Alveolar lateral approximant

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Alveolar lateral approximant
l
IPA number 155
Encoding
Entity (decimal) l
Unicode (hex) U+006C
X-SAMPA l
Kirshenbaum l
Braille ⠇ (braille pattern dots-123)
Sound
Postalveolar lateral approximant
Dental lateral approximant

The alveolar lateral approximant is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents dental, alveolar, and postalveolar lateral approximants is l, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is l.

As a sonorant, lateral approximants are nearly always voiced. Voiceless lateral approximants, /l̥/, are common in Tibeto-Burman languages, but uncommon elsewhere. In such cases, voicing typically starts about halfway through the hold of the consonant. No language contrasts such a sound with a voiceless alveolar lateral fricative [ɬ].

In a number of languages, including most varieties of English, the phoneme /l/ becomes velarized in certain contexts, a sound often called "dark l". Some languages, like many North American dialects of English may not have a "clear" /l/ at all.

Alveolar lateral approximant[edit]

Features[edit]

Features of the voiced alveolar lateral approximant:

  • Its manner of articulation is approximant, which means it is produced by narrowing the vocal tract at the place of articulation, but not enough to produce a turbulent airstream.
  • Its place of articulation is alveolar, postalveolar or dental, which means it is articulated with either the tip or the blade of the tongue at the alveolar ridge, behind the alveolar ridge or behind upper front teeth, termed respectively apical and laminal.
  • Its phonation is voiced, which means the vocal cords vibrate during the articulation. However, in some languages, such as Swiss German, it can just mean that this consonant is pronounced shorter and weaker than its voiceless counterpart, while its voicedness or lack thereof is not relevant. In such cases it's more accurate to call such sounds lenis or lax.
  • It is an oral consonant, which means air is allowed to escape through the mouth only.
  • It is a lateral consonant, which means it is produced by directing the airstream over the sides of the tongue, rather than down the middle.
  • The airstream mechanism is pulmonic, which means it is articulated by pushing air solely with the lungs and diaphragm, as in most sounds.

Occurrence[edit]

Languages may have clear apical or laminal alveolars (such as Bulgarian, which has both), laminal denti-alveolars (such as French), or true dentals, which are uncommon. However, a true dental generally occurs allophonically before /θ/ in languages which have it, as in English health.

Alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Abkhaz мгьал [mɡʲal] 'bread' See Abkhaz phonology
Adyghe кӀалэ [t͡ʃaːla] 'boy'
Albanian lis [lis] 'tree'
Arabic Standard[1] لا [laː] 'no' See Arabic phonology
Armenian Eastern[2] լուսին About this sound [lusin]  'moon'
Basque lan [lan] 'work'
Bulgarian или [ili] 'or'
Catalan[3][4] tela [ˈt̪ɛlə] 'fabric' Apical 'front alveolar'.[3][4] May also be velarized.[5] See Catalan phonology
Chinese Mandarin lǎo [lɑʊ˨˩˦] 'old' See Mandarin phonology
Czech lis [lɪs] 'press' See Czech phonology
Dutch leven [ˈleːvə(n)] 'to live' See Dutch phonology
English let [lɛt] 'let' See English phonology
Finnish illalla [ilːɑlːɑ] 'at evening' See Finnish phonology
German Liebe [ˈliːbə] 'love' See German phonology
Greek άλμα álma [ˈalma] 'jump' See Modern Greek phonology
Hebrew לא [lo̞] 'no' See Modern Hebrew phonology
Italian[6][7][8] letto [ˈlɛt̪ːo] 'bed' Apical.[9] See Italian phonology
Kabardian щIалэ [ɕʼaːla] 'boy' Traditionally pronounced as [ɮ]
Kashubian[10] [example needed]
Kyrgyz[11] көпөлөк [køpøˈløk] 'butterfly' Velarized in back vowel contexts
Malay lagi [laɡi] 'again'
Marathi ग्न [ləɡˈnə] 'wedding' See Marathi phonology
Norwegian liv [liːv] 'life' Can be dental in eastern dialects. See Norwegian phonology
Polish[12] pole About this sound [ˈpɔlɛ]  'field' Contrasts with /ɫ/ for a small number of speakers, and when it does, it's always palatalized [lʲ]. See Polish phonology
Punjabi ਲਾਲ [läːl] 'red'
Romanian[13] alună [äˈlun̪ə] 'hazelnut' Apical. See Romanian phonology
Russian ключ About this sound [klʲʉt͡ɕ]  'key' Palatalized. Contrasts with pharyngealized denti-alveolar lateral. See Russian phonology
Slovak[14] mĺkvy About this sound [ˈml̩ːkʋi]  'silent' Syllabic form can be long or short
Slovene[15] letalo [lɛˈt̪àːlɔ] 'airplane'
Spanish[16] hablar [äˈβ̞läɾ] 'to speak' See Spanish phonology
Tibetan [la] 'mountain pass' Contrasts voiced and voiceless lateral approximants
Ukrainian[17] обличчя [oˈblɪt͡ʃːɐ] 'face' Contrasts with palatalized form; it is voiceless word-finally after voiceless consonants.[17] See Ukrainian phonology
West Frisian lyts [lit͡s] 'small' In complementary distribution with [ɫ]; occurs before [i] and [y]
Postalveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Italian[9] il cervo [il̠ʲ ˈt͡ʃɛrvo] 'the deer' Palatalized,[9] laminal.[9] Allophone of /l/ before /ʃ t͡ʃ d͡ʒ/.[9] See Italian phonology
Dental or denti-alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Flemish lucht [l̪ʏçt̪] 'air' Laminal denti-alveolar, present in some dialects. See Dutch phonology
English Some dialects wealth [ˈwɛl̪θ] 'wealth' Dental. It's the allophone of /l/ before /θ ð/, present in dialects with no dark l and no L-vocalization. See English phonology
French[18] il [il̪] 'he' Laminal denti-alveolar. See French phonology
Hungarian[19] elem [ˈɛl̪ɛm] 'battery' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Hungarian phonology
Italian[8][9][20] molto [ˈmol̪ːt̪o] 'much, a lot' Laminal denti-alveolar.[8][9] Allophone of /l/ before /t d s z t͡s d͡z/.[8][9][20] See Italian phonology
Macedonian[21] лево [l̪e̞vo̞] 'left' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Macedonian phonology
Mapudungun [l̪afken̪] 'sea, lake' Interdental
Norwegian Eastern liv [l̪iːv] 'life' Laminal denti-alveolar. Present in some dialects, in others it's alveolar. See Norwegian phonology
Pashto لس [ləs] 'ten'
Polish wolt [vɔl̪t̪] 'volt' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /l/ before dental and denti-alveolar consonants. See Polish phonology
Slovene bazalt [baˈz̪áːl̪t̪] 'basalt' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /l/ before /t d s z t͡s/ when it's not vocalized to [w]
Swedish Central Standard[22] allt [äl̪t̪] 'everything' Laminal denti-alveolar. See Swedish phonology
Tamil[23] புலி [puli] 'tiger' See Tamil phonology
Uzbek[24] [example needed] Laminal denti-alveolar. Velarized between a non-front rounded vowel and a consonant or juncture phoneme.[24]
Vietnamese[25] lửa [lɨə˧˩˧] 'fire' See Vietnamese phonology
Variable
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Cantonese lou5 [lou˩˧˦] 'old' Alveolar to sometimes dental. See Cantonese phonology
Korean 물집 muljip [mult͡ɕ̤ip̚] 'blister' Alveolar to postalveolar. See Korean phonology
Portuguese Most Brazilian dialects[26][27] lero-lero [ˈlɛɾu ˈlɛɾu] 'runaround'[28] Dental to sometimes alveolar. Always doubly articulated in other dialects.[29] See Portuguese phonology

Velarized alveolar lateral approximant [edit]

Dark L
ɫ
IPA number 209
Encoding
Entity (decimal) l​ˠ
Unicode (hex) U+006C U+02E0
X-SAMPA 5 or l_G or l_?\
Kirshenbaum l<vzd>
Sound

The velarized alveolar lateral approximant (dark l) is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. It is an alveolar, denti-alveolar or dental lateral approximant, with a secondary articulation of velarization or pharyngealization. The regular symbols in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represent this sound are (for a velarized lateral) and (for a pharyngealized lateral), though the dedicated letter ɫ, which covers both velarization and pharyngealization is perhaps more common. If the sound is dental or denti-alveolar, one could use a dental diacritic to indicate that: l̪ˠ, l̪ˤ, ɫ̪.

Velarization and pharyngealization are generally associated with more dental articulations of coronal consonants so that dark l tends to be dental or denti-alveolar while clear l tends to be retracted to an alveolar position.[30]

Features[edit]

Features of the dark l:

Occurrence[edit]

Alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Albanian halla [ˈhäɫä] 'aunt'
Arabic Standard[31] الله ʼAllah [ʔɑˈɫːɑːh] 'God' Also transcribed as . Many accents and dialects lack the sound and instead pronounce [l]. See Arabic phonology
Bashkir ҡала ǩala [ˈqɑˈɫɑ] 'city'
Bulgarian ъгъл ăgăl [ˈɤ̞̈ɡɐɫ] 'corner'
Catalan[5] Eastern dialects cel·la [ˈsɛɫːə] 'cell' Apical. Can be always dark in many dialects. See Catalan phonology
Western dialects alt [aɫ(t)] 'tall'
Dutch[32][33] bal [bɑɫ] 'ball' Postvocalic allophone of /l/. Can be always dark in some Netherlandic dialects. See Dutch phonology
Emiliano-Romagnolo l [sa:ɫ] 'salt'
English[34] Australian peel [pʰiːɫ] 'peel' Most often apical. Can be always dark in North America, Australia and New Zealand. See English phonology
Canadian
Dublin
General American
New Zealand
Received Pronunciation
South African
Scottish loch [ɫɔx] 'loch' Can be always dark, except in some borrowings from Scottish Gaelic
Greek Northern dialects[35] μπάλα lla [ˈbaɫa] 'ball' Allophone of /l/ before /a o u/. See Modern Greek phonology
Irish lá [ɫɑː] 'day' See Irish phonology
Kyrgyz[11] [example needed] Velarized. Appears in back vowel contexts, otherwise it's clear [l]
Norwegian Northern spelle [spæɫːe] 'to play' See Norwegian phonology
Ossetian Алани Alani About this sound [äˈɫäːni]  'Alania'
Scots fluir [fɫyːr] 'floor'
Serbo-Croatian[36][37] лак / lak [ɫâ̠k] 'easy' Apical; may be syllabic; contrasts with /ʎ/. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
St’át’imcets qao [qáɫ] 'bad'
Taos [kīǣˈwǣɫmã̄] 'be strong' See Taos phonology
Turkish kızıl [kɯzɯɫ] 'red' See Turkish phonology
Uzbek[24] [example needed] Apical; present between a non-front rounded vowel and a consonant or juncture phoneme. Non-velarized denti-alveolar elsewhere.[24]
Welsh Northern dialects lol [ɫɔɫ] 'nonsense'
West Frisian lân [ɫɔːn] 'land'
Dental or Denti-alveolar
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Belarusian[38] Беларусь [bʲɛɫ̪äˈrus̪ʲ] 'Belarus' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with palatalized form. See Belarusian phonology
Catalan[5][39] altres [ˈaɫ̪t̪ɾəs̺] 'others' Velarized[5] laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /l/ before /t d/.[39] See Catalan phonology
English wealth [ˈwɛɫ̪θ] 'wealth' Velarized dental. It's the allophone of /l/ before /θ ð/. See English phonology
Icelandic[40] sigldi [s̺ɪɫ̪t̪ɪ] 'sailed' Velarized[40] laminal denti-alveolar; rare. See Icelandic phonology
Lithuanian[41] labas [ˈɫ̪äːbɐs̪] 'hi' Laminal denti-alveolar. Contrasts with [lʲ]
Macedonian[42] лук
luk
[ɫ̪uk] 'garlic' Laminal denti-alveolar. Present only before back vowels (/a o u/) and syllable-finally. See Macedonian phonology
Norwegian Southeastern[41] tale [ˈt̪ʰɑ̈ːɫ̪ə] 'speech', 'to speak' Laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /l/ after /ɑ ɑː ɔ oː/. See Norwegian phonology
Polish Eastern dialects[12] łapa [ˈɫ̪äpä] 'paw' Velarized laminal denti-alveolar. Corresponds to /w/ in standard Polish. See Polish phonology
Russian[43] малый [ˈmɑ̟ɫ̪ɨ̞j] 'small' Pharyngealized laminal denti-alveolar. See Russian phonology
Scottish Gaelic[44] Mallaig [ˈmäʊɫ̪ækʲ] 'Mallaig' See Scottish Gaelic phonology
Serbo-Croatian столца / stolca [s̪t̪ǒ̞ːɫ̪t̪͡s̪a̠] 'chair' (gen. sg.) Velarized laminal denti-alveolar. Allophone of /l/ before /t d s z t͡s/; may be syllabic. See Serbo-Croatian phonology
Variable
Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Portuguese European[45] mil [miɫ̪] 'one thousand' When [lˠ ~ lʶ ~ lˤ ~ lˀ],[46] most often dental. Coda is now vocalized to [ ~ ʊ̯] in most of Brazil (as in rural parts of Alto Minho and Madeira).[47] Might be always dental, and always dark (especially before back/rounded and close/unrounded vowels), in most dialects. See Portuguese phonology
Most dialects[48] Lituânia About this sound [ɫ̪it̪uˈɐ̃ɲ̟ɐ]  'Lithuania'
Older Brazilian[49][50][51][52] álcool [ˈäɫ̪ko̞ɫ̪] 'Alcohol', 'Ethanol'

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Thelwall (1990:38)
  2. ^ Dum-Tragut (2009:20)
  3. ^ a b Wheeler (2005:10-11)
  4. ^ a b "Voiced Alveolar Lateral - Central | Els Sons del Català". 
    "Voiced Alveolar Lateral - Nord Occidental | Els Sons del Català". 
  5. ^ a b c d Recasens & Espinosa (2005:1 and 20)
  6. ^ Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005:132)
  7. ^ Canepari (1992:88-89)
  8. ^ a b c d Rogers & d'Arcangeli (2004:117)
  9. ^ a b c d e f g h Canepari (1992:89)
  10. ^ http://www.rastko.net/rastko-ka/content/view/227/26/
  11. ^ a b Kara (2003:11)
  12. ^ a b Rocławski (1976:130)
  13. ^ Chițoran (2001:10)
  14. ^ Hanulíková & Hamann (2010:374)
  15. ^ Pretnar & Tokarz (1980:21)
  16. ^ Martínez-Celdrán, Fernández-Planas & Carrera-Sabaté (2003:255)
  17. ^ a b Danyenko & Vakulenko (1995:10)
  18. ^ Walker (1984:35)
  19. ^ Siptár & Törkenczy (2000:75–76)
  20. ^ a b Bertinetto & Loporcaro (2005:133)
  21. ^ Lunt (1952:1)
  22. ^ Engstrand (2004:167)
  23. ^ Keane (2004:111)
  24. ^ a b c d Sjoberg (1963:13)
  25. ^ Thompson (1959:458–461)
  26. ^ Depalatalization and consequential iotization in the speech of Fortaleza. Page 2. (Portuguese)
  27. ^ Barbosa & Albano (2004:229)
  28. ^ Runaround generator
  29. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:92)
  30. ^ a b Recasens & Espinosa (2005:4)
  31. ^ Watson (2002:16)
  32. ^ Verhoeven (2005:245)
  33. ^ Booij, Geert. 1999. The Phonology of Dutch. P.8
  34. ^ Roca & Johnson (1999:73)
  35. ^ Northern Greek Dialects Portal for the Greek Language
  36. ^ Kordić 2006, p. 5.
  37. ^ Diana Archangeli, Jeff Berry. "Dark and light /l/s in Georgian". University of Arizona. p. 5. 
  38. ^ Padluzhny (1989:50–51)
  39. ^ a b Rafel (1999:14)
  40. ^ a b Scholten (2000:22)
  41. ^ a b Mathiassen (1996:23)
  42. ^ Lunt (1952:11–12)
  43. ^ Jones & Ward (1969:168)
  44. ^ Ó Dochartaigh (1997)
  45. ^ Cruz-Ferreira (1995:93)
  46. ^ "Um caso de português tonal no Brasil?" – Centro de Comunicação e Expressão – Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Portuguese). Page 52.
  47. ^ MELO, Gladstone Chaves de. "A língua do Brasil". 4. Ed. Melhorada e aum., Rio de Janeiro: Padrão, 1981
  48. ^ (Italian) Accenti romanze: Portogallo e Brasile (portoghese) – The influence of foreign accents on Italian language acquisition
  49. ^ (Portuguese) The process of Norm change for the good pronunciation of the Portuguese language in chant and dramatics in Brazil during 1938, 1858 and 2007 Page 36.
  50. ^ TEYSSIER, Paul. "História da Língua Portuguesa", Lisboa: Livraria Sá da Costa, pp. 81-83.
  51. ^ Bisol (2005:211)
  52. ^ "Um caso de português tonal no Brasil?" – Centro de Comunicação e Expressão – Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina (Portuguese). Page 49.

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