Drugs controlled by the UK Misuse of Drugs Act

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Class A drug)
Jump to: navigation, search

Drugs controlled by the United Kingdom (UK) Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 are listed in this article.

These drugs are known in the UK as controlled drugs, because this is the term by which the act itself refers to them. In more general terms, however, many of these drugs are also controlled by the Medicines Act 1968, there are many other drugs which are controlled by the Medicines Act but not by the Misuse of Drugs Act, and other substances which may be considered drugs (alcohol, for example) are controlled by other laws.

The Misuse of Drugs Act sets out three separate categories, Class A, Class B, and Class C. Class A drugs represent those deemed most dangerous, and so carry the harshest punishments. Class C represents those thought to have the least capacity for harm, and so the Act demands more lenient punishment. In reality the potential harm has little bearing on the class,[1] which has led to dissatisfaction with drug laws.[2]

Being found in possession of a drug on this list is dealt with less seriously than would be if it were deemed that there is intent to supply (even without payment) the drug to others. Possession with intent to supply carries a maximum penalty of life imprisonment.

With regard to lawful possession and supply, a different set of categories apply which are set out in the Misuse of Drugs Regulations 2001 (as amended). This sets out five schedules each with their own restrictions. Schedule 1 contains substances which allegedly have no medicinal value such as hallucinogens and their use is limited primarily to research, whereas schedules 2–5 contain the other regulated drugs. This means that although drugs may fall into the category of Class A/B/C, they may also fall into one of the schedules for legitimate medicinal use. For example, morphine is a Class A drug under the Misuse of Drugs Act 1971, but when lawfully supplied falls under the category of a Schedule 2 controlled drug.

Substances may be removed and added to different parts of the schedule by statutory instrument, provided a report of the Advisory Council on the Misuse of Drugs has been commissioned and has reached a conclusion, although the Secretary of State is not bound by the council's findings. This list has in practice been modified a great number of times, sometimes removing substances, but more commonly adding some; for example, many benzodiazepines became Class C drugs in 1985, and many cathinones became Class B drugs in 2010.

Glossary of terminology used in this list

anabolic steroids – hormones that build muscle tissue
benzodiazepines – a class of sedative/ anxiolytic drugs
cannabinoids – drugs that bind to cannabinoid receptors
arylcyclohexamines – dissociatives which act on the NMDA receptors
opioids – Drugs that bind to opioid receptors
phenethylamines – psychedelics based on phenethylamine
sedatives – drugs that lower arousal
stimulants – drugs that heighten arousal
tryptamines – psychedelics based on tryptamine

Class A drugs[edit]

1. The following substances, namely:—[3]

(a)

Name as specified
in the Act
Brand or
street name
Drug type When
added
Notes and comments
Acetorphine opioid 1971 primarily used to sedate elephants, giraffes and rhinos
Alfentanil opioid 1984
Allylprodine opioid 1971
Alphacetylmethadol opioid 1971 synthetic
Alphameprodine opioid 1971
Alphamethadol opioid 1971
Alphaprodine opioid 1971
Anileridine opioid 1971
Benzethidine opioid 1971
Benzylmorphine opioid 1971
Betacetylmethadol opioid 1971
Betameprodine opioid 1971
Betamethadol opioid 1971
Betaprodine opioid 1971
Bezitramide opioid 1971
Bufotenine Toad skin toxin tryptamine 1971 found in the skins of psychoactive toads, especially Bufo alvarius
Carfentanil Wildnil opioid 1986 Strongest known opioid; 10,000 times more potent than morphine, 100 times more potent than fentanyl. Used as a tranquiliser for large game (elephants etc.)
Clonitazene opioid 1971
Coca leaf Erythroxylum 1971 the plant from which cocaine is derived
Cocaine coke, crack stimulant 1971 one of the most widely used illicit drugs in the world
Desomorphine opioid 1971
Dextromoramide opioid 1971
Diacetylmorphine heroin, smack, dope, black tar opioid 1971 The world's most widely abused illicit opioid
Diampromide opioid 1971
Diethylthiambutene opioid 1971
Difenoxin Roskies opioid 1975
Dihydrocodeinone O-carboxymethyloxime opioid 1971
Dihydroetorphine opioid (see notes) 2003 Semi-synthetic opioid; derivative of etorphine[4]
Dihydromorphine Paramorphan opioid 1971
Dimenoxadol opioid 1971
Dimepheptanol opioid 1971 an analogue of methadone
Dimethylthiambutene opioid 1971
Dioxaphetyl butyrate opioid 1971
Diphenoxylate opioid 1971
Dipipanone opioid 1971
Drotebanol opioid 1973
Ecgonine precursor 1971 "and any derivative of ecgonine which is convertible to ecgonine or to cocaine"
Ethylmethylthiambutene opioid 1971
Eticyclidine arylcyclohexylamine 1984
Etonitazene opioid 1971
Etorphine opioid 1971 1,000–3,000 times more potent than morphine, veterinary use only for large game
Etoxeridine opioid 1971
Etryptamine tryptamine 1998 [5]
Fentanyl Actiq, Duragesic, Sublimaze opioid 1971 Approximately 100 times the strength of morphine
Furethidine opioid 1971
Hydrocodone Vicodin, Norco, Lortab opioid 1971
Hydromorphinol opioid 1971
Hydromorphone Dilaudid, Palladone, Hymorphan, drug store heroin opioid 1971
Hydroxypethidine opioid 1971
Isomethadone opioid 1971 Simple positional isomer of Methadone
Ketobemidone opioid 1971
Levomethorphan opioid 1971
Levomoramide opioid 1971 the totally inactive isomer of dextromoramide
Levophenacylmorphan opioid 1971
Levorphanol Levo-Dromoran opioid 1971
Lofentanil opioid 1986
Lysergamide ergoline 1971 a precursor to LSD
Lysergic acid diethylamide LSD, acid ergoline 1971 "Lysergide and other N-alkyl derivatives of lysergamide"
Mescaline mescaline phenethylamine 1971 found naturally in the peyote cactus
Metazocine opioid 1971
Methadone Methadose, Dolophine opioid 1971 Used in opioid replacement therapy to treat addiction
Methadyl acetate opioid 1971 used in treating opioid addiction, structurally related to methadone
Methamphetamine Desoxyn, crystal meth stimulant 2006 moved from class B to class A in 2006[6]
Methyldesorphine opioid 1971
Methyldihydromorphine opioid 1971
Metopon opioid 1971
Morpheridine opioid 1971
Morphine opioid 1971 derivative of the opium poppy and powerful painkiller
Morphine methobromide opioid 1971 "morphine N-oxide and other pentavalent nitrogen morphine derivatives"
Myrophine opioid 1971
Nicomorphine opioid 1971
Noracymethadol opioid 1971
Norlevorphanol opioid 1971
Normethadone opioid 1971
Normorphine opioid 1971
Norpipanone Hexalgon methadol 1971
Opium Laudanum, Pantopon opioid mixture 1971 milky secretion of the opium poppy – banned "whether raw, prepared or medicinal"
Oxycodone OxyContin, Percocet opioid 1971 Widely used strong pain killer
Oxymorphone Numorphan, Opana opioid 1971
Pethidine meperidine, Demerol opioid 1971
Phenadoxone opioid 1971
Phenampromide opioid 1971
Phenazocine opioid 1971 Discontinued in 2001
Phencyclidine angel dust, PCP arylcyclohexylamine 1979
Phenomorphan opioid 1971
Phenoperidine opioid 1971
Piminodine opioid 1971
Piritramide opioid 1971
Poppy-straw Papaver somniferum 1971 "Poppy-straw and concentrate of poppy-straw."
Proheptazine opioid 1971
Properidine opioid 1971
Psilocin tryptamine 1971 Psychoactive ingredient found in most psychedelic mushrooms
Psilocybe mushrooms magic mushrooms fungi 2005 "Fungus (of any kind) which contains psilocin or an ester of psilocin."[7]
Racemethorphan opioid mixture 1971 Racemic mixture of Dextromethorphan (DXM) and Levomethorphan
Racemoramide opioid mixture 1971
Racemorphan opioid mixture 1971
Remifentanil 2003 [4] Strong painkiller; cannot be used without plasma infusion equipment
Rolicyclidine PCPy arylcyclohexylamine 1984 Very similar to phencyclidine (PCP)
Sufentanil opioid 1983
Tenocyclidine TCP arylcyclohexylamine 1984 Very similar to phencyclidine (PCP), but considerably more potent
Tapentadol Nucynta opioid 2009 Dual action as a norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor
Thebacon opioid 1971
Thebaine opioid 1971
Tilidate opioid 1983
Trimeperidine opioid 1971
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-bromoamphetamine DOB phenethylamine 1975 a drug of the DOx family.
4-Cyano-2-dimethylamino-4,4-diphenylbutane opioid (see note) 1971 Methadone intermediate
4-Cyano-1-methyl-4-phenyl-piperidine opioid (see note) 1971 Intermediate chemical in generation of the opioid, Pethidine
N,N-Diethyltryptamine DET, T-9 tryptamine 1971
N,N-Dimethyltryptamine DMT, spice, changa tryptamine 1971 Intense psychedelic drug
2,5-Dimethoxy-4-methylamphetamine DOM phenethylamine 1971 a drug of the DOx family.
N-Hydroxy-tenamphetamine MDOH stimulant 1990
1-Methyl-4-phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid Pethidinic acid precursor 1971
2-Methyl-3-morpholino-1,1-diphenylpropanecarboxylic acid opioid (see notes) 1971 Converted in the body into the opioid Moramide
4-Methyl-aminorex ice stimulant 1990
4-Phenylpiperidine-4-carboxylic acid ethyl ester Norpethidine opioid (see notes) 1971 Commonly used in the production of Pethidine, although it has little opioid activity in its own right
N.B. Sub-paragraphs (b) and (c) were added in 1977, sub-paragraphs (d) and (e) were added in 1986. Sub-paragraph (ba) was subsequently added in 2001.[8]

(b) any compound (not being a compound for the time being specified in sub-paragraph (a) above) structurally derived from tryptamine or from a ring-hydroxy tryptamine by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the side chain with one or more alkyl substituents but no other substituent;

(ba) the following phenethylamine derivatives, namely:—[9][10]

(c) any compound (not being methoxyphenamine or a compound for the time being specified in sub-paragraph (a) above) structurally derived from phenethylamine an N-alkylphenethylamine, a methylphenethylamine, an N-alkyl-α-methylphenethylamine, an ethylphenethylamine, or an N-alkyl-α-ethylphenethylamine by substitution in the ring to any extent with alkyl, alkoxy, alkylenedioxy or halide substituents, whether or not further substituted in the ring by one or more other univalent substituents.

(d) any compound (not being a compound for the time being specified in sub-paragraph (a) above) structurally derived from fentanyl by modification in any of the following ways, that is to say,

(i) by replacement of the phenyl portion of the phenethyl group by any heteromonocycle whether or not further substituted in the heterocycle;
(ii) by substitution in the phenethyl group with alkyl, alkenyl, alkoxy, hydroxy, halogeno, haloalkyl, amino or nitro groups;
(iii) by substitution in the piperidine ring with alkyl or alkenyl groups;
(iv) by substitution in the aniline ring with alkyl, alkoxy, alkylenedioxy, halogeno or haloalkyl groups;
(v) by substitution at the 4-position of the piperidine ring with any alkoxycarbonyl or alkoxyalkyl or acyloxy group;
(vi) by replacement of the N-propionyl group by another acyl group;

(e) any compound (not being a compound for the time being specified in sub-paragraph (a) above) structurally derived from pethidine by modification in any of the following ways, that is to say,

(i) by replacement of the 1-methyl group by an acyl, alkyl whether or not unsaturated, benzyl or phenethyl group, whether or not further substituted;
(ii) by substitution in the piperidine ring with alkyl or alkenyl groups or with a propano bridge, whether or not further substituted;
(iii) by substitution in the 4-phenyl ring wiith alkyl, alkoxy, aryloxy, halogeno or haloalkyl groups;
(iv) by replacement of the 4-ethoxycarbonyl by any other alkoxycarbonyl or any alkoxyalkyl or acyloxy group;
(v) by formation of an N-oxide or of a quaternary base.

(f) any compound (not being benzyl(α-methyl-3,4-methylenedioxyphenethyl)amine) structurally derived from mescaline, 4-bromo-2,5-dimethoxy-α-methylphenethylamine, 2,5-dimethoxy-α,4-dimethylphenethylamine, N-hydroxytenamphetamine, or a compound specified in sub-paragraph (ba) or (c) above, by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the amino group with a benzyl substituent, whether or not substituted in the phenyl ring of the benzyl group to any extent.”.

2. Any stereoisomeric form of a substance for the time being specified in paragraph 1 above not being dextromethorphan or dextrorphan.

3. Any ester or ether of a substance for the time being specified in paragraph 1 or 2 above [not being a substance for the time being specified in Part II of this Schedule].

4. Any salt of a substance for the time being specified in any of paragraphs 1 to 3 above.

5. Any preparation or other product containing a substance or product for the time being specified in any of paragraphs 1 to 4 above.

6. Any preparation designed for administration by injection which includes a substance or product for the time being specified in any of paragraphs 1 to 3 of Part II of this Schedule.

Class B drugs[edit]

1. The following substances, namely:—[3]

(a)

Name as specified
in the Act
Brand or
street name
Drug type
When
added
Notes and comments
Acetyldihydrocodeine opioid 1971
Amphetamine speed stimulant 1971
Codeine opioid 1971 legal without prescription in quantities of up to 12.8 mg when in tablet form as Nurofen Plus®
Cannabinol and derivatives cannabinoid 2009 downgraded from class A to class C in 2004[11] and upgraded to class B in 2009[12]
Cannabis weed, marijuana, green, hash, skunk, puff among others cannabinoid, sedative, hallucinogen 2009 All cannabis varieties, including those grown as hemp, are controlled under the act, not just drug varieties
Downgraded from class B to class C in 2004[11] and upgraded to class B in 2009[12]
Dihydrocodeine Synalgos DC opioid 1971 legal in amounts up to 7.46 mg when in tablet form and compounded with an adjunct non-opioid such as paracetamol.
Ethylmorphine opioid 1971
Glutethimide Doriden sedative 1985
Ketamine ket sedative 2006,[13] moved to class B in 2014[14]
Lefetamine stimulant 1985
Lisdexamfetamine stimulant 2014[14]
Mecloqualone sedative 1984
a-Methylphenethylhydroxylamine 2001 [8]
Methaqualone ludes, mandrake, Mandrax, Quaalude sedative 1984
Methcathinone stimulant 1998 [5]
Methoxetamine dissociative 2013 [15]
4–Methylmethcathinone MCAT, Mephedrone stimulant 2010 [16]
Methylphenidate ritalin stimulant 1971
Methylphenobarbitone sedative 1984
Naphyrone NRG-1 stimulant 2010
Nicocodeine opioid 1971
Nicodicodine opioid 1973
Norcodeine opioid 1971
Pentazocine Talwin opioid 1985
Phenmetrazine Preludin stimulant 1971
Pholcodine opioid 1971
Propiram opioid 1973
Zipeprol opioid 1998 [5]

(ab)Any compound structurally derived from 2–aminopropan–1–one by substitution at the 1-position with any monocyclic, or fused‑polycyclic ring system (not being a phenyl ring or alkylenedioxyphenyl ring system), whether or not the compound is further modified in any of the following ways, that is to say,

(i)by substitution in the ring system to any extent with alkyl, alkoxy, haloalkyl or halide substituents, whether or not further substituted in the ring system by one or more other univalent substituents;
(ii)by substitution at the 3–position with an alkyl substituent;
(iii)by substitution at the 2‑amino nitrogen atom with alkyl or dialkyl groups, or by inclusion of the 2‑amino nitrogen atom in a cyclic structure

(b) any 5,5 disubstituted barbituric acid

(c)[17] [2,3–Dihydro–5–methyl–3–(4–morpholinylmethyl)pyrrolo[1, 2, 3–de]–1,4–benzoxazin–6–yl]–1–naphthalenylmethanone.

3–Dimethylheptyl–11–hydroxyhexahydrocannabinol.

[9–Hydroxy–6–methyl–3–[5–phenylpentan–2–yl] oxy–5, 6, 6a, 7, 8, 9, 10, 10a–octahydrophenanthridin–1–yl] acetate.

9-(Hydroxymethyl)–6, 6–dimethyl–3–(2–methyloctan–2–yl)–6a, 7, 10, 10a–tetrahydrobenzo[c]chromen–1–ol.

Nabilone.

Any compound structurally derived from 3–(1–naphthoyl)indole or 1H–indol–3–yl–(1–naphthyl)methane by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl or 2–(4–morpholinyl)ethyl, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent.

Any compound structurally derived from 3–(1–naphthoyl)pyrrole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the pyrrole ring by alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl or 2–(4–morpholinyl)ethyl, whether or not further substituted in the pyrrole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent.

Any compound structurally derived from 1–(1–naphthylmethyl)indene by substitution at the 3–position of the indene ring by alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl or 2–(4–morpholinyl)ethyl, whether or not further substituted in the indene ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the naphthyl ring to any extent.

Any compound structurally derived from 3–phenylacetylindole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring with alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl or 2–(4–morpholinyl)ethyl, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the phenyl ring to any extent.

Any compound structurally derived from 2–(3–hydroxycyclohexyl)phenol by substitution at the 5–position of the phenolic ring by alkyl, alkenyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl or 2–(4–morpholinyl)ethyl, whether or not further substituted in the cyclohexyl ring to any extent.";

Any compound structurally derived from 3-benzoylindole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cyanoalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, (N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl or 2–(4–morpholinyl)ethyl, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the phenyl ring to any extent.

Any compound structurally derived from 3-(1-adamantoyl)indole or 3-(2-adamantoyl)indole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cyanoalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, (N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl or 2–(4–morpholinyl)ethyl, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent and whether or not substituted in the adamantyl ring to any extent.

Any compound structurally derived from 3-(2,2,3,3-tetramethylcyclopropylcarbonyl)indole by substitution at the nitrogen atom of the indole ring by alkyl, haloalkyl, alkenyl, cyanoalkyl, hydroxyalkyl, cycloalkylmethyl, cycloalkylethyl, (N-methylpiperidin-2-yl)methyl or 2–(4–morpholinyl)ethyl, whether or not further substituted in the indole ring to any extent.

(d)[17] 1-Phenylcyclohexylamine or any compound (not being ketamine, tiletamine or a compound for the time being specified in paragraph 1(a) of Part 1 of this Schedule) structurally derived from 1-phenylcyclohexylamine or 2-amino-2-phenylcyclohexanone by modification in any of the following ways, that is to say,

(i)by substitution at the nitrogen atom to any extent by alkyl, alkenyl or hydroxyalkyl groups, or replacement of the amino group with a 1-piperidyl, 1-pyrrolidyl or 1-azepyl group, whether or not the nitrogen containing ring is further substituted by one or more alkyl groups;

(ii)by substitution in the phenyl ring to any extent by amino, alkyl, hydroxy, alkoxy or halide substituents, whether or not further substituted in the phenyl ring to any extent;

(iii)by substitution in the cyclohexyl or cyclohexanone ring by one or more alkyl substituents;

(iv)by replacement of the phenyl ring with a thienyl ring.”.

(e) Any compound (not being a compound for the time being specified in paragraph 1(ba) of Part 1 of this Schedule) structurally derived from 1-benzofuran, 2,3-dihydro-1-benzofuran, 1H-indole, indoline, 1H-indene, or indane by substitution in the 6-membered ring with a 2-ethylamino substituent whether or not further substituted in the ring system to any extent with alkyl, alkoxy, halide or haloalkyl substituents and whether or not substituted in the ethylamino side-chain with one or more alkyl substituents.”.

2. Any stereoisomeric form of a substance for the time being specified in paragraph 1 of this Part of this Schedule.

3. Any salt of a substance for the time being specified in paragraph 1 or 2 of this Part of this Schedule.

4. Any preparation or other product containing a substance or product for the time being specified in any of paragraphs 1 to 3 of this Part of this Schedule, not being a preparation falling within paragraph 6 of Part I of this Schedule.

Class C drugs[edit]

1. Class C drugs, supposedly the least harmful drugs, include the following substances:—[3]

(a)

Name as specified
in the Act
Brand or
street name
Drug type When
added
Notes and comments
Alprazolam Xanax benzodiazepine 1996
Aminorex stimulant 1998 [5]
Benzphetamine Didrex stimulant 1971 metabolised into amphetamine and methamphetamine
Bromazepam benzodiazepine 1996
Brotizolam benzodiazepine 1998 [5]
Buprenorphine Subutex, Buprenex opioid 1989 Used for opioid replacement therapy to treat addiction
Camazepam benzodiazepine 1985
Cathine stimulant 1986 Khat (Catha edulis), the plant from which Cathine originates is now also illegal in The United Kingdom[18][19]
Cathinone stimulant 1986 Khat (Catha edulis), the plant from which Cathinone originates is now also illegal in The United Kingdom[18][19]
Chlordiazepoxide Librium benzodiazepine 1985
Chlorphentermine Apsedon stimulant 1971
Clobazam Frisium benzodiazepine 1985
Clorazepic acid benzodiazepine 1985
Clonazepam Klonopin benzodiazepine 1985
Clotiazepam benzodiazepine 1985
Cloxazolam benzodiazepine 1985
Delorazepam benzodiazepine 1985
Dextropropoxyphene Darvon opioid 1983
Diazepam Valium benzodiazepine 1985
Diethylpropion stimulant 1984
Estazolam ProSom benzodiazepine 1985
Ethchlorvynol Placidyl sedative 1985
Ethinamate sedative 1985
Ethyl loflazepate benzodiazepine 1985
Fencamfamine stimulant 1971 Removed from the schedule in 1973, added to the schedule again in 1986
Fenethylline stimulant 1986
Fenproporex stimulant 1986
Fludiazepam benzodiazepine 1985
Flunitrazepam Rohypnol benzodiazepine 1985
Flurazepam Dalmane benzodiazepine 1985
gamma-Butyrolactone GBL sedative 2009 Metabolised to GHB in the body. Classified in December 2009[20]
Halazepam benzodiazepine 1985
Haloxazolam benzodiazepine 1985
4-Hydroxy-n-butyric acid GHB sedative 2003 [4]
Ketazolam benzodiazepine 1985
Loprazolam benzodiazepine 1985
Lorazepam Ativan benzodiazepine 1985
Lormetazepam benzodiazepine 1985
Mazindol stimulant 1985
Medazepam benzodiazepine 1985
Mefenorex stimulant 1986 amphetamine derivative, metabolises to amphetamine
Mephentermine stimulant 1971
Meprobamate Miltown sedative 1985
Mesocarb stimulant 1998 [5] used to counteract the effects of benzodiazepines
Methyprylone sedative 1985
Midazolam Versed benzodiazepine 1990
Nimetazepam benzodiazepine 1985
Nitrazepam benzodiazepine 1985
Nordazepam benzodiazepine 1985
Oxazepam benzodiazepine 1985
Oxazolam benzodiazepine 1985
Pemoline stimulant 1989
Phendimetrazine Bontril stimulant 1971
Phentermine Fastin, Ionamin stimulant 1985
Pinazepam benzodiazepine 1985
Pipradrol stimulant 1971
Propylhexedrine stimulant 1971 legalised in 1995[21]
Prazepam benzodiazepine 1985
Pyrovalerone stimulant 1986
Temazepam Restoril, jellies benzodiazepine 1985 becomes class A when prepared for injection
Tetrazepam benzodiazepine 1985
Tramadol opiate 2014 [14]
Triazolam Halcion benzodiazepine 1985
N-Ethylamphetamine stimulant 1986
Zaleplon sedative 2014 [14]
Zolpidem Ambien nonbenzodiazepine 2003 [4]
Zopiclone nonbenzodiazepine 2014 [14]
N.B. Sub-paragraphs (b), (c), (d) and (e) all refer to anabolic steroids that were banned in 1996[22] (unless referenced otherwise):

(b)

(c) any compound (not being Trilostane or a compound for the time being specified in sub-paragraph (b) above) structurally derived from 17-hydroxyandrostan-3-one or from 17-hydroxyestran-3-one by modification in any of the following ways, that is to say, (i) by further substitution at position 17 by a methyl or ethyl group; (ii) by substitution to any extent at one or more of positions 1, 2, 4, 6, 7, 9, 11 or 16, but at no other position; (iii) by unsaturation in the carbocyclic ring system to any extent, provided that there are no more than two ethylenic bonds in any one carbocyclic ring; (iv) by fusion of ring A with a heterocyclic system;

(d) any substance which is an ester or ether (or, where more than one hydroxyl function is available, both an ester and an ether) of a substance specified in sub-paragraph (b) or described in sub-paragraph (c) above;

(e)

(f) 1–benzylpiperazine or any compound (not being 1–(3–chlorophenyl)piperazine or 1–(3–chlorophenyl)–4–(3–chloropropyl)piperazine) structurally derived from 1–benzylpiperazine or 1–phenylpiperazine by modification in any of the following ways

(i) by substitution at the second nitrogen atom of the piperazine ring with alkyl, benzyl, haloalkyl or phenyl groups;

(ii) by substitution in the aromatic ring to any extent with alkyl, alkoxy, alkylenedioxy, halide or haloalkyl groups;

2. Any stereoisomeric form of a substance for the time being specified in paragraph 1 of this Part of this Schedule [not being phenylpropanolamine.]

3. Any salt of a substance for the time being specified in paragraph 1 or 2 of this Part of this Schedule.

4. Any preparation or other product containing a substance for the time being specified in any of paragraphs 1 to 3 of this Part of this Schedule.

Derivatives and analogues[edit]

The act contains several references to "derivatives" of compounds but the extent of this term is not fully clarified. Where unspecified it is thought to indicate derivatives which can be made from the specified compound in a single synthetic step, although such a definition would indicate that alkyllysergamide analogues would be uncontrolled. Where the derivatives are specified to be "structural derivatives" there is precedent that the statute applies whenever the structure could be converted to the specified derivatives in any number of synthetic steps.[23]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Nutt, Prof David J; Leslie A King PhD; Lawrence D Phillips PhD (6 November 2010). "Drug harms in the UK: a multicriteria decision analysis". The Lancet 376 (9752): 1558–1565. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(10)61462-6. PMID 21036393. Retrieved 8 February 2012. Alcohol, heroin and crack were found to be most harmful, while LSD, Buprenorphine and psilocybin mushrooms were found to be least harmful. 
  2. ^ Nutt, David (1 April 2010). "Trashing evidence-based drugs policy". The Guardian. Retrieved 8 February 2012. We will give the public the kind of high-quality evidence on drug harms our current crop of politicians apparently do not feel they need before making far reaching decisions around drugs classification. 
  3. ^ a b c "Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (c. 38): SCHEDULE 2: Controlled Drugs". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Modification) Order 2003". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  5. ^ a b c d e f "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Modification) Order 1998". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  6. ^ "Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2006". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  7. ^ "Drugs Act 2005 (c. 17)". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  8. ^ a b "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Modification) Order 2001". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  9. ^ King, L. A. (2009). Forensic Chemistry of Substance Misuse: A Guide to Drug Control. Cambridge: RSC Publishing. 
  10. ^ "UK Misuse of Drugs act 2001 Amendment summary". Isomer Design. Retrieved 12 March 2014. 
  11. ^ a b "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Modification)(No. 2) Order 2003". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  12. ^ a b "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2008". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  13. ^ "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2005". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  14. ^ a b c d e "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Ketamine etc.) (Amendment) Order 2014". UK Government. 28 April 2014. Retrieved 25 September 2014. 
  15. ^ MXE ceased to be covered by the temporary prohibition on 26 February 2013, when it became classified as a Class B drug
  16. ^ Mephedrone ban comes into force in UK
  17. ^ a b "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2013". 
  18. ^ a b Klein, Axel (2007). "Khat and the creation of tradition in the Somali diaspora". In Fountain, Jane; Korf, Dirk J. Drugs in Society: European Perspectives. Oxford: Radcliffe Publishing. pp. 51–61. ISBN 978-1-84619-093-3. 
  19. ^ a b Warfa, Nasir; Klein, Axel; Bhui, Kamaldeep; Leavey, Gerard; Craig, Tom; Stansfeld, Stephen Alfred (2007). "Khat use and mental illness: A critical review". Social Science & Medicine 65 (2): 309–318. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2007.04.038. PMID 17544193. 
  20. ^ The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Amendment) Order 2009 http://www.opsi.gov.uk/si/si2009/draft/ukdsi_9780111486610_en_1
  21. ^ "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Modification) Order 1995". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  22. ^ "The Misuse of Drugs Act 1971 (Modification) Order 1996". Office of Public Sector Information. Retrieved 15 June 2009. 
  23. ^ Forensic Chemistry of Substance Misuse : A Guide to Drug Control Edition by Leslie A. King (2009)

External links[edit]