Clearview (typeface)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Clearview font.svg
Category Sans-serif
Designer(s) Donald Meeker
James Montalbano
Christopher O'Hara
Martin Pietrucha
Philip Garvey
Foundry Terminal Design Inc.
Clearview sample text
Sample

Clearview, also known as Clearview Hwy, is the name of a humanist sans-serif typeface family for guide signs on roads in the United States. It was developed by independent researchers with the help of the Texas Transportation Institute and the Pennsylvania Transportation Institute, under the supervision of the Federal Highway Administration (FHWA). It was once expected to replace the FHWA typefaces in many applications, although newer studies of its effectiveness have called its benefits into question.[1][2]

Testing found Clearview was two to eight percent more legible in daytime and nighttime viewing than the then-dominant Series E (Modified) on overhead signs, particularly benefiting older drivers, with a six percent increase in legibility distance.[3] A design goal of Clearview was the reduction of irradiation effects of retroreflective sign materials.[3] The same reduction in nighttime overglow or haloing that benefits legibility for humans is expected to result in improved recognition rates for computer road sign detection.[4]

History[edit]

A Clearview highway sign in Farmington Hills, Michigan, installed in 2005 near the terminus of westbound I-696. Note that numbers within the shields use the traditional FHWA typeface.

The standard FHWA typefaces, developed in the 1940s, were designed to work with a system of highway signs in which almost all words are capitalized. The designers of Clearview sought to create a typeface adapted for mixed-case signage, initially expecting it would be based on an existing European sans-serif typeface.[5] Instead, using a similar weight to the FHWA fonts, a new font was created from scratch. Two key differences are much larger counter spaces, the enclosed spaces in letters like the lower case "e" or "a," and a higher x-height, the relative height of the lower case "x" to the upper case "X." Smaller counter spaces in the FHWA fonts reduced legibility, particularly when the letters glowed from headlight illumination at night. The typeface's general appearance resembles the design of the Transport typeface family, designed by Jock Kinneir and Margaret Calvert in 1957–63 for the British highway sign system.

Official acceptance[edit]

Clearview was granted interim approval by the FHWA for use on positive contrast road signs (light legend on dark background, such as white on black, green, blue, brown, purple or red) on September 2, 2004.[6] The FHWA has not granted approval for Clearview to be used on negative-contrast road signs (dark legend on light background, such as black on white, yellow or orange), given its inferior legibility to the existing FHWA typefaces in these applications.[7] Despite this, it is used in negative-contrast applications by some agencies. The FHWA also refused to add Clearview to the 2009 MUTCD, citing lack of testing on Clearview's numerals, symbols, and narrower typefaces.[8] In April 2014, FHWA indicated it expects to rescind Interim Approval to use Clearview. [2]

In Canada, since 2006, Clearview has been adopted as the standard typeface for signs in the province of British Columbia.[9] It is also used for street signs in the city of Toronto.[10]

Variants[edit]

In addition to its appearance on road signage, a customized version of the ClearviewText typeface was adopted by AT&T for corporate use, including advertising, beginning in 2006.[1] ClearviewText and ClearviewADA are versions of the typeface intended for use in general graphic design and ADA-compliant signage.

An example of the Clearview typeface.


Adoption[edit]

United States[edit]

Between 20 and 30 states have adopted the use of the typeface as of 2013.[11][12][13] It is not the official font recommended for use by the FHWA, and states must request interim approval from the Federal Highway Administration to use the font.[11]

Canada[edit]

The Transportation Association of Canada's MUTCD for Canada allows the use of Clearview, and the Ministry of Transportation of Ontario uses it for positive contrast guide signs.[14] Toronto has been replacing its black-on-white street signs with newer signs that use Clearview since 2004, with exceptions for certain older neighborhoods.[15][16][17]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Yaffa, Joshua (August 12, 2007). "The Road to Clarity". The New York Times Magazine. Retrieved June 5, 2009. 
  2. ^ a b Kehrli, Mark R. "IA-5.31 - Clearview - Grays Harbor County, WA (DENIED)". Federal Highway Administration. Retrieved April 25, 2014. 
  3. ^ a b Castro, Candida; Horberry, Tim (14 April 2004). The Human Factors of Transport Signs. CRC Press. p. 126. ISBN 978-0-203-45741-2. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  4. ^ Li, Li; Wang, Fei-Yue (24 November 2007). Advanced Motion Control and Sensing for Intelligent Vehicles. Springer. p. 375. ISBN 978-0-387-44409-3. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  5. ^ Meeker and Associates / Terminal Design, Inc. ClearviewHWY Research & Design Development. Retrieved on 15 April 2007.
  6. ^ "Interim Approval for Use of Clearview Font for Positive Contrast Legends on Guide Signs". Federal Highway Administration. 2 September 2004. Retrieved 17 December 2013. 
  7. ^ Evaluation of the Clearview Font for Negative Contrast Traffic Signs, January 2006 
  8. ^ 74 F.R. 66740
  9. ^ http://www.th.gov.bc.ca/publications/Circulars/All/T_Circ/2006/t15-06_v3.pdf
  10. ^ http://www.theatlanticcities.com/neighborhoods/2013/05/torontos-gorgeous-old-street-signs-might-soon-be-sale/5545/
  11. ^ a b Murphy, Matt (26 December 2013). "New font making signs more visible". Charleston Daily Mail. Retrieved 16 January 2014. 
  12. ^ Strizver, Ilene (7 October 2013). Type Rules: The Designer's Guide to Professional Typography. Wiley. p. 20. ISBN 978-1-118-74869-5. Retrieved 18 December 2013. 
  13. ^ "List of approved requests for interim approval – FHWA MUTCD". Manual on Uniform Traffic Control Devices (MUTCD). Federal Highway Administration, U.S. Department of Transportation. Retrieved 16 January 2014. 
  14. ^ "Now you see it! MTO’s evolution in traffic signs". Road Talk 15 (4). Ministry of Transportation of Ontario. Retrieved 16 January 2014. 
  15. ^ Holden, Alfred (11 July 2004). "The signs are a-changin; Those familiar street markers are getting a new font and a new look; Words are designed with seniors and drivers in mind". The Toronto Star (ONT Edition). p. B.03. Retrieved 16 January 2014. (subscription required (help)). 
  16. ^ Spears, John (7 March 2007). "The signs they are a changin'; But not right away, as host of exceptions for older neighbourhoods means many existing street signs are sticking around". The Toronto Star (MET Edition). p. C.1. Retrieved 16 January 2014. (subscription required (help)). 
  17. ^ Byrnes, Mark (10 May 2013). "Toronto's gorgeous old street signs might soon be for sale". The Atlantic Cities. The Atlantic Monthly Group. 

External links[edit]