was damaged by Hurricane Sandy.

Extent and service[edit]

The following services use part or all of the Broadway – Seventh Avenue Line, whose services' bullets are colored tomato red:

  Time period Section of line
All except
late nights
Late nights
NYCS 1 local full line to South Ferry
NYCS 2 express local south of 96th Street to Borough Hall
NYCS 3 express south of 96th Street to Borough Hall (all except late nights)
between 96th Street and Times Square (late nights)


Station listing[edit]

Station service legend
Stops all times Stops all times
Stops all times except late nights Stops all times except late nights
Stops late nights only Stops late nights only
Stops weekdays only Stops weekdays only
Stops rush hours only Stops rush hours only
Stops rush hours in peak direction only Stops rush hours in the peak direction only
Time period details
Neighborhood
(approximate)
Handicapped/disabled access Station Tracks Services Opened Transfers and notes
Riverdale Van Cortlandt Park – 242nd Street 1 all times August 1, 1908[25]
Center Express track begins (no regular service)
Connecting Tracks to 240th Street Yard
Kingsbridge and Riverdale 238th Street local 1 all times August 1, 1908
Handicapped/disabled access 231st Street local 1 all times January 27, 1907
Marble Hill Marble Hill – 225th Street local 1 all times January 14, 1907[26] Connection to Metro-North Railroad (Hudson Line at Marble Hill)
Broadway Bridge
Inwood 215th Street local 1 all times March 12, 1906[27]
Connecting Track to 207th Street Yard
207th Street local 1 all times March 16, 1906 Bx12 Select Bus Service
Center Express track ends
Handicapped/disabled access Dyckman Street 1 all times March 12, 1906[27] Station is ADA-accessible in the southbound direction only.
Washington Heights 191st Street 1 all times January 14, 1911[28]
181st Street 1 all times March 16, 1906
168th Street 1 all times April 14, 1906[29] IND Eighth Avenue Line (A all times C all except late nights)
157th Street 1 all times November 12, 1904[30]
Center Express track begins (No Regular Service)
Harlem 145th Street local 1 all times October 27, 1904[31]
137th Street Yard tracks surround Main Line
137th Street – City College local 1 all times October 27, 1904[31]
125th Street local 1 all times October 27, 1904[31]
Morningside Heights 116th Street – Columbia University local 1 all times October 27, 1904[31] M60 Select Bus Service to LaGuardia Airport
Cathedral Parkway – 110th Street local 1 all times October 27, 1904[31]
Upper West Side 103rd Street local 1 all times October 27, 1904[31]
Center Express track ends
IRT Lenox Avenue Line joins as the express tracks (2 all times 3 all times)
Handicapped/disabled access 96th Street all 1 all times 2 all times 3 all times October 27, 1904[31]
91st Street local October 27, 1904[31] Closed February 2, 1959
86th Street local 1 all times 2 late nights October 27, 1904[31]
79th Street local 1 all times 2 late nights October 27, 1904[31]
Handicapped/disabled access 72nd Street all 1 all times 2 all times 3 all times October 27, 1904[31]
Handicapped/disabled access 66th Street – Lincoln Center local 1 all times 2 late nights October 27, 1904[31]
Midtown Handicapped/disabled access 59th Street – Columbus Circle local 1 all times 2 late nights October 27, 1904[31] IND Eighth Avenue Line (A all times B weekdays until 11:00 p.m. C all except late nights D all times)
50th Street local 1 all times 2 late nights October 27, 1904[31]
merge on northbound local track to IRT 42nd Street Shuttle (no regular service)
Handicapped/disabled access Times Square – 42nd Street all 1 all times 2 all times 3 all times June 3, 1917[32] IRT Flushing Line (7 all times <7>rush hours until 10:00 p.m., peak direction)
IND Eighth Avenue Line (A all times C all except late nights E all times) at 42nd Street – Port Authority Bus Terminal
BMT Broadway Line (N all times Q all times R all except late nights)
42nd Street Shuttle (S all except late nights)
Port Authority Bus Terminal
Handicapped/disabled access 34th Street – Penn Station all 1 all times 2 all times 3 all except late nights June 3, 1917[32] Connection to Amtrak, LIRR, and N.J. Transit at Pennsylvania Station
M34 / M34A Select Bus Service
Chelsea 28th Street local 1 all times 2 late nights July 1, 1918
23rd Street local 1 all times 2 late nights July 1, 1918
18th Street local 1 all times 2 late nights July 1, 1918
14th Street all 1 all times 2 all times 3 all except late nights July 1, 1918 IND Sixth Avenue Line (F all times M weekdays until 11:00 p.m.) at 14th Street
BMT Canarsie Line (L all times) at Sixth Avenue
Connection to PATH at 14th Street
Greenwich Village Christopher Street – Sheridan Square local 1 all times 2 late nights July 1, 1918 Connection to PATH at Christopher Street
Houston Street local 1 all times 2 late nights July 1, 1918
TriBeCa Canal Street local 1 all times 2 late nights July 1, 1918
Franklin Street local 1 all times 2 late nights July 1, 1918
Financial District Handicapped/disabled access Chambers Street all 1 all times 2 all times 3 all except late nights July 1, 1918[33]
Express tracks split to Brooklyn Branch (2 all times 3 all except late nights); Local tracks continue as Main line (1 all times)
Cortlandt Street local July 1, 1918 Closed since September 11, 2001
Connection to PATH at World Trade Center
Rector Street local 1 all times July 1, 1918
Split between Main line and Outer loop at South Ferry loops
South Ferry
(Loop Platform)
outer loop only 1 all times July 1, 1918[33] Closed on March 16, 2009 with the opening of the new terminal
Reopened on April 4, 2013 as temporary station and terminal for the 1 train
Handicapped/disabled access South Ferry
(New Platform)
local March 16, 2009[24] Closed November 2012 due to damage caused by Hurricane Sandy; pending reconstruction
BMT Broadway Line (N late nights R all except late nights)
M15 Select Bus Service
Staten Island Ferry at South Ferry
Main line terminates (1 all times)
 
Brooklyn Branch (2 all times 3 all except late nights)
Financial District Park Place express 2 all times 3 all except late nights August 1, 1918 IND Eighth Avenue Line (A all times C all except late nights) at Chambers Street
IND Eighth Avenue Line (E all times) at World Trade Center
Connection to PATH at World Trade Center
Fulton Street express 2 all times 3 all except late nights August 1, 1918 IRT Lexington Avenue Line (4 all times 5 all except late nights)
IND Eighth Avenue Line (A all times C all except late nights)
BMT Nassau Street Line (J weekdays and weekday late nights Z rush hours, peak direction)
Wall Street express 2 all times 3 all except late nights August 1, 1918
Clark Street Tunnel
Brooklyn Heights Clark Street express 2 all times 3 all except late nights April 15, 1919
Downtown Brooklyn Handicapped/disabled access Borough Hall express 2 all times 3 all except late nights April 15, 1919 IRT Eastern Parkway Line (4 all times 5 weekdays until 8:45 p.m.)
BMT Fourth Avenue Line (N late nights R all except late nights) at Court Street
becomes the local tracks of the IRT Eastern Parkway Line (2 all times 3 all except late nights)

References[edit]

  1. ^ MTA. "Average weekday subway ridership". Retrieved 21 August 2012. 
  2. ^ MTA Capital Construction - South Ferry Terminal Project, Environmental Assessment and Section 4(f) Evaluation, Chapter 5-13: Archaeological and Historic Resources PDF (198 KiB)
  3. ^ Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Proposed Program of Projects, Federal Fiscal Year 2007 PDF (362 KiB)
  4. ^ MTA Capital Construction, Status Report On the Programmatic Agreement regarding the Fulton Street Transit Center Project In New York City, New York PDF (838 KiB)
  5. ^ MTA Capital Construction, Second Avenue Subway, Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement, Chapter 5B: Transportation—Subway and Commuter Rail PDF (317 KiB)
  6. ^ New York Times, Agency Lists Its 69 Most Deteriorated Subway Stations, June 11, 1981, section B, page 5
  7. ^ New York Times, New Subway Expresses, November 18, 1906, page 3
  8. ^ "New Subway Service Between Brooklyn and Manhattan Boroughs". The New York Times. April 13, 1919. Retrieved 2009-09-05. 
  9. ^ "Work Begins on New Tubes Under River". The New York Times. October 11, 1914. Retrieved 2010-02-28. 
  10. ^ Aronson, Michael (June 15, 1999). "The Digger Clifford Holland". Daily News (New York). Retrieved 2010-07-02. 
  11. ^ "Under-River Tunnel Headings Meet". nycsubway.org. Retrieved 2010-02-28. 
  12. ^ McFadden, Robert D. (December 29, 1990). "2 Subway Riders Die After Blast". The New York Times. Retrieved 2009-09-05. 
  13. ^ Commerce and Industry Association of New York, Pocket Guide to New York, 1906, pp. 19-26
  14. ^ New York Times, Bronx to Montauk; One Change of Cars, April 30, 1908, page 4
  15. ^ Brooklyn Daily Eagle Almanac, 1916
  16. ^ New York Times, Three New Links of the Dual Subway System Opened, June 3, 1917, page 33
  17. ^ New York Times, Open New Subway to Regular Traffic, July 2, 1918, page 11
  18. ^ New York Times, Open New Subway Lines to Traffic, August 2, 1918, page 1
  19. ^ "Disaster at Rush Hour. Lays Work in New Tunnel from 23d to 25th St. in Tangled Ruin. Bursting Gas and Water Mains Impede Scores in Cavity Aiding the Wounded. Horrified Crowds Look On. Two Passengers Killed in Panic Among Struggling Victims in Wrecked Trolley. Gas or Free Dynamite May Be the Cause. Chief of Blasters Is Sought by the Police". New York Times. Retrieved 2013-12-19. "Seven persons were killed and eighty-five injured shortly before 8 o'clock yesterday morning when a blast of dynamite in the excavation for the new Seventh Avenue subway carried away all the plank thoroughfare between Twenty-third and Twenty-fifth Streets, sweeping down into the great hole a crowded trolley car and a brewery automobile truck." 
  20. ^ New York Times, Open Clark Street Line, April 16, 1919, page 18
  21. ^ "The New York City Transit Authority in the 1980s". nycsubway.org. 
  22. ^ a b Chan, Sewell (January 12, 2005). "MTA Proposes Dropping No. 9 Train". New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  23. ^ Lueck, Thomas J. (September 15, 2002). "Old Service, Old Stops Restored on West Side". New York Times. Retrieved May 5, 2010. 
  24. ^ a b MTA Opens New South Ferry Station Retrieved March 16, 2009
  25. ^ New York Times, Our First Subway Completed at Last, August 2, 1908, page 10
  26. ^ New York Times, Farthest North in Town by the Interborough, January 14, 1907, page 18
  27. ^ a b New York Times, Trains to Ship Canal, March 13, 1906, page 16
  28. ^ New York Times, untitled, January 22, 1911, page X11
  29. ^ New York Times, New Subway Station Open, April 15, 1906, page 1
  30. ^ 157th Street station
  31. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m n New York Times, Our Subway Open: 150,000 Try It, October 28, 1904
  32. ^ a b New York Times, Three New Links of the Dual Subway System Opened, June 3, 1917, page 33
  33. ^ a b New York Times, Open New Subway to Regular Traffic, July 2, 1918, page 11

External links[edit]