Classroom

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A typical classroom at the De La Salle University in Manila, Philippines
Classrooms in 1897 at the Francis M. Drexel School.
Classrooms in Qing Dynasty at Wuhan University

A classroom or schoolroom is a room. Classrooms are found in educational institutions of all kinds, including public and private schools, home schools, corporations, and religious and humanitarian organizations. The classroom attempts to provide a safe space where learning can take place uninterrupted by other distractions.

Types of classrooms[edit]

For lessons that require specific resources or a vocational approach different types of classrooms both indoors and outdoors are used. This allows for learning in an authentic context that fosters the natural development of the particular vocational skill.[1] This is known as situated learning. Classrooms can range from small groups of five or six to big classrooms with hundreds of students. A large class room is also called a lecture hall. A few examples of classrooms are computer labs which are used for IT lessons in schools, gymnasiums for sports, and science laboratories for biology, chemistry and physics. There are also small group classrooms where students learn in groups of about 7 or less.

A university classroom with permanently installed desk-chairs, green chalkboards, and an overhead projector.

Most classrooms have a large writing surface where the instructor or students can share notes with other members of the class. Traditionally, this was in the form of a blackboard but these are becoming less common in well-equipped schools because of new alternatives like flipcharts, whiteboards and interactive whiteboards. Many classrooms also have TVs, maps, charts, pencils, books, monographs and LCD projectors for presenting information and images from a computer.

In the past, schools and institutions would often have one computer lab that served the entire school only at certain times of the week. Computers in the classroom itself increase interest in learning and awareness of the importance of what is being taught. Children are less likely to feel that a subject is archaic if the teacher uses new technological instructional techniques, increasing the students’ interest in learning something new. A study shows that children taught with the integration of technology improved in testing significantly over those who did not.[2]

The Classroom of the Future is an education project in the United Kingdom. Twelve local education authorities sharing about £13 million to develop around 30 pilot projects. The buildings have roughly three classrooms in them, which contain enough laptops or tablet computers for each person. The classrooms are designed to be environmentally friendly. The buildings contain toilets which use rainwater, and use windturbines and solar panels for electricity and heating.

Decor and design[edit]

The layout, design and decor of the classroom has a significant effect upon the quality of education.[citation needed] Attention to the acoustics and colour scheme may reduce distractions and aid concentration. The lighting and furniture likewise influence study and learning.[citation needed]

A classroom at Hainan Medical College, Haikou City, Hainan, China.

Historically, relatively few pupil centric design principles were used in the construction of classrooms. In 19th century Britain, one of the few common considerations was to try and orient new buildings so the class windows faced north as much as possible, while avoiding west or southern facing windows, as in Britain northern light causes less glare.[3] Desks were often arranged in columns and rows, with a teacher’s desk at the front, where he or she would stand and lecture the class. Little color was used for fear of distracting the children. In the 1950s and 60s cheap and harsh fluorescent lights were sometimes used, which could cause eyestrain. Research has suggested that optimal use of daylight, acoustics, color selection and even the arrangement of the furniture in the classroom can affect pupils academic success.

Lighting[edit]

The use of daylight in school buildings is not a new concept. In Great Britain, a common principle in the 19th century was to avoid glare by having as many of the class's windows facing north as possible. From the early 20th century there was greater emphases on the importance of daylight but less concern about glare, so west and south facing windows became more common. From 1945 regulations were put in place mandating a minimal 2% penetration of daylight into British classrooms.[3] In the US, regulations on the amount of lighting were introduced in the late 1950s.[4] Until the 1960s, air conditioning was not used, so windows provided not only sunlight, but necessary air circulation as well. With the advent of air conditioning, school buildings were built with many classrooms that did not include windows.[5] High ceilinged rooms lit with daylight were eventually replaced with generic "shoebox classrooms." [4] Several studies done on elementary school students attempt to measure student performance in classrooms where daylight is present when compared to classrooms without daylight.[5]

Classrooms with skylights rather than windows have been studied for several reasons. Windows provide a view, which may be distracting, as well as introduce air quality issues that are not a problem with skylights. A study found that the use of skylights improved test scores in reading by 8.8 points and in math by 12.3 points. This translates to a 19% faster learning rate for reading and a 20% faster learning rate for math. The average elementary school child will increase 1 to 1.5 points per month on test scores in math and reading in a classroom with no daylighting. The same child will improve twice as fast, gaining 2 to 3 points per month in a classroom that includes daylight.[6]

Light has been found to be beneficial in ways other than just school scores. Daylight has resulted in better student attendance, fewer cavities, and higher growth rates in students compared to those in classrooms using conventional lighting. [7] There has also been other studies done that found that people who weren’t exposed to daylight in schools received scores lower on emotional well-being and had lower levels of melatonin and cortisol. [8]

Acoustics[edit]

The acoustics of the classroom are very often overlooked, but are an important part of the success of a child. Choosing only materials that cause sound to reverberate, such as tile floors and hard wall surfaces, greatly increases noise levels and can prove detrimental to learning. One study of hyperactive versus control groups of children found that white noise has no impact on either group, but that auditory stimulation such as distant conversations or music has a negative effect on both groups of students. Children with attention deficit disorder scored higher on tests when white noise was being pumped into the classroom than when music was played. The control group of children as well as the hyperactive group of children averaged the same test scores when there was no sound as when white noise was being played.[9]

By utilizing soft surfaces, especially on the floor, the sounds within and outside of the classroom will be diminished, taking away from the distractions facing students and improving not just the test scores of hyperactive children, but those without attention deficit disorder as well. Although carpet is an obvious choice for sound absorption, it may not be suitable for high traffic areas like hallways. In such cases, other sound absorbing materials, such as cork, can be used. The use of sound absorbing ceiling tiles may also be a wise choice for areas where carpet cannot be used for practical purposes.

Color selection[edit]

Color theory refers to the psychological effects color has on the human body. Red is said to increase both aggression and appetite, a poor combination for a school’s interior. Yellow increases adrenaline levels and is also undesirable for a school setting. Blue, green, and brown create a relaxing and calming environment, which is a positive for the classroom. [7] However, blue also is associated with cold and sadness and elongates the sense of time, which would make a blue classroom tortuous for students (Vodvarka, 1999). Warm colors are often favored by students, making them more alert and increasing brain activity, which helps in increasing test scores. Cool colors had the opposite effect.[10] By balancing warm and cool colors, bright and subdued, a pleasing effect can be achieved that will reduce absenteeism in schools and keep the students focused on what the teacher is saying. Test scores go up when children are not in a stark white environment, which can feel sterile and cold.[11][12]

Furniture arrangement[edit]

Redesigned classroom with moveable furniture at Monterrey Institute of Technology and Higher Education, Mexico City

Traditionally, classrooms have had one setup: straight rows of desks facing the front of the classroom. While this keeps attention focused on the teacher, it does not allow for group work or discussion. One study found that students who sat at desks arranged in a circle were more likely to listen actively and participate in discussions, and less likely to withdraw from the group. However, more instances of on-task, out-of-order comments were recorded. In rows, students respond less during discussion, but are also less disruptive. Instances of cheating went up when desks were placed in clusters and down when placed in a circle. When the children can see everything around them, except their neighbor’s paper, when desks are in a circular pattern, they rely more on their own knowledge and that confidence causes test scores to rise when compared with scores when desks are arranged in clusters or rows.[13]

Another classroom seating alternative would be the use of tables instead of desks. Desks often have small writing spaces that do not allow room for students to comfortably write. Desktops usually have room for only one notebook or one book. This can be a disadvantage to a student who needs to look at more than one object while a teacher is lecturing. Also, it can be a great discomfort if there is not enough room for students to comfortably take notes. Tables allow students to spread out their learning materials and sit comfortably. As for small group discussions, tables can provide great spaces for two to four person discussion groups. However, tables can also be a disadvantage in the classroom when a teacher would like the students to move into a circle for an activity or discussion.

There is also the alternative of using chairs with wheels. They would provide flexibility in the classroom as well as saving time. Using those chairs allow the classroom to be set up in a variety of ways and provide the opportunity to have individual, small group, and large group work. Chairs with wheels would make it easier and quicker to take down and set up group activities versus chairs without wheels. [8]

Challenges to the classroom[edit]

Open air classroom for Maasai children in Tanzania.

While the classroom is clearly the dominant setting for learning, the flexibility of classroom instruction is often called into question.[by whom?] Instead of isolating learners in a classroom, many teachers[who?] are experimenting with integrating learning into a student's daily life. New learning technologies and mobile devices[specify] make it possible for learning to take place at any time, at any place, and at any pace that the learner desires. This is particularly important for adult students who may need to schedule their learning around work and parenting responsibilities.[14]

According to the American Society for Training and Development, more than 40% of corporate training now takes place online and not in a classroom.[citation needed]

Maria Montessori wrote that "Stationary desks and chairs [are] proof that the principle of slavery still informs the school".[15]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Situated Learning Theory 
  2. ^ Hopson, M. H., Simms, R. L., & Knezek, G. A. (2002), "Using a technology-enriched environment to improve higher-order thinking skills", Journal of Research on Technology in Education 34 (2): 109–119 
  3. ^ a b DFE (1994), Passive Solar Schools - A Design Guide, HMSO, pp. 7–8, ISBN 0-11-270876-5 
  4. ^ a b Loveland, Joel. More Daylight Means Healthier Environment Retrieved 2010-30-04.
  5. ^ a b Heschong, Wright, Okura (2002), "Daylighting Impacts on Human Performance in School", Journal of the Illuminating Engineering Society 
  6. ^ Lisa Heschong (1999), Daylighting in Schools: An Investigation into the Relationship between Daylighting and Human Performance. 
  7. ^ a b Dyck, James (2002), "The Built Environment's Effect on Learning: Applying Current Research", Montessori Life 14 (1): 53 
  8. ^ a b Hunter, Katie, Environmental Psychology in Classroom Design, retrieved February 12, 2014 
  9. ^ Zentall, Sydney S.; Shaw, Jandira H.; Shaw (December 1980), "Effects of classroom noise on performance and activity of second-grade hyperactive and control children", Journal of Educational Psychology 72 (6): 830–840, doi:10.1037/0022-0663.72.6.830, PMID 7204739 
  10. ^ Jago, Elizabeth, Comp.; Tanner, Ken, Comp. (April 1999), Influence of the School Facility on Student Achievement: Lighting; Color 
  11. ^ Fielding, Randall (March 2006), "What They See Is What They Get: Ten Myths about Lighting and Color in Schools", Edutopia 2 (2): 28–30 
  12. ^ Color Theory for Classrooms and Schools, National Institute of Building Sciences 
  13. ^ Rosenfield, Peter; Lambert, Nadine M.; Black, Allen (February 1985), "Desk arrangement effects on pupil classroom behavior", Journal of Educational Psychology 77 (1): 101–108, doi:10.1037/0022-0663.77.1.101 
  14. ^ Chute, Eleanor (16 October 2007), Online courses increase in popularity, Pittsburgh Post-Gazette, retrieved 7 May 2013 
  15. ^ Maria Montessori (1 September 2006), The Montessori Method, Cosimo, Inc., p. ix, ISBN 978-1-59605-943-6, retrieved 8 June 2013 

External links[edit]

  • Media related to Classrooms at Wikimedia Commons