Claude Monet

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Not to be confused with Édouard Manet, another painter of the same era.
For other uses, see Monet (disambiguation).
Claude Monet
Claude Monet 1899 Nadar crop.jpg
Claude Monet, photo by Nadar, 1899.
Born Oscar-Claude Monet
(1840-11-14)14 November 1840
Paris, France
Died 5 December 1926(1926-12-05) (aged 86)
Giverny, France
Nationality French
Known for Painter
Notable work(s) Impression, Sunrise
Rouen Cathedral series
London Parliament series
Water Lilies
Haystacks
Poplars
Movement Impressionism
Patron(s) Gustave Caillebotte, Ernest Hoschedé, Georges Clemenceau

Oscar-Claude Monet (French: [klod mɔnɛ]; 14 November 1840 – 5 December 1926) was a founder of French Impressionist painting, and the most consistent and prolific practitioner of the movement's philosophy of expressing one's perceptions before nature, especially as applied to plein-air landscape painting.[1][2] The term "Impressionism" is derived from the title of his painting Impression, soleil levant (Impression, Sunrise), which was exhibited in 1874 in the first of the independent exhibitions mounted by Monet and his associates as an alternative to the Salon de Paris.

Monet's ambition of documenting the French countryside led him to adopt a method of painting the same scene many times in order to capture the changing of light and the passing of the seasons. From 1883 Monet lived in Giverny, where he purchased a house and property, and began a vast landscaping project which included lily ponds that would become the subjects of his best-known works. In 1899 he began painting the water lilies, first in vertical views with a Japanese bridge as a central feature, and later in the series of large-scale paintings that was to occupy him continuously for the next 20 years of his life.

Monet and Impressionism

Impression, Sunrise (Impression, soleil levant), 1872; the painting that gave its name to the style. Musée Marmottan Monet, Paris

First "Impressionist" exhibition

From the late 1860s, Monet and other like-minded artists met with rejection from the conservative Académie des Beaux-Arts which held its annual exhibition at the Salon de Paris. During the latter part of 1873, Monet, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, and Alfred Sisley organized the Société anonyme des artistes peintres, sculpteurs et graveurs (Cooperative and Anonymous Association of Painters, Sculptors, and Engravers) to exhibit their artworks independently. At their first exhibition, held in April 1874, Monet exhibited the work that was to give the group its lasting name.

Impression, Sunrise was painted in 1872, depicting a Le Havre port landscape. From the painting's title the art critic Louis Leroy, in his review, "L'Exposition des Impressionnistes," which appeared in Le Charivari, coined the term "Impressionism".[3] It was intended as disparagement but the Impressionists appropriated the term for themselves.[4][5]

Biography

Birth and childhood

Claude Monet was born on 14 November 1840 on the 5th floor of 45 rue Laffitte, in the 9th arrondissement of Paris.[6] He was the second son of Claude Adolphe Monet and Louise Justine Aubrée Monet, both of them second-generation Parisians. On 20 May 1841, he was baptized in the local parish church, Notre-Dame-de-Lorette, as Oscar-Claude, but his parents called him simply Oscar.[6][7] (He signed his juvenilia "O. Monet".) Despite being baptized Catholic, Monet later became an atheist.[8][9]

In 1845, his family moved to Le Havre in Normandy. His father wanted him to go into the family grocery business, but Monet wanted to become an artist. His mother was a singer.

On 1 April 1851, Monet entered Le Havre secondary school of the arts. Locals knew him well for his charcoal caricatures, which he would sell for ten to twenty francs. Monet also undertook his first drawing lessons from Jacques-François Ochard, a former student of Jacques-Louis David. On the beaches of Normandy around 1856 he met fellow artist Eugène Boudin, who became his mentor and taught him to use oil paints. Boudin taught Monet "en plein air" (outdoor) techniques for painting.[10] Both received the influence of Johan Barthold Jongkind.

On 28 January 1857, his mother died. At the age of sixteen, he left school and went to live with his widowed, childless aunt, Marie-Jeanne Lecadre.

The Woman in the Green Dress, Camille Doncieux, 1866, Kunsthalle Bremen

Paris

When Monet traveled to Paris to visit the Louvre, he witnessed painters copying from the old masters. Having brought his paints and other tools with him, he would instead go and sit by a window and paint what he saw.[11] Monet was in Paris for several years and met other young painters, including Édouard Manet and others who would become friends and fellow Impressionists.

In June 1861, Monet joined the First Regiment of African Light Cavalry in Algeria for a seven-year commitment, but, two years later, after he had contracted typhoid fever, his aunt intervened to get him out of the army if he agreed to complete an art course at an art school. It is possible that the Dutch painter Johan Barthold Jongkind, whom Monet knew, may have prompted his aunt on this matter. Disillusioned with the traditional art taught at art schools, in 1862 Monet became a student of Charles Gleyre in Paris, where he met Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Frédéric Bazille and Alfred Sisley. Together they shared new approaches to art, painting the effects of light en plein air with broken color and rapid brushstrokes, in what later came to be known as Impressionism.

Le déjeuner sur l'herbe, (right section), 1865–1866, with Gustave Courbet, Frédéric Bazille and Camille Doncieux, first wife of the artist, Musée d'Orsay, Paris[12]

In January 1865 Monet was working on a version of Le déjeuner sur l'herbe, aiming to present it for hanging at the Salon, which had rejected Manet's Le déjeuner sur l'herbe two years earlier.[13] Monet's painting was very large and could not be completed in time. (It was later cut up, with parts now in different galleries.) Monet submitted instead a painting of Camille or The Woman in the Green Dress (La femme à la robe verte), one of many works using his future wife, Camille Doncieux as his model. This painting and a small landscape both were both hung.[13] The following year Monet used Camille for his model in Women in the Garden, and On the Bank of the Seine, Bennecourt in 1868. Camille became pregnant and gave birth to their first child, Jean, in 1867.[14] Monet and Camille married on 28 June 1870, just before the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War,[15] and, after their excursion to London and Zaandam, they moved to Argenteuil, in December 1871. During this time Monet painted various works of modern life. He and Camille lived in poverty for most of this period. Following the successful exhibition of some maritime paintings, and the winning of a silver medal at Le Havre, Monet's paintings were seized by creditors, from whom they were bought back by a shipping merchant, Gaudibert, who was also a patron of Boudin.[13]

Franco-Prussian War and Argenteuil

After the outbreak of the Franco-Prussian War (19 July 1870), Monet and his family took refuge in England in September 1870,[16] where he studied the works of John Constable and Joseph Mallord William Turner, both of whose landscapes would serve to inspire Monet's innovations in the study of color. In the spring of 1871, Monet's works were refused authorisation for inclusion in the Royal Academy exhibition.[15]

In May 1871, he left London to live in Zaandam, in the Netherlands,[15] where he made twenty-five paintings (and the police suspected him of revolutionary activities).[17] He also paid a first visit to nearby Amsterdam. In October or November 1871, he returned to France. From December 1871 to 1878 he lived at Argenteuil, a village on the right bank of the Seine river near Paris, and a popular Sunday-outing destination for Parisians, where he painted some of his best-known works. In 1873, Monet purchased a small boat equipped to be used as a floating studio.[18] From the boat studio Monet painted landscapes and also portraits of Édouard Manet and his wife; Manet in turn depicted Monet painting aboard the boat, accompanied by Camille, in 1874.[18] In 1874, he briefly returned to Holland.[19]

Impressionism

Madame Monet in a Japanese kimono, 1875, Museum of Fine Arts, Boston

The first Impressionist exhibition was held in 1874 at 35 boulevard des Capucines, Paris, from 15 April to 15 May. The primary purpose of the participants was not so much to promote a new style, but to free themselves from the constraints of the Salon de Paris. The exhibition, open to anyone prepared to pay 60 francs, gave artists the opportunity to show their work without the interference of a jury.[20][21][22]

Renoir chaired the hanging committee and did most of the work himself, as others members failed to present themselves.[20][21]

In addition to Impression: Sunrise (pictured above) Monet presented four oil paintings and seven pastels. Among the paintings he displayed was The Luncheon (1868), which features Camille Doncieux and Jean Monet, and which had been rejected by the Paris Salon of 1870.[23] Also in this exhibition was a painting titled Boulevard des Capucines, a painting of the boulevard done from the photographer Nadar's apartment at no. 35. Monet painted the subject twice and it is uncertain which of the two pictures, that now in the Pushkin Museum in Moscow, or that in the Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art in Kansas City was the painting that appeared in the groundbreaking 1874 exhibition, though more recently the Moscow picture has been favoured.[24][25][26] Altogether, 165 works were exhibited in the exhibition, including 4 oils, 2 pastels and 3 watercolors by Morisot; 6 oils and 1 pastel by Renoir; 10 works by Degas; 5 by Pissarro; 3 by Cézanne; and 3 by Guillaumin. Several works were on loan, including Cézanne's Modern Olympia, Morisot's Hide and Seek (owned by Manet) and 2 landscapes by Sisley that had been purchased by Durand-Ruel.[20][21][22]

The total attendance is estimated at 3500 and some works did sell, though some exhibitors had placed their prices too high. Pissarro was asking 1000 francs for The Orchard and Monet the same for Impression: Sunrise, neither of which sold. Renoir failed to obtain the 500 francs he was asking for La Loge, but later sold it for 450 francs to Père Martin, dealer and supporter of the group.[20][21][22]

Death of Camille

Claude Monet, Camille Monet on her deathbed, 1879, Musée d'Orsay, Paris
Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Portrait of Claude Monet, 1875, Musée d'Orsay

In 1876, Camille Monet became ill with tuberculosis. Their second son, Michel, was born on 17 March 1878. This second child weakened her already fading health. In the summer of that year, the family moved to the village of Vétheuil where they shared a house with the family of Ernest Hoschedé, a wealthy department store owner and patron of the arts. In 1878, Camille Monet was diagnosed with uterine cancer,[34] and she died on 5 September 1879 at the age of thirty-two.[35][36]

Monet made a study in oils of his dead wife. Many years later, Monet confessed to his friend Georges Clemenceau that his need to analyse colours was both the joy and torment of his life. He explained,

I one day found myself looking at my beloved wife's dead face and just systematically noting the colours according to an automatic reflex!

John Berger describes the work as "a blizzard of white, grey, purplish paint ... a terrible blizzard of loss which will forever efface her features. In fact there can be very few death-bed paintings which have been so intensely felt or subjectively expressive".[37]

Vétheuile

After several difficult months following the death of Camille, Monet began to create some of his best paintings of the 19th century. During the early 1880s, Monet painted several groups of landscapes and seascapes in what he considered to be campaigns to document the French countryside. These began to evolve into series of pictures in which he documented the same scene many times in order to capture the changing of light and the passing of the seasons.

Monet's friend Ernest Hoschedé became bankrupt, and left in 1878 for Belgium. After the death of Camille Monet in September 1879, and while Monet continued to live in the house in Vétheuil, Alice Hoschedé helped Monet to raise his two sons, Jean and Michel. She took them to Paris to live alongside her own six children,[38] Blanche, (who married Jean Monet), Germaine, Suzanne, Marthe, Jean-Pierre, and Jacques. In the spring of 1880, Alice Hoschedé and all the children left Paris and rejoined Monet at Vétheuil.[39] In 1881, all of them moved to Poissy, which Monet hated. In April 1883, looking out the window of the little train between Vernon and Gasny, he discovered Giverny in Normandy.[38][40][41] Monet, Alice Hoschedé and the children moved to Vernon, then to the house in Giverny, where he planted a large garden and where he painted for much of the rest of his life. Following the death of her estranged husband, Monet married Alice Hoschedé in 1892.[10]


Giverny

Study of a Figure Outdoors: Woman with a Parasol, facing left, 1886. Musée d'Orsay

Monet's house and garden

At the beginning of May 1883, Monet and his large family rented a house and 2 acres (8,100 m2) from a local landowner. The house was situated near the main road between the towns of Vernon and Gasny at Giverny. There was a barn that doubled as a painting studio, orchards and a small garden. The house was close enough to the local schools for the children to attend and the surrounding landscape offered many suitable motifs for Monet's work. The family worked and built up the gardens and Monet's fortunes began to change for the better as his dealer Paul Durand-Ruel had increasing success in selling his paintings.[42] By November 1890, Monet was prosperous enough to buy the house, the surrounding buildings and the land for his gardens. During the 1890s, Monet built a greenhouse and a second studio, a spacious building well lit with skylights.

Monet wrote daily instructions to his gardener, precise designs and layouts for plantings, and invoices for his floral purchases and his collection of botany books. As Monet's wealth grew, his garden evolved. He remained its architect, even after he hired seven gardeners.[43]

Monet purchased additional land with a water meadow. In 1893 he began a vast landscaping project which included lily ponds that would become the subjects of his best-known works. White water lilies local to France were planted along with imported cultivars from South America and Egypt, resulting in a range of colours including yellow, blue and white lilies that turned pink with age.[44] In 1899 he began painting the water lilies, first in vertical views with a Japanese bridge as a central feature, and later on the series of large-scale paintings that was to occupy him continuously for the next 20 years of his life. This scenery, with its alternating light and mirror-like reflections, became an integral part of his work. By the mid-1910s Monet had achieved:

a completely new, fluid, and somewhat audacious style of painting in which the water-lily pond became the point of departure for an almost abstract art

—Gary Tinterow[45][46]


Last years

Monet, right, in his garden at Giverny, 1922

Failing sight

Monet's second wife, Alice, died in 1911 and his oldest son Jean, who had married Alice's daughter Blanche, Monet's particular favourite, died in 1914.[10] After Alice died, Blanche looked after and cared for Monet. It was during this time that Monet began to develop the first signs of cataracts.[47]

During World War I, in which his younger son Michel served and his friend and admirer Clemenceau led the French nation, Monet painted a series of weeping willow trees as homage to the French fallen soldiers. In 1923, he underwent two operations to remove his cataracts. The paintings done while the cataracts affected his vision have a general reddish tone, which is characteristic of the vision of cataract victims. It may also be that after surgery he was able to see certain ultraviolet wavelengths of light that are normally excluded by the lens of the eye; this may have had an effect on the colors he perceived. After his operations he even repainted some of these paintings, with bluer water lilies than before.[48]

Death

Monet died of lung cancer on 5 December 1926 at the age of 86 and is buried in the Giverny church cemetery.[40] Monet had insisted that the occasion be simple; thus only about fifty people attended the ceremony.[49]

His home, garden, and waterlily pond were bequeathed by his son Michel, his only heir, to the French Academy of Fine Arts (part of the Institut de France) in 1966. Through the Fondation Claude Monet, the house and gardens were opened for visits in 1980, following restoration.[50] In addition to souvenirs of Monet and other objects of his life, the house contains his collection of Japanese woodcut prints. The house and garden, along with the Museum of Impressionism Giverny, are major attractions in Giverny, which hosts tourists from all over the world.

Monet's methods

Rouen Cathedral at sunset, 1893, Musée Marmottan Monet. An example of the Rouen Cathedral Series.

Monet has been described as "the driving force behind Impressionism".[51] Crucial to the art of the Impressionist painters was the understanding of the effects of light on the local colour of objects, and the effects of the juxtaposition of colours with each other.[52] Monet's long career as a painter was spent in the pursuit of this aim.

In 1856, his chance meeting with Eugene Boudin, a painter of small beach scenes, opened his eyes to the possibility of plein-air painting. From that time, with a short interruption for military service, he dedicated himself to searching for new and improved methods of painterly expression. To this end, as a young man, he visited the Paris Salon and familiarised himself with the works of older painters, and made friends with other young artists.[51] The five years that he spent at Argenteuil, spending much time on the River Seine in a little floating studio, were formative in his study of the effects of light and reflections. He began to think in terms of colours and shapes rather than scenes and objects. He used bright colours in dabs and dashes and squiggles of paint. Having rejected the academic teachings of Gleyre's studio, he freed himself from theory, saying "I like to paint as a bird sings."[53]

In 1877 a series of paintings at St-Lazare Station had Monet looking at smoke and steam and the way that they affected colour and visibility, being sometimes opaque and sometimes translucent. He was to further use this study in the painting of the effects of mist and rain on the landscape.[54] The study of the effects of atmosphere were to evolve into a number of series of paintings in which Monet repeatedly painted the same subject in different lights, at different hours of the day, and through the changes of weather and season. This process began in the 1880s and continued until the end of his life in 1926.

His first series exhibited as such was of Haystacks, painted from different points of view and at different times of the day. Fifteen of the paintings were exhibited at the Galerie Durand-Ruel in 1891. In 1892 he produced what is probably his best-known series, twenty-six views of Rouen Cathedral.[52] In these paintings Monet broke with painterly traditions by cropping the subject so that only a portion of the facade is seen on the canvas. The paintings do not focus on the grand Medieval building, but on the play of light and shade across its surface, transforming the solid masonry.[55]

Other series include Poplars, Mornings on the Seine, and the Water Lilies that were painted on his property at Giverny. Between 1883 and 1908, Monet traveled to the Mediterranean, where he painted landmarks, landscapes, and seascapes, including a series of paintings in Venice. In London he painted four series: the Houses of Parliament, London, Charing Cross Bridge, Waterloo Bridge, and Views of Westminster Bridge. Helen Gardner writes:

"Monet, with a scientific precision, has given us an unparalleled and unexcelled record of the passing of time as seen in the movement of light over identical forms."[52]

Fame

In 2004, London, the Parliament, Effects of Sun in the Fog (Londres, le Parlement, trouée de soleil dans le brouillard) (1904), sold for US$20.1 million.[57] In 2006, the journal Proceedings of the Royal Society published a paper providing evidence that these were painted in situ at St Thomas' Hospital over the river Thames.[58]

Falaises près de Dieppe (Cliffs near Dieppe) has been stolen on two separate occasions: once in 1998 (in which the museum's curator was convicted of the theft and jailed for five years and two months along with two accomplices) and most recently in August 2007.[59] It was recovered in June 2008.[60]

Monet's Le Pont du chemin de fer à Argenteuil, an 1873 painting of a railway bridge spanning the Seine near Paris, was bought by an anonymous telephone bidder for a record $41.4 million at Christie's auction in New York on 6 May 2008. The previous record for his painting stood at $36.5 million.[61] Just a few weeks later, Le bassin aux nymphéas (from the water lilies series) sold at Christie's 24 June 2008 auction in London, lot 19,[62] for £36,500,000 ($71,892,376.34) (hammer price) or £40,921,250 ($80,451,178) with fees, nearly doubling the record for the artist[63] and representing one of the top 20 highest prices paid for a painting at the time.

In October 2013, Monet's paintings, L'Eglise de Vetheuil and Le Bassin aux Nymphease, became subjects of a legal case in New York against NY-based Vilma Bautista, one-time aide to Imelda Marcos, wife of dictator Ferdinand Marcos,[64] after she sold Le Bassin aux Nymphease for $32 million to a Swiss buyer. The said Monet paintings, along with two others, were acquired by Imelda during her husband's presidency and allegedly bought using the nation's funds. Bautista's lawyer claim that the aide sold the painting for Imelda but did not have a chance to give her the money. The Philippine government seeks the return of the painting.[64] Le Bassin aux Nymphease, also known as Japanese Footbridge over the Water-Lily Pond at Giverny, is part of Monet's famed Water Lilies series.

See also

References

  1. ^ House, John, et al.: Monet in the 20th century, page 2, Yale University Press, 1998.
  2. ^ "Claude MONET biography". Giverny.org. 2 December 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2012. 
  3. ^ From John Rewald, The History of Impressionism
  4. ^ Impressionism: A Centenary Exhibition, the Metropolitan Museum of Art, December 12, 1974-February 10, 1975, Anne Distel, Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.)
  5. ^ Impressionism – Overview ARTinthePICTURE.com. Retrieved 6 January 2007.
  6. ^ a b P. Tucker Claude Monet: Life and Art, p. 5
  7. ^ S. Patin, Monet "un œil ... mais bon Dieu, quel œil !", Collection Découverte Gallimard. p. 14.
  8. ^ Steven Z. Levine (1994). "6". Monet, Narcissus, and Self-Reflection: The Modernist Myth of the Self (2 ed.). University of Chicago Press. p. 66. ISBN 9780226475431. "Much closer to Monet's own atheism and pessimism is Schopenhauer, already introduced to the impressionist circle in the criticism of Theodore Duret in the 1870s and whose influence in France was at its peak in 1886, the year of The World as Will and Idea." 
  9. ^ Ruth Butler (2008). Hidden in the Shadow of the Master: the Model-wives of Cézanne, Monet, and Rodin. Yale University Press. p. 202. ISBN 9780300149531. "Then Monet took the end of his brush and drew some long straight strokes in the wet pigment across her chest. It's not clear, and probably not consciously intended by the atheist Claude Monet, but somehow the suggestion of a Cross lies there on her body." 
  10. ^ a b c Biography for Claude Monet Guggenheim Collection. Retrieved 6 January 2007.
  11. ^ Gary Tinterow, Origins of Impressionism, Metropolitan Museum of Art, Jan 1, 1994, ISBN 0870997173, 9780870997174
  12. ^ Musée d'Orsay, Le déjeuner sur l'herbe, Notice de l'œuvre, Iconographie
  13. ^ a b c Charles F. Stuckey, p. 11–16
  14. ^ "Metropolitan Museum of Art". Metmuseum.org. Retrieved 20 December 2012. 
  15. ^ a b c Charles Stuckey "Monet, a Retrospective", Hugh Lauter Levin Associates, 195
  16. ^ Monet, Claude Nicolas Pioch, www.ibiblio.org, 19 September 2002. Retrieved 6 January 2007.
  17. ^ The texts of seven police reports, written on 2 June – 9 October 1871 are included in Monet in Holland, the catalog of an exhibition in the Amsterdam Van Gogh Museum (1986).
  18. ^ a b Wattenmaker, Richard J.; Distel, Anne, et al. (1993). Great French Paintings from the Barnes Foundation. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. p. 98.ISBN 0-679-40963-7
  19. ^ His paintings are shown and discussed here [1].
  20. ^ a b c d Bernard Denvir, The Chronicle of Impressionism: A Timeline History of Impressionist Art, Bulfinch Press Book, 1993
  21. ^ a b c d Bernard Denvir, The chronicle of impressionism: an intimate diary of the lives and world of the great artists, Thames & Hudson, Limited, 1993
  22. ^ a b c archives, Notes for "The First Impressionist Exhibition, 1874"
  23. ^ Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, Frankfurt am Main
  24. ^ Kennedy, Ian. "Kansas city or Moscow?", Apollo, 1 March 2007. Retrieved on 8 June 2009.
  25. ^ Nathalia Brodskaya, Claude Monet, Parkstone International, Jul 1, 2011
  26. ^ Nathalia Brodskaïa, Impressionism, Parkstone International, 2010
  27. ^ Norton Simon Museum
  28. ^ Musée d'Orsay
  29. ^ Metropolitan Museum of Art
  30. ^ Städel
  31. ^ La Grenouillére at the Metropolitan Museum of Art
  32. ^ Le port de Trouville, Museum of Fine Arts, Budapest
  33. ^ La plage de Trouville, 1870, National Gallery, London
  34. ^ Jiminez, Jill Berk (2013). Dictionary of Artists' Models. Routledge. p. 165. ISBN 1135959145.
  35. ^ "La Japonaise". artelino. Retrieved 5 June 2012. 
  36. ^ http://members.aol.com/wwjohnston/camille.htm
  37. ^ Berger, John (1985). The Eyes of Claude Monet from Sense of Sight. New York: Pantheon Books. pp. 194–195. ISBN 0-679-73722-7. 
  38. ^ a b "Biography of Oscar-Claude Monet, The Life and Work of Claude Monet". Monetalia.com. Retrieved 5 June 2012. 
  39. ^ Charles Merrill Mount, Monet a biography, Simon and Schuster publisher, copyright 1966, pp.309–322.
  40. ^ a b "Monet's Village". Giverny. 24 February 2009. Retrieved 5 June 2012. 
  41. ^ Charles Merrill Mount, Monet a biography, Simon and Schuster publisher, copyright 1966, p326.
  42. ^ Mary Mathews Gedo, Monet and His Muse: Camille Monet in the Artist's Life, University of Chicago Press, Sep 30, 2010, ISBN 0226284808, 9780226284804
  43. ^ Garrett, Robert (20 May 2007). "Monet's gardens a draw to Giverny and to his art". Globe Correspondents. Retrieved 13 October 2008. 
  44. ^ Art Gallery of Victoria, Monet's Garden, (retrieved 16 December 2013)
  45. ^ The Metropolitan Museum of Art, Water Lilies, Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History
  46. ^ Gary Tinterow, Modern Europe, Metropolitan Museum of Art (New York, N.Y.), Jan 1, 1987
  47. ^ Forge, Andrew, and Gordon, Robert, Monet, page 224. Harry N. Abrams, 1989.
  48. ^ Let the light shine in Guardian News, 30 May 2002. Retrieved 6 January 2007.
  49. ^ P. Tucker Claude Monet: Life and Art, p.224
  50. ^ "Historical record". Fondation-monet.fr. Retrieved 19 January 2010. 
  51. ^ a b Jennings, Guy (1986). Impressionist Painters. Octopus Books. ISBN 9780706426601. 
  52. ^ a b c Helen Gardner, Art through the Ages, p. 669
  53. ^ Jennings, p. 130
  54. ^ Jennings, p. 132
  55. ^ Jennings p. 137
  56. ^ Art Institute of Chicago
  57. ^ Monet's masterpiece reaches record high bid newsfromrussia.com, 5 November 2004. Retrieved 6 January 2007.
  58. ^ "Virtual Monet Thumbnails Pg 1 | Special reports". guardian.co.uk. Retrieved 5 June 2012. 
  59. ^ "Monet and Others Stolen in Museum Heist in Nice". artforum.com. 8 August 2007. Retrieved 8 August 2007. 
  60. ^ "French police recover stolen Monet painting". artforum.com. 1 October 2009. Retrieved 1 October 2009. 
  61. ^ "Monet fetches record price at New York auction". Google. AFP. 6 May 2008. Retrieved 19 January 2010. 
  62. ^ "Le Bassin Aux Nymphéas". Christies of London. 24 June 2008. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 
  63. ^ "Monet work auctioned for £40.9m". BBC News. 24 June 2008. Retrieved 24 June 2008. 
  64. ^ a b Ex-Imelda Marcos aide on trial in NYC for selling Monet work. Associated Press. 17 October 2013. Retrieved 17 October 2013.

Further reading

External links