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Claude M. Hilton (born 1940) is a United States federal judge.
Born in Scott County, Virginia, Hilton received a B.S. from Ohio State University in 1963 and a J.D. from American University, Washington College of Law in 1966. He was an assistant commonwealth's attorney of Arlington, Virginia from 1967 to 1968. He was in private practice in Arlington from 1968 to 1973, served as a Commonwealth's attorney of Virginia from 1974-1975, and returned to private practice from 1976 to 1985. He was also a commissioner in chancery for the Circuit Court of Arlington County, Virginia from 1976 to 1985.
On May 15, 1985, Hilton was nominated by President Ronald Reagan to a new seat on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Virginia created by 98 Stat. 333. He was confirmed by the United States Senate on July 10, 1985, and received commission the following day. He served as chief judge from 1997 to 2004, assuming senior status on December 31, 2005. In May 2000, Chief Justice William Rehnquist appointed Hilton to serve as a judge on the Foreign Intelligence Surveillance Court. His term on this court expired on May 18, 2007.
Judge Hilton is the presiding judge in the court case regarding Ladar Levison and Lavabit.