Cleveland-class cruiser

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USS Cleveland CL-55.jpg
USS Cleveland (CL-55)
Class overview
Name: Cleveland-class cruiser
Operators: US flag 48 stars.svg United States Navy
Preceded by: St. Louis class
Atlanta class
Succeeded by: Fargo class
Planned: 52
Completed: 27
Cancelled: 3 (9 converted to aircraft carriers, 13 reordered)
Retired: 27
Preserved: 1 (converted to a Galveston-class guided missile cruiser)
General characteristics
Type: Light cruiser
Displacement: 11,800 tons (standard), 14,131 tons (full)
Length: 600 ft (180 m)(Waterline) 600 ft (180 m), 608 ft 4 in (Overall) 608 ft 4 in (185.42 m)
Beam: 63 ft (19 m)
Height: 113 ft (34 m)
Draft: 20 ft (6.1 m)mean (7.5 m)
Propulsion:

Four Babcock & Wilcox, 634 psi boilers
Four GE geared steam turbines
Four Screws

100,000 hp (75 MW)
Speed: 32.5 knots (60.2 km/h; 37.4 mph)
Range: 14,500 nmi (26,900 km; 16,700 mi) at 15 knots (28 km/h; 17 mph)
Complement:
  • 1,255 Total
    • 70 officers
    • 1,115 enlisted men
Armament:

Cleveland 1942:

Vicksburg 1944/1945:

Armor:

Belt:3.25-5.00 in
Deck: Two in
Turrets:1.5-6.0 in
Barbettes: 6.0 in

Conning Tower:2.25-5.00 in
Aircraft carried: Four
Aviation facilities: Two catapults for seaplanes
Notes:
  • Dimensions in feet from Jane's American Fighting ships of the 20th Century, 1991

The U.S. Navy designed the Cleveland class of light cruisers for World War II with the goal of increased cruising range, antiaircraft armament, torpedo protection, etc., compared with earlier American cruisers.[1]

52 light cruisers of this class were originally planned, but nine of them were completed as the light aircraft carriers of the Independence-class, and two of them were completed to a somewhat different design, with more compact superstructures and just a single smokestack. These two were called the Fargo class. Of the 27 Cleveland-class cruisers that were commissioned, one (USS Galveston) was completed as a guided missile cruiser and five were later modified as Galveston- and Providence-class guided missile cruisers. Following the naming convention at the time, all the ships completed as cruisers were named for American cities and towns.[2]

Technical drawing of a Cleveland-class cruiser.

The Cleveland-class cruisers served mainly in the Pacific Fleet during World War II, especially in the Fast Carrier Task Force, but some of them served off the coasts of Europe and Africa in the U.S. Atlantic Fleet. All of these warships, though hardworked in both the Atlantic and Pacific fleets; and in some cases heavily damaged in combat, survived the war. Except for the USS Manchester, which remained in service until 1956, and the guided missile cruisers all of these cruisers were decommissioned by 1950. None were recommissioned for the Korean War, as they required almost as large a crew as the Baltimore class ships, and those ships were reactivated instead. All non-converted ships were sold off from the reserve fleet for scrapping beginning in 1959. The six that were completed as or converted into guided missile cruisers were reactivated during the 1950s and then served into the 1970s. The last of these in service, the USS Oklahoma City, was decommissioned in December 1979.

Only one Cleveland-class cruisers remains in existence. She is the guided missile cruiser Little Rock, which is a museum ship along the Niagara River at Buffalo, New York, along with the Fletcher Class Destroyer "USS The Sullivans", and the Gato Class Submarine, the "USS Croaker"[3]

Ships in class[edit]

Ship Name Hull No. Builder Commission–
Decommission
Cleveland CL-55 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey 15 June 1942 - 7 February 1947
Columbia CL-56 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey 29 July 1942 - 30 November 1946
Montpelier CL-57 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey 9 September 1942 - 24 January 1947
Denver CL-58 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey 15 October 1942 - 7 February 1947
Amsterdam CL-59 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey Reordered as the light aircraft carrier USS Independence (CVL-22)
Santa Fe CL-60 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey 24 November 1942 - 29 October 1946
Tallahassee CL-61 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey Reordered as the light aircraft carrier USS Princeton (CVL-23)
Birmingham CL-62 Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company 29 January 1943 - 2 January 1947
Mobile CL-63 Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company 24 March 1943 - 9 May 1947
Vincennes CL-64 Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Fore River Shipyard, Quincy, Massachusetts 21 January 1944 - 10 September 1946
Pasadena CL-65 Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Fore River Shipyard, Quincy, Massachusetts 8 June 1944 - 12 January 1950
Springfield CL-66 CLG-7 Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Fore River Shipyard, Quincy, Massachusetts 9 September 1944 - 30 January 1950, 2 July 1960 - 15 May 1974
Topeka CL-67 CLG-8 Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Fore River Shipyard, Quincy, Massachusetts 23 December 1944 - 18 June 1949, 26 March 1960 - 5 June 1969
New Haven CL-76 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey Reordered as the light aircraft carrier USS Belleau Wood (CVL-24)
Huntington CL-77 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey Reordered as the light aircraft carrier USS Cowpens (CVL-25)
Dayton CL-78 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey Reordered as the light aircraft carrier USS Monterey (CVL-26)
Wilmington CL-79 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey Reordered as the light aircraft carrier USS Cabot (CVL-28)
Biloxi CL-80 Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company 31 August 1943 - 29 August 1946
Houston CL-81 Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company 20 December 1943 - 15 December 1947
Providence CL-82 CLG-6 Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Fore River Shipyard, Quincy, Massachusetts 15 May 1945 - 14 June 1949, 17 September 1959 - 31 August 1973
Manchester CL-83 Bethlehem Steel Corporation, Fore River Shipyard, Quincy, Massachusetts 29 October 1946 - 27 June 1956
Buffalo CL-84 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey Cancelled 16 December 1940
Fargo CL-85 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey Reordered as the light aircraft carrier USS Langley (CVL-27)
Vicksburg CL-86 Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company 12 June 1944 - 30 June 1947
Duluth CL-87 Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company 18 September 1944 - 25 June 1949
Newark CL-88 Federal Shipbuilding and Drydock Company, Kearny, New Jersey Cancelled 16 December 1940
Miami CL-89 William Cramp & Sons Shipbuilding Company 28 December 1943 - 30 June 1947
Astoria CL-90 William Cramp & Sons Shipbuilding Company 17 May 1944 - 1 July 1949
Oklahoma City CL-91 CLG-5 William Cramp & Sons Shipbuilding Company 22 December 1944 - 30 June 1947, 7 September 1960 - 15 December 1979
Little Rock CL-92
CLG- 4
William Cramp & Sons Shipbuilding Company 17 June 1945 - 24 June 1949, 3 June 1960 - October 1976
Galveston CL-93 CLG-3 William Cramp & Sons Shipbuilding Company 28 May 1958 - May 1970
Youngstown CL-94 William Cramp & Sons Shipbuilding Company Cancelled 12 August 1945
Buffalo CL-99 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey Reordered as the light aircraft carrier USS Bataan (CVL-29)
Newark CL-100 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey Reordered as the light aircraft carrier USS San Jacinto (CVL-30)
Amsterdam CL-101 Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company 8 January 1945 - 30 June 1947
Portsmouth CL-102 Newport News Shipbuilding and Dry Dock Company 25 June 1945 - 15 June 1949
Wilkes-Barre CL-103 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey 1 July 1944 - 9 October 1947
Atlanta CL-104 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey 3 December 1944 - 1 July 1949
Dayton CL-105 New York Shipbuilding Corporation, Camden, New Jersey 7 January 1945 - 1 March 1949

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Norman Friedman, U.S. Cruisers, An Illustrated Design History 1984 ISBN 978-0-87021-718-0
  2. ^ M.J. Whitley, Cruisers Of World War Two, An International Encyclopedia 1995 ISBN 978-1-86019-874-8
  3. ^ http://buffalonavalpark.org/exhibits/ships/

External links[edit]