Claude William Black, Jr. (November 28, 1916 – March 13, 2009) was an American Baptist minister and political figure. He was born the son of local Brotherhood of Sleeping Car Porters vice president Claude, Sr. and housewife Cora in the then-segregated city of San Antonio, Texas.
While attending Morehouse College in Atlanta, Black initially aspired to be a doctor, but was led to the ministry. He then attended Andover Newton Theological School.
Black served as pastor of Mt. Zion First Baptist Church in San Antonio for 1949–1998 and as pastor emeritus since. Previously, he had served as pastor of Calvary Baptist Church in Haverhill, Massachusetts 1941-1943 and St. Matthew Baptist Church in Corpus Christi, Texas 1946-1949.
Black founded several community groups as well as the city's first black credit union. He also served as chairmen of the Social Actions Committee with the National Baptist Convention[disambiguation needed] and president of the Baptist Minister's Union of San Antonio. He worked through the community as a pastor of the community.
Civil rights activism
Black was known throughout the South for his civil rights activism. Throughout the late 1950s and 1960s, he along with State Representative G. J. Sutton and Harry Burns led and organized marches throughout the state. He challenged former Texas Governor Price Daniel, former San Antonio Mayor Walter McAllister and the establishment for their unfair treatment of minorities in the city. While addressing a city council meeting in 1952, he was ignored and called a "nigger" on the open microphone. He became an associate of such leaders as A. Philip Randolph, Martin Luther King, Thurgood Marshall, Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., James L. Farmer, Jr. Ella Baker and others. As a local ally to President Lyndon B. Johnson, Black was present for the White House Conference on Civil Rights in 1966. He endured many threats to himself, his family and even his church. A drive-by shooting occurred at his home as well as his church burned in 1974 with no suspects being charged. Black supported the efforts of San Antonio SNCC, after a massive demonstration against police brutality in downtown San Antonio and an armed attack on the SNCC office. He allowed use of the church for meetings of the San Antonio Committee to Free Angela Davis, SNCC-Panther meetings, and allowed members of the SNCC-Panthers opportunities to raise funds at the church on Sunday. Rev. Black co-authored a city council resolution against the sale of the South African Krugerrand Gold Coin, in December 1976, before Nelson Mandela was released from prison.
He served four terms of the San Antonio City Council 1973-1978 and became the city's first black Mayor Pro Tem.
Black was married to ZerNona Black (1912–2005) for a total of 59 years. He was predeceased by his daughter Joyce (1952–1992), son Stewart (1931–1994) and three grandchildren.
San Antonio has a street, shopping plaza, and community center named in honor of Black. The city of San Antonio created the Rev. Claude and ZerNona Black Scholarship Endowment Fund. Black also served on the Advisory Council of Wayland Baptist University's San Antonio campus; the campus named its award given to the outstanding student earning the Master of Christian Ministry degree in his honor. On November 30, 2006, Black was honored with an extravagant 90th Birthday gala, which was hosted by both the city of San Antonio. Guest included Martin Luther King III, Fred Shuttlesworth, Henry Cisneros, Percy Sutton and Phil Hardberger.
Black's autobiography Grandpa was a Preacher: A Letter to my Grandson was published in 2006. It was co-written with his grandson Taj Matthews.
The MLK Realizing the Dream Foundation honored Rev. Black in Washington during Inauguration Week along with Congressman Ted Kennedy, Congressman John Lewis (Georgia) and Activist, Humanitarian Aung San Suu Kyi. often Black attended Dr. King civil rights speeches including Dr. kings famous I have a dream speech.
- Official website
- Interviews with Rev. Claude Black, March 14, March 15, May 26, 1994, and April 11, 2006. University of Texas at San Antonio: Institute of Texan Cultures: Oral History Collection, UA 15.01, University of Texas at San Antonio Libraries Special Collections.]
- Text of Letter from Martin Luther King to Billy Graham regarding segregationist Texas Governor Price Daniel invitation to speak at his crusade. c1958
- Claude and ZerNona Black Scholarship
- Civil Rights Movement in San Antonio
- UTSA Orchestra featuring Claude Black
- Vintage Bus Ride-MLK Parade San Antonio
- At 89, Pillar of community not completely retired
- Civil Rights Act marks 40
- Civil Rights Act and Rev. Black's 1960 trip to the White house
- Black gives eulogy for former Mayor that once represented racism
- Human Rights Group honors Rev. Black
- 99 notable Texans
- San Antonio Worship article
- Reopening of Mt Zion First Baptist after 1974 fire
- Served after being denied service at food counter
- Civil Rights Icon Honored with 90th Birthday Gala
- SA Pastor to be honored in Washington
- Rev. Claude Black Dies at age 92
- Trinity University Acquires the Papers of Civil Rights Activists Claude and ZerNona Black
- Reverend Black's papers offer a close-up look at history