Pope Clement III

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Not to be confused with Antipope Clement III.
Pope
Clement III
A08 CLEMENTE III.jpg
Papacy began 19 December 1187
Papacy ended 20 March 1191
Predecessor Gregory VIII
Successor Celestine III
Personal details
Birth name Paulino or Paolo Scolari
Born 1130
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Died 20 March 1191[1]
Rome, Papal States, Holy Roman Empire
Other popes named Clement

Pope Clement III (Latin: Clemens III; 1130 – 20 March 1191), born Paulino (or Paolo) Scolari,[2] reigned from 19 December 1187 to his death in 1191.

Cardinal[edit]

A Roman by birth, Pope Alexander III appointed him in succession Archpriest of the patriarchal Liberian Basilica, Cardinal-deacon of Sergio e Bacco, and finally Cardinal bishop of Palestrina in December 1180. He appears as signatory of the papal bulls issued between 15 October 1179 and 11 December 1187.[citation needed]

Pope[edit]

Shortly after his accession at the conclusion of the papal election of December 1187, Clement succeeded in allaying the conflict which had existed for half a century between the Popes and the citizens of Rome, with an agreement by which the citizens were allowed to elect their magistrates, while the nomination of the governor of the city remained in the hands of the Pope. On 31 May 1188 he concluded a treaty with the Romans which removed long standing difficulties, thus returning the Papacy to Rome.[3]

Clement also inherited a depleted college of cardinals, consisting of no more than twenty cardinals. He orchestrated three series of promotions (March 1188, May 1189 and October 1190) that resulted in over thirty new cardinals.[4]

He pushed King Henry II of England and King Philip II of France to undertake the Third Crusade.[5] In April 1189, Clement made peace with the Emperor Frederick I Barbarossa.

He settled a controversy with King William I of Scotland concerning the choice of the archbishop of St. Andrews, and on 13 March 1188 removed the Scottish church from the legatine jurisdiction of the Archbishop of York, thus making it independent of all save Rome.[6]

In spite of agreeing to crown Holy Roman Emperor Henry VI, Clement III angered him by bestowing Sicily on Tancred, son of Roger III, Duke of Apulia.[7] The crisis was acute when the Pope died in the latter part of March 1191.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ About the date of his death see Katrin Baaken: Zu Wahl, Weihe und Krönung Papst Cölestins III. Deutsches Archiv für Erforschung des Mittelalters Volume 41 / 1985, pp. 203-211
  2. ^ Cheetham, Nicolas, Keepers of the Keys, (Charles Scribner's Sons, 1982), 325.
  3. ^ The New Cambridge Medieval History, Vol.1, Ed. David Luscombe and Jonathan Riley-Smith, (Cambridge University Press, 2004), 402.
  4. ^ Robinson, Ian Stuart, The papacy 1073–1198: continuity and innovation, (Cambridge University Press, 1990), 55.
  5. ^ Reston, James, Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade, (Random House Inc., 2001), 106.
  6. ^ Blair, D. Oswald Hunter, History of the Catholic Church of Scotland, (Willian Blackwood and Sons, 1887), 329.
  7. ^ Benson, Robert Louis and Robert Charles Figueira, Plenitude of power: the doctrines and exercise of authority in the Middle Ages, (Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2006), 40.

References[edit]

  • Benson, Robert Louis and Robert Charles Figueira, Plenitude of power: the doctrines and exercise of authority in the Middle Ages, Ashgate Publishing Ltd, 2006.
  • Blair, D. Oswald Hunter, History of the Catholic Church of Scotland, Willian Blackwood and Sons, 1887.
  • Wikisource-logo.svg "Pope Clement III" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  • Cheetham, Nicolas, Keepers of the Keys, Charles Scribner's Sons, 1982.
  • Public Domain This article incorporates text from a publication now in the public domainChisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). Encyclopædia Britannica (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. 
  • Reston, James, Warriors of God: Richard the Lionheart and Saladin in the Third Crusade, Random House Inc., 2001.
  • Robinson, Ian Stuart, The Papacy, 1073–1198: Continuity and Innovation, Cambridge University Press 1990.
Catholic Church titles
Preceded by
Gregory VIII
Pope
1187–91
Succeeded by
Celestine III