Clerical clothing is non-liturgical clothing worn exclusively by clergy. It is distinct from vestments in that it is not reserved specifically for services. Practices vary: clerical clothing is sometimes worn under vestments, and sometimes as the everyday clothing or street wear of a priest, minister, or other clergy member. In some cases, it can be similar or identical to the habit of a monk or nun.
In Eastern Orthodoxy and Eastern Catholicism, a useful distinction between liturgical vestments and clerical clothing is that vestments are required to be blessed before being worn. Conversely, clerical clothing is not, and is regarded as daily wear.
- Inner Cassock: The inner cassock (more commonly, simply Cassock) is a floor length garment, usually black, worn by all clergy members, monastics, and seminarians.
- Outer Cassock: Called a Ryasa (Russian: ряса) or Exorason, the outer cassock is a large, flowing garment worn over the inner cassock by bishops, priests, deacons, and monastics.
- Skufia: A soft-sided cap worn by monastics or awarded to clergy as a mark of honor.
- Kamilavka: A stiff hat worn by monastics or awarded to clergy as a mark of honor.
- Apostolnik: A veil worn either by nuns, either alone or with a Skufia.
- Epanokamelavkion: A veil extending over the back, worn with the Kamilavka by all monastics and bishops.
- Klobuk: A Kamilavka with an Epanokamelavkion permanently attached; more common in the Russian tradition.
Eastern Orthodox Examples
|Bishop||Priest (married)||Hieromonk (celibate Priest)||Priest with grey Zostikon, a
Kontorasson and wearing a Skufia.
|Monk in an Exorasson||Reader/Subdeacon/Deacon
dressed in the Zostikon
- Married Priests can wear an exorasson or zostikon when not celebrating Liturgy and may opt to wear the more informal skufia over the more formal Kamilavkion. They may also wear a vest called a kontorasson, usually during colder weather. The colors of their cassocks vary between the typical black, grey and blue.
- Monks, Hieromonks & Bishops all wear the klobuk as part of their mark of celibacy. Some monks will wear the zostikon, kontorasson and skufia when doing daily work around a monastery.
- Readers & Subdeacons rarely wear a cassock outside of church, but are often required to wear one in church when not serving.
Oriental Orthodox Examples
|Syriac Patriarch||Syriac Bishop||Coptic Priest||Syriac Priest||Syriac Priest
In 1215, a church council made it mandatory for all the Christian clergy to wear a distinctive dress. Its purpose was not necessarily to elevate the status of the Christian clerics; it was intended that they would catch the public eye if any member of the clergy is seen on the street.
- Cassock: A long-sleeved, hoodless garment. Depending on the climate it can be made of very lightweight material or heavy wool. In tropical climates white is worn. This is the norm for secular clergy and members of religious institutes. Some religious societies such as the Jesuits and Redemptorists wear their own style of cassock. Monks and friars wear a habit which can differ considerably from the cassock. Cassocks are generally ankle-length. The color is black for priests, black with purple piping for canons, black with fuchsia piping for monsignors, black with red piping for bishops; and black with scarlet for cardinals. The Roman Pontiff wears a white cassock. Monsignors, bishops and cardinals have what is known as a "choir cassock" for liturgical occasions but this is not worn for everyday wear.
- Ferraiolo: A full-length cape reaching to the ankles. This is only worn with the cassock on formal white tie or Morning dress occasions.
- Cape: A covering for the cassock in cold weather.
- Greca (douillette): An overcoat covering the cassock.
- Hat: Zuchetto or biretta, depending on circumstance. The biretta is not worn outside of liturgical events.
- Clerical collar: There are a variety of options for daily clerical attire, all involving the use of a clerical collar:
- Collarino: This is probably the most common type of shirt and collar among Roman Catholic clergy. It resembles a standard dress shirt, but has a standing black collar that is sewn to accommodate a white cloth or soft plastic insert, leaving a small white square at the base of the throat.
- Neckband: A collarless shirt (similar to a banded collar shirt) tailored to accommodate a strip of linen or plastic that, when worn over the shirt, creates a standing white collar that rings the neck. This detachable collar is fastened with collar stays or buttons. These shirts and detachable collars were originally intended to be worn underneath a waistcoat, rabat, or cassock. Today these shirts are almost invariably black poly-cotton, but when worn under a waistcoat or rabat are usually white and made of a higher quality oxford cotton weave.
- Clerical waistcoat or rabat: Clerical waistcoats or rabats are the most traditional and formal item of clerical costume. They are almost always black and are made of worsted wool. Clerical waistcoats generally sport silk backing. They are worn over a neckband shirt and a detachable collar to create a cassock-like appearance about the neck. Unlike the waistcoats that accompany suits, they button all the way to the collar. The rabat is a late innovation, and exactly mirrors the clerical waistcoat, except that it is backless.
In Rome, Roman Catholic clergy are permitted to wear black, grey, and blue clerical shirts, while in the United States they are permitted to wear only black, quite likely because of long-standing custom and to distinguish them from non-Catholic clergy.
This applies to the Latin clergy only. Clergy of the Eastern Catholic Churches dress in a similar fashion to local Orthodox clergy.
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2012)|
In the 19th century, it was fashionable among gentlemen to wear a detachable collar which was washed and starched separately from the shirt. Initially with the detachable collar, Anglican clergy wore a white cravat, later a white bow tie, with a waistcoat with a standing collar and a loose clerical frock coat resembling a knee length cassock with multiple buttons to waist level. Alternatively they could wear the normal style of gentleman's frock coat and a rabat (See above). In the middle of the century Anglican clergymen began turning the collar around backwards, creating the first versions of the "dog collar". This form of distinctive dress was seen as a controversial affectation of the High Church party, but as time progressed the collar-turned-backwards became more common, and even survived the demise of detachable collars among the general public. Though the black waistcoat has given way to a black shirt, the collar has become a daily part of clerical costume for most Anglican clergy. However, some Anglican clergy join with ministers of reformed churches in eschewing distinctive clerical costume entirely.. During the 20th century Anglican bishops began wearing purple (officially violet) shirts as a sign of their office. Along with the pectoral cross and episcopal ring, this marks them off from other clergy in appearance. While there is no law among the churches of the Anglican Communion that prevents other members of the clergy from wearing a purple shirt, to do so is generally not considered appropriate.
Traditionally,[when?] Anglican clergy regularly wore the cassock in public, although this is less common. The traditional Anglican headwear with the cassock was the Canterbury cap, which is now seldom used. Some Anglo-Catholic clergy still wear the biretta. Bishops and archdeacons traditionally wore a shortened version of the cassock, called an apron (which hung just above the knee), along with breeches and gaiters. The gaiters, buttoned up the side, would cover the trouser leg to a point just below the knee. This form of everyday vesture, common up until the 1960s, is now almost extinct. (This was appropriate for them in the time when some of their travelling would be on horseback but continued into the middle of the 20th century.)
Anglican clergy typically favour a double-breasted cassock (known as a Sarum), often with an external button at chest level on which to hook an academic hood (which is worn as part of the choir habit). Clergy of a more Anglo-Catholic persuasion however often favour a cassock similar to that of Roman Catholic clergy. Single breasted cassocks of other designs are also sometimes used. Like Roman Catholic clergy, some Anglican clergy wear the fascia (known within Anglicanism as a cincture) around the waist, while others prefer a belt. Where extra protection from the elements is needed a cloak may be worn over the cassock.
Clergy of the royal peculiars, senior chaplains to the forces, members of the Chapels Royal and Honorary Chaplains to the Queen may wear a scarlet cassock and a special badge (Queen's cypher surmounted by St Edward's crown surrounded by oak and laurel leaves) on their scarf.
It has been mentioned above that the headcover normally worn with the cassock is the biretta (for Roman Catholics) or the Canterbury Cap (for Anglicans). In the 19th century clergy, like most gentlemen of the time, wore the tall silk (top) hat with their outdoor dress and this remained traditional for bishops and other senior clergy for many years. However many clergy preferred to wear a distinctive broad brimmed round topped hat resembling a low crowned bowler and this remained popular until the World War I, when it tended to be substituted by the dark or black Homburg style hat worn by many professional men until recently.
Lutheran clerical clothing varies depending on locality and denomination. The clerical clothing of Lutheran priests and bishops often mirrors that of Catholic clergy; cassock or clerical shirt and a detachable clerical collar. A Lutheran bishop might wear a pectoral cross.
CM Almy, founded in 1892 in New York City, is the largest American producer of clerical clothing. Its vice president Michael Fender has said,
"It's not unusual for a church to keep the same CM Almy garments in stock for 30 years, and just keep sending them back for small repairs. I think the clothing that a member of the clergy wears is like a uniform, and identifies them within their own group. Clergy generally want to look professional, and we help them achieve that. We want to make garments that fit well with the architecture and aesthetics of the church."
The family-run company have started to design and make clothing for female seminarians, who prefer the use of more stretchy fabrics.
Scandinavian clergy will wear a black cassock, as in Anglican and Catholic traditions, but with a distinctive ruff. The ruff is a large collar, stiffly starched, worn over the top of a full clerical collar.
In British Methodism, a minister (presbyter) often wears a simple business suit with a coloured shirt and clerical collar. For more formal services a minister will adopt a cassock with bands, possibly worn under vestments, such as an alb and stole. For ceremonial and very formal occasions, such as the (British) Remembrance Day service at the Cenotaph in London, a traditional black Geneva preaching gown, academic hood and bands may be worn.
The dress of those lay members of the congregation who sing in the choir, and of the organist, varies from congregation to congregation. A typical costume might be a blue cassock, English-style plain white surplice, and for women a canterbury cap.
Dress in the United Methodist Church differs from the British norms. There are no official rules on vestments or clerical clothing. Therefore, use of clerical clothing by United Methodist clergy varies greatly by location and situation. Methodist clergy frequently wear clerical clothing on pastoral visits at hospitals and nursing facilities. Elders will most frequently wear black or blue clerical shirts while bishops will wear purple.
- Ginsburg, Madeleine (1982). Victorian Dress in Photographs. London: Batsford.
- Fantozzi, Joanna, "Made for Women of the Modern Cloth," New York Times, Oct. 6, 2013, pp. 12-13
- "ruff (collar)". Memidex. Retrieved 21 February 2014.
- Dress of Roman Catholic Clergy
- Why Clergy Should Wear Clericals
- "Clerical Costume". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. 1913.
- Clerical Attire According to the Byzantine Tradition
- Instructions for attaching and wearing neckband collars