Clerics Regular Minor
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The Clerics Regular Minor, commonly known as the Adorno Fathers, are a Roman Catholic religious order of priests and brothers founded by Saint Francis Caracciolo, Augustine Adorno, and Fabrizio Caracciolo in 1588 in Villa Santa Maria. Belonging to the family of Clerics Regular, they desired to sanctify themselves and the People of God by imitating in their lives the Paschal Mystery of Christ. Their motto is : Ad Maiorem Dei Resurgentis Gloriam, "For the Greater Glory of the Risen God". The post-nominal letters are C.R.M.
Saint Francis Caracciolo
Saint Francis Caracciolo was born Ascanio Caracciolo on October 13, 1563 in Villa Santa Maria, Abruzzi, Italy. At twenty-two, Ascanio Caracciolo was a young man enjoying the exceedingly comfortable life available to an Italian nobleman of the sixteenth century. More pious than his comrades, he still did not allow religion to interfere with his other activities especially hunting. Then the unthinkable happened: he contracted a terrible skin disease, similar in appearance to leprosy, and apparently was going to die. Facing death was a fruitful experience for the youth; he vowed that if he recovered he would give the rest of his life to God, and after his miraculous recovery he immediately began studying for the priesthood and was ordained in 1587 at the age of twenty-five.
Ascanio's first work was in Naples, with a confraternity that looked after the spiritual welfare of prisoners and those condemned to death. His real work was revealed to him, however, in 1587, when he mistakenly received a letter addressed to a relative of the same name; he learned from it that the writer- a priest call Augustine Adorno- was planning to found an association of priests whose work would combine both active and contemplative life. The project appealed to Ascanio, and he soon joined forces with Augustine Adorno. After making a forty-day retreat to prepare themselves for their work, the two men recruited ten companions and began their foundation. On July 1 of the same year Pope Sixtus V approved the new group, and on April 9, 1589, the co-founders made their solemn vows, Ascanio taking the name Francis, the name by which he was subsequently known.
Members of the congregation, called the Clerics Regular Minor, took the usual vows of poverty, chastity, and obedience, plus a fourth: not to seek any ecclesiastical office either within or outside the order. The priests kept perpetual adoration before the Blessed Sacrament and conducted missions, helped the inmates of hospitals and prisons, and established hermitages for those who felt called to a life of contemplation. Francis was elected the order's first general, and although a very self-effacing man accomplished a great deal for it. He made three trips to Spain, where he founded houses in Madrid, Valladolid, and Alcala. He was popular among people as a confessor and preacher, his fervent sermons making him known as "the Preacher of the Love of God."
In 1607 Francis sensed the approach of death and went into retirement to prepare for it. Since most of his adult life head been directed to God, he now had little to do except to await God's call with confidence. His health declined rapidly, and on June 4, 1608, the end came. Those who watched at his bedside that evening heard him murmur, "Let us Go! Let us Go!" When asked where he wanted to go, Francis replied, "To heaven, to heaven!" Scarcely had the saint uttered these words when the wish was fulfilled. Francis' body was take to Naples, where it is now venerated.
Venerable Augustine Adorno
Venerable Augustine Adorno, born John Augustine Adorno, is considered the first founder and the first father of the Clerics Regular Minor. He was born in Genoa in 1551 to Michele Adorno, and Nicoletta dei Campanari. His father was a senator of Genoa and was a respected personage of this city. His father's family was very much involved in the political affairs of Genoa. His mother was a woman of virtue and religious piety.
Augustine received his education in diplomacy, commerce as well as classical studies. In 1573 Augustine Adorno was sent to the court of Philip II by his father, Michele, where he stayed for several years. Augustine was a kind of envoy of Genoa to the King of Spain while at the same time he attended to the financial affairs of the family in Spain. He was a banker in the court of Philip II, lending money to the King and his associates. It was in Valencia, Spain that Augustine met St. Louis Bertrand who prophesied that he would establish a religious order. Two events could be said to have contributed to Augustine's decision to abandon his career as a banker and financial manager of the family's business in Spain: he lost a big amount of money to gambling and the death of his father in 1578. These events led Augustine to the realization of the importance of the 'things in heaven' and that everything on earth soon 'comes to an end.'
Augustine resolved to abandon the world and decided to devote himself to spiritual matters. Upon his return to Genoa, Augustine had time to reflect on his vocation in life and in order to ascertain the fact that God was really calling him, he meditated and prayed over it with the help of his spiritual director, Don Giustino Barnaba. Augustine studied theology and petrology of the Church Fathers in the seminary of Genoa. It was also in Genoa that Augustine thought of establishing a religious order. At 36 years of age, Augustine was ordained a priest on September 19, 1587 in the Church of Saint Restituta. He continued to exercise his pastoral ministry as a member of the Confraternity of the While Robes of Mercy in Naples, reaching out to the prisoners. Augustine also frequented the Hospital of the Incurabili, where he ministered to the sick and the dying. It was in the course of Augustine's pastoral work in this hospital that he met Fabrizio Caracciolo, a relative of Saint Francis Caracciolo.
1588 - On July 1, 1588 Pope Sixtus V approves the new Order of the Clerics Regular Minor as outlined by Augustine Adorno, Fabrizio Caracciolo and Francis Caracciolo.
1589 - Augustine Adorno and Francis Caracciolo make their Religious Profession in the chapel of the White Servants of Mercy, I Bianchi in Naples on April 9, 1589. A few days later, April 17, 1589, they undertake a journey to Spain with the intent of establishing the Order there. They were unsuccessful in establishing the Institute, but they made contacts with other religious orders and leaders.
1591 - On September 29, 1591, Agostino Adorno dies prematurely at the age of 40. Most of the responsibilities and concerns of the new religious family fall upon Francis Caracciolo, who becomes the first Superior General and the focal point of reference for everyone.
1592 - Pope Clement VIII confirms the Order and officially approves the Fourth Vow of the Order: Not to seek ecclesiastical honors. He also assigns, with appropriate documentation, the church of St. Mary Major in Naples to the Order.
1600 - At the turn of the century, we find St. Francis Caracciolo very busy in opening and establishing houses in Spain and in Italy. St. Lawrence in Lucina in Rome, which was to be the General Mother House of the Order for more than three centuries, was opened by St. Francis June 11, 1606.
1608 - St. Francis Caracciolo dies at the age of 45 in Agnone on the Vigil of Corpus Christi, June 4, 1608. Interestingly, his entrance into heaven was to be on the feast of the Eucharist, which was Francis' special love and which he prescribed as central to the spirit and the apostolate of his Order.
1612 - The revised text of the Constitutions is presented to the Holy See by the third Founder, Fabrizio Caracciolo. It is approved by Pope Paul V with apostolic letter on October 8, 1612.
1615 - Fabrizio Caracciolo dies on May 25, 1615 at age 60.
1700 - Turning this century, we notice the Order particularly engaged in the process of beatification and canonization of Francis Caracciolo. The final proclamation of Francis as a Saint is made by Pope Pius VII on May 24, 1807. By the end of this century, the Order has grown to five Provinces(three in Italy and two in Spain) and has about 50 communities with a total membership between 700 to 800 religious. The Order is involved in parish work, teaching in colleges and universities. It has consultors in various congregations of the Holy See, and some religious are given special and delicate assignments, such as that of Father Ceru' and Father Soffietti who are sent to the far East to investigate and report on the difficult controversy of the Rites.
1800 - This century begins in the wake of great upheavals, which would deal a serious blow to all religious Orders and to ours in particular. The French Revolution, the suppression of religious Orders, the nationalistic spirit of the times, and other factor contribute to the general disarray and deterioration. Many houses are suppressed, a number of religious are secularized and entire Provinces disappear.
1900 - At the beginning of this century, the Order has been reduced to a handful of religious houses and members. There are doubts as the future of the Institute. But with the encouragement of the Popes, especially Benedict XV, the Order starts to show new signs of life. Gradually, with prayers, sacrifices and the determination of the few, the Order expands again, in Italy first, then in the United States, in Germany and Africa.
1930 - Following an invitation of Archbishop Thomas J. Walsh, Father Michael De Angelis comes to America. He resides for some time in Morristown, New Jersey as a chaplain of the Filippini Sisters. After a few years the Archbishop assigns Father Michael as Pastor of St. Joseph's Church in Lodi, New Jersey.
1962 - On April 1, 1962, a House of Studies is opened in Ramsey, New Jersey. Later, the Adorno Center is built to prepare candidates for the priesthood and the religious life. There have been five priests who have studied and been ordained from there.
1989 - After the ordination of two American priests, the Order sees the need to expand. Contacts are made with various Dioceses. The Order accepts the good offer of the Bishop of Charleston, Ernest L. Unterkoefler, and opens a new apostolic work at Immaculate Conception Parish, Goose Creek, South Carolina, June 6, 1989.
Countries where the order is present
- Italy - Motherhouse in Rome
U.S. states where the order is present
- Adorno Fathers NJ- Website of their Seminary
- Order's blog
- Immaculate Conception Catholic Church - Goose Creek, SC- Website of the SC house