Cleveland Hopkins International Airport

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Cleveland Hopkins International Airport
Cleveland Hopkins International Airport.svg
CLE ATCT and Sun.JPG
IATA: CLEICAO: KCLEFAA LID: CLE
Summary
Airport type Public
Owner City of Cleveland
Operator Cleveland Airport System
Serves Cleveland, Ohio
Location Cleveland, Ohio
Focus city for
Elevation AMSL 791 ft / 241 m
Coordinates 41°24′42″N 081°50′59″W / 41.41167°N 81.84972°W / 41.41167; -81.84972Coordinates: 41°24′42″N 081°50′59″W / 41.41167°N 81.84972°W / 41.41167; -81.84972
Website www.clevelandairport.com
Map
FAA airport diagram CLELocation of the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport
FAA airport diagram
CLE is located in Ohio
CLE
CLE
Location of the Cleveland Hopkins International Airport
Runways
Direction Length Surface
ft m
6L/24R 9,000 2,743 Concrete
6R/24L 9,955 3,034 Concrete
10/28 6,017 1,834 Asphalt/Concrete
Statistics (2012/2013)
Aircraft operations (2012) 180,944
Total passengers (2013) 9,072,126
Source: Federal Aviation Administration[3] and CLE airport.[4]

Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (IATA: CLEICAO: KCLEFAA LID: CLE) is a public airport located nine miles (14 km) southwest of the central business district of Cleveland, a city in Cuyahoga County, Ohio, United States.[3] The airport lies just within the city limits of Cleveland. It is the largest airport in the state of Ohio and a focus city for United Airlines and Frontier Airlines.

The airport was founded in 1925, making it the first municipally owned airport in the United States.[5] The airport has been the site of many other airport firsts: the first air traffic control tower, ground to air radio control and the first airfield lighting system, all in 1930, and the first U.S. airport to be directly connected to a local or regional rail transit system, in 1968. The airport was named after its founder, former city manager William R. Hopkins, on his 82nd birthday in 1951.

Before June 2014 the airport was the second smallest of United Airlines' ten hubs (busier only than Guam and Tokyo). On February 1, 2014 CEO Jeff Smisek sent a letter to employees and it was confirmed the next day that United will wind down their hub at CLE through June 2014;[6] Smisek said the hub was unprofitable.[7] CLE fell victim to United's hub dumping twice— the first in the 1980s; the latest de-hubbing occurred despite the Ohio Attorney General's effort to negotiate a US$ 20 million fine if United exited CLE early or improperly.[8]

In 2006 Cleveland unveiled a new marketing campaign. The slogan, "CLE Going Places", is said to depict the airport's pursuit of improving passengers' experience as they upgrade the airport facility and negotiate additional air services.[9] Improvements include upgrades to the restaurant and store concessions program, taxi service, on-site parking, customer service areas, and the attraction of additional flights to new destinations with the airport's new air service development program.

Operational history[edit]

North American international service[edit]

Intercontinental service[edit]

An outside view of the terminal

There is no intercontinental service from Cleveland. However, there have been several past short-lived attempts to establish intercontinental service from the airport since the airport was first granted authority to receive intercontinental service in 1977.[10][11]

  • Continental Airlines began offering seasonal nonstop flights from Hopkins to London Gatwick Airport in 1999.[15] This service continued for several summers, and in 2009, Continental switched to Heathrow Airport instead of Gatwick because of the airline's new access to Heathrow as part of the EU–U.S. Open Skies Agreement. However, this service was cancelled permanently following the summer of 2009.[16][17] Continental utilized a 757-200 for this route.
  • Continental launched a new route between Cleveland and Paris, France on May 22, 2008, but then announced elimination of the service in December 2008. The service has not been resurrected in subsequent summers.[citation needed] Continental had exited the SkyTeam Alliance, which included Air France. Because of the exit from SkyTeam, the incentive for Continental passengers in Cleveland to connect in Paris disappeared.[18]

Widebody service[edit]

During the 1970s, 1980s, and 1990s, CLE had scheduled widebody service. However, with the airlines' trend in the 1990s of using smaller aircraft with increased frequency, all passenger wide-body service was discontinued. Scheduled service included:

  • Eastern: A300-100
  • United: 747, DC-10, 767 [19]
  • Delta: A310
  • American: 767, DC-10
  • Northwest: DC-10
  • TWA: 767
  • JAT Jugoslovenski Aero Transport: DC-10
  • Pan Am: A310

For weather-related issues, United would sometimes divert EWR-bound international 767s and 777s into CLE; however, the only scheduled wide-body aircraft that serve CLE are freight carriers:

  • FedEx: A300-600
  • UPS: MD-11, 767-200/300

Airfield, facilities and concourses[edit]

Satellite view of the airport

Cleveland Hopkins International Airport covers an area of 1,900 acres (770 ha)[3] and has three runways:

  • Runway 6R/24L: 9,955 x 150 ft. (3,034 x 46 m), concrete
  • Runway 6L/24R: 9,000 x 150 ft. (2,743 x 46 m), concrete
  • Runway 10/28: 6,017 x 150 ft. (1,834 x 46 m), asphalt and concrete

The older parallel runway, formerly Runway 6C/24C, was 7,096 x 150 ft. (2163 x 46 m). Several years ago it was decommissioned as an active runway, its width narrowed, and is now designated as Taxiway C. It has the word "TAXI" inscribed in large yellow letters on each end to ensure approaching aircraft do not mistakenly use it as a runway.

The thresholds of Runway 10/28 have been 330 feet to the east, thus allowing for the addition of Engineered Materials Arresting System at both ends. The usable runway length was not altered. As part of this project, some turnouts were rebuilt and the closed sections of 24L and the former 24C that intersected 10/28 were physically removed.

For the 12-month period ending December 31, 2011, the airport had 188,286 aircraft operations, an average of 516 per day: 64% air taxi, 31% scheduled commercial, 4.5% general aviation and <1% military. There are 29 aircraft based at this airport: 18 jet, 5 single engine, 6 multi-engine and 6 military aircraft.[3]

Since 2008, BAA Cleveland has developed and managed retail and dining locations at the airport. A redevelopment project will add 76,000 square feet (7,100 m2) of new locations.[20]

An American Eagle counter at gate A3 in concourse A
Hopkins airport is known for its fanciful giant "paper" airplane sculptures located in the underground walkway between Concourses C and D.

Cleveland Airport consists of one passenger terminal which is divided into four concourses:

  • Concourse A (gates A1–A12, A14), originally known as "North Concourse", was the first of the airport's original two concourses and was designed by Outcalt & Guenther[21] and built in 1962 and rebuilt in 1978. During a short period from 1987 until the early 1990s, USAir held the majority of gates in this concourse from which it was the dominant carrier at the airport.[22] It houses American, American Eagle, US Airways, US Airways Express, Frontier Airlines, and all international arrivals.
  • Concourse B (gates B1–B11) was the first extension pier to the airport and was designed by Outcalt & Guenther[21] and built in 1966. The concourse was rebuilt and expanded from 1982 until January 1983. This project was designed by Richard L. Bowen and Associates Inc. and built by Seuffert Construction Company, Inc.[23] It is home to Delta, Delta Connection, and Southwest Airlines.
  • Concourse C (gates C1–C12, C14, and C16–C29) houses all mainline United Airlines services, except for international arrivals which are handled in Concourse A instead. The concourse (being the third-oldest one) was designed by Joint venture of The Outcalt Guenther Partners and Dyer Watson Spieth and was originally known as "South Concourse" when it opened in 1968.[24] Until 1985, it was one of the main hub operations for United Airlines (pre–Continental Airlines merger). United slowly cut flights from Hopkins as it built a new hub at Washington Dulles International Airport. By 1987, United had closed its hub at Hopkins and moved its operations to the B Concourse. Continental Airlines quickly established a hub in Cleveland to fill the void left by United. The concourse was renovated in 1992 at a cost of US$50 million. This project, designed by Robert P. Madison International, Inc. included the installation of a continuous skylight, a presidents Club, and a new Baggage Claim area.[25] However, after the merger of Continental and United, as well as Continental joining the Star Alliance, United has since relocated their Cleveland operations to Concourse C. Air Canada Jazz moved to Concourse C before relocating to Concourse D on October 29, 2013. Concourse C once again became the hub operations for United Airlines after the merger with Continental.
  • Concourse D (gates D2–D12, D14, D17, D21, D25, and D28) was constructed in 1999 at a cost of US$80 million and is a separate terminal connected to Concourse C by an underground walkway. Although capable of handling larger jets such as United's Boeing 737,[26] it handled smaller regional aircraft exclusively for United Express and Air Canada Jazz. Concourse D contains 12 jet bridge gates and 24 ramp loading positions.[26] It was designed by KCF/SHG and Robert P. Madison International, Inc.[27] Concourse D is now vacant. On June 5, 2014, United closed its gates and consolidated all operations to Concourse C.[28]

Airlines and destinations[edit]

Airlines Destinations Concourse
Air Canada Express Toronto–Pearson C
American Airlines Dallas/Fort Worth A
American Eagle Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Miami, New York–JFK A
Apple Vacations operated by Frontier Airlines[29] Seasonal: Cancun, Punta Cana A
Delta Air Lines Atlanta B
Delta Connection Detroit, Hartford, Indianapolis, Minneapolis/St. Paul, New York–JFK, New York–LaGuardia, Raleigh/Durham B
Frontier Airlines Atlanta, Chicago-O'Hare (begins October 1, 2014), Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Las Vegas, New York-LaGuardia (begins October 26, 2014), Orlando, Phoenix, Raleigh/Durham, Tampa, Washington-Dulles (begins October 1, 2014)
Seasonal: Seattle/Tacoma, Trenton
A
Southwest Airlines Baltimore, Chicago–Midway, Las Vegas, Nashville, Phoenix (begins November 2, 2014)
Seasonal: Fort Myers, Orlando
B
United Airlines Cancun, Chicago–O'Hare, Denver, Fort Lauderdale, Fort Myers, Houston–Intercontinental, Las Vegas, Los Angeles, Newark, Orlando, San Francisco
Seasonal: San Juan, Tampa
C
United Express Boston, Bradford (PA) (ends September 30, 2014), Chicago–O'Hare, Dallas/Fort Worth, Denver, DuBois (PA) (ends September 30, 2014), Franklin (PA) (ends September 30, 2014), Houston–Intercontinental, Jamestown (NY) (ends September 30, 2014), Milwaukee, New York–LaGuardia, Newark, Parkersburg (WV) (ends September 30, 2014), St. Louis, Washington–Dulles, Washington–National
Seasonal: Charleston (SC), Fort Myers, Tampa
C
US Airways Charlotte, Phoenix (begins October 3, 2014)[30] A
US Airways Express Charlotte, Philadelphia A

^1 All Air Canada arrivals are completed through the United States border preclearance.

^2 All United international arrivals are processed at Concourse A.

Cargo airlines[edit]

Airlines Destinations
FedEx Express Indianapolis, Memphis
FedEx Feeder operated by Mountain Air Cargo Erie
UPS Airlines Louisville

Statistics[edit]

Top Ten Busiest domestic routes Out of Hopkins International Airport
(July 2013 – June 2014)[31]
Rank City Passengers Carriers
1 Chicago, IL (O'Hare) 366,000 American, United
2 Charlotte, NC 230,000 US Airways
3 Atlanta, GA 225,000 Delta, Frontier
4 Chicago, IL (Midway) 220,000 Southwest
5 Houston, TX (IAH) 170,000 United
6 Newark, NJ 161,000 United
7 Baltimore, MD 154,000 Southwest
8 Denver, CO 153,000 Frontier, United
9 New York, NY (LaGuardia) 148,000 Delta, United
10 Dallas/Fort Worth, TX 140,000 American, United
Busiest international routes from Cleveland Hopkins (2013)[32]
Rank Airport Passengers
1 Toronto, Canada 128,700
2 Cancun, Mexico 87,480
3 Punta Cana, Dominican Republic 33,240

Ground transportation[edit]

Public transit[edit]

Airport welcome sign

Hopkins International Airport is connected to the Cleveland Rapid Transit system. Passengers can board Red Line trains at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport (RTA Rapid Transit station) airport terminal. One-way fare to any station on the line is $2.25. During late night/early morning hours, service is provided by the # 22 Lorain bus from Hopkins to Downtown Cleveland. The airport also offers a dedicated taxi service of 75 vehicles.[33]

Rental cars[edit]

In 1998, Hopkins moved rental car operations off the airport grounds to a new consolidated rental car facility. The facility has drawn mixed reviews from travelers because of its distance from the airport, inconsistent bus service and long bus rides, only partial canopy coverage for vehicles, and fees and taxes that are very high relative to those of other airports; the charges cover costs of not only operating the center but also supporting other local projects, such as the Cleveland Browns stadium.[34]

Incidents and accidents[edit]

  • In 1938 a United Air Lines twin-engined prop flying from Newark to Chicago via Cleveland crashed on approach to Hopkins killing all seven passengers and three crew members on board.[35]
  • In 1971 Jane Fonda was arrested by police at the airport for being belligerent and obstructing public safety because she refused to go through security screening. After an increase in aviation related skyjackings, the FAA had in 1969 ordered all airports to use metal detectors.
  • Hundreds of thousands of earthworms crawled onto the longest runway at Cleveland's Hopkins Airport in September 1972. It created so great a safety hazard that the strip had to be closed for 30 minutes. Workmen used a motorized broom to sweep them away. Four jet pilots complained that the worms caused poor braking. Officials said heavy rains apparently brought the worms to the surface on ground surrounding the runway.[36]
  • On January 4, 1985 Pan Am flight 558, a Boeing 727, was scheduled to fly from Cleveland to New York City's John F. Kennedy International Airport. While still on the ground at Cleveland, the aircraft was hijacked and the hijacker demanded to be taken to South America. The plane was stormed by Cleveland police and the hijacker arrested. The duration of the hijacking was less than one day.
  • On January 6, 2003, a Continental Express Embraer ERJ-145LR overran the runway upon landing from Bradley International Airport in Windsor Locks, CT. After touchdown, the flight crew was unable to stop the airplane on the runway. The airplane continued beyond the departure end, on extended runway centerline, and struck the ILS runway 6 localizer antenna. It came to rest with the nose about 600 feet (180 m) beyond the end of the runway. The nose landing gear had collapsed rearward and deformed the forward pressure bulkhead.[37]
  • On April 27, 2006 police officers confronted a man at the United Airlines ticket counter. The man fired a handgun, critically wounding a patrolman, but another officer shot and killed the attacker.
  • On February 18, 2007, at 3:14 pm, a Shuttle America Embraer 170 operating as Delta Connection flight 6448 from Atlanta skidded off snow-covered runway 28 and crashed through a fence. None of the 70 passengers and four crew on board were injured.
  • On January 10, 2010, the airport lost power for more than seven hours after a transformer exploded at about 6:50 am. All power inside the terminals was lost and air traffic was halted; however the control tower, runways, and taxiways remained lit, powered by backup generators. About 800 people were affected by the loss of power, and most flights didn't resume until 3:00 pm. According to a spokesperson, the transformer exploded due to a buildup of road salt, causing corrosion.[38]
  • On December 9, 2012, a shooting occurred at approximately 11:28 am in the Riveredge employee parking lot. A male was pronounced dead at the scene while a female was pronounced dead at MetroHealth hospital.[39][40]
  • On February 22, 2013, a Boeing 737 operating as United Airlines flight 1639, skidded off the taxiway after landing. There were no injuries to the 103 passengers and crews.[41]

Relationship with United and Continental[edit]

From the postwar era until the mid-1980s, United Airlines maintained its eastern-most domestic hub at CLE. Beginning in 1985, United started the process of migrating its CLE hub capacity to Washington-Dulles; this process was completed in 1987. The same year, Continental Airlines, which was then a separate carrier and lacked a Midwest hub, quickly moved into fill the void left by United. This gave the then Continental hubs in five markets: Houston, Denver (subsequently dehubbed), Newark (per its acquisition of People Express in 1987), Guam and Cleveland.

Continental increased its hub capacity at Hopkins, becoming the airport's largest tenant and eventually accounting for upwards of 60 percent of passenger traffic. Continental and Hopkins both made substantial operational and capital investments in support of CLE; this included the construction of Concourse D in 1999 that provided accommodations for Continental Express flights.

Continental era[edit]

The airport, Cleveland community, and Continental developed something of an uneasy relationship beginning in the late 1990s. In 2003, the tension became public when Continental then-CEO Gordon Bethune publicly scolded the Cleveland business community and encouraged business flyers to support Continental at Hopkins rather than to take cheaper fights from neighboring Akron-Canton Regional Airport, which at the time advertised itself as the "preferred alternative" to Hopkins and "a better way to go."[42] Around this time, Akron-Canton Airport was undertaking an ambitious expansion in response to substantial increases in enplanements while Hopkins boardings declined.[43][44] Shortly thereafter, Continental reduced the size of its board of directors by halving the number of representatives from the Cleveland area, began to more closely scrutinize local passenger traffic volume, and closed its four off-airport ticket offices in the Greater Cleveland area.[45]

Continental—United merger[edit]

On May 2, 2010, the Boards of Directors at Continental and United Airlines approved a stock-swap merger deal. The legal aspects of a full merger were completed on October 1, 2010.[46] The Continental-United marriage only heightened simmering concerns within the greater Cleveland area about the potential effect on Cleveland air service; Continental's previous merger talks with Star Alliance founding partner United had been viewed in some circles as a serious threat to Continental's future at Hopkins.[47][48] When the 2010 United/Continental tie-up was initially announced, it prompted Cleveland politicians to propose hearings to investigate the potential impact of the marriage on the community; these investigations ultimately had no effect on the companies' efforts to combine. There had been persistent worries that a post-merger United would reduce or eliminate direct service from Cleveland to a number of cities and instead route passengers through United's hubs in Chicago [315 miles (507 km) west by air] and Washington [217 miles (349 km) east by air].[49][50]

Uncertainty and hub protection[edit]

On November 10, 2010, Continental CEO Jeff Smisek stated in a speech in Cleveland that "Cleveland needs to earn its hub status every day" and added that overall profitability would be the determining factor in whether the new United kept or shuttered the Cleveland hub operation.[51] However, after the agreement was signed, passenger volume at Cleveland continued to drop.[52]

At the beginning of 2012, and in contrast to pre-merger Continental's other hubs (EWR, IAH, GUM) or those of merger partner United Airlines (ORD, LAX, SFO, IAD, DEN, NRT), Continental's Cleveland operation had limited service to foreign lands, except flights to Mexico and Canada. Continental's operation could sustain neither transatlantic services, nor that of wide-body jets, and a majority of services (81% as of May 2011) were flown on Continental Express regional jet or turboprop aircraft.[43][53]

As of late June 2012, United operated 175 daily flights from Cleveland, down from 210 flights operated collectively by United and Continental prior to their merger. United's 2012 schedule accounted for approximately 75% of flights at Hopkins. Also in the summer of 2012, United added six additional daily flights from Cleveland to its other hubs,[54] and United executives expressed appreciation for the efforts of Cleveland's business community to support a Cleveland hub for the airline.[55]

Dehubbing[edit]

On February 1, 2014, United CEO Jeff Smisek announced that the airline would shutter its Cleveland hub. "Our hub in Cleveland hasn't been profitable for over a decade, and has generated tens of millions of dollars of annual losses in recent years," Smisek stated in a letter to United employees. "We simply cannot continue to bear these losses."[56] As of June 5, 2014, United effectively ended its hub operation at CLE; however, it still remains a "focus" city for the airline.

Relationship with Frontier[edit]

After the announcement of United's departure in 2014, the city had greatly decreased flight operations, United cut more than 60% of its daily departures during June 2014.[57] In the midst of United's declining offerings, Frontier Airlines declared Cleveland to be a focus city,[1] and significantly increased their flight options from the airport.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Air Force Historical Research Agency.

  1. ^ a b http://www.usatoday.com/story/todayinthesky/2014/03/21/frontier-airlines-tabs-cleveland-as-newest-focus-city/6680885/
  2. ^ http://www.cleveland.com/metro/index.ssf/2014/02/united_deal_with_cleveland_had.html
  3. ^ a b c d FAA Airport Master Record for CLE (Form 5010 PDF), effective July 5, 2007
  4. ^ Cleveland Airport – Fact Sheet
  5. ^ Airport History
  6. ^ http://abcnews.go.com/Business/wireStory/united-airlines-drops-cleveland-hub-airport-22330299
  7. ^ http://jansaviation.com/news.php?art=united-to-drop-cleveland-hub
  8. ^ http://www.fool.com/investing/general/2014/02/03/united-airlines-finally-calls-it-quits-for-its-cle.aspx
  9. ^ "OH – Cleveland – Cleveland-Hopkins International Airport – CLE". Layovermeetups.weebly.com. Retrieved January 19, 2013. 
  10. ^ "11 New 'Gateways' to Europe Proposed". The Milwaukee Journal. September 12, 1977. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  11. ^ "TWA Ponders Europe Flights". Observer-Reporter. December 23, 1977. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  12. ^ Bennett, Marcia (June 24, 1982). "Button-Box Band Tours Slovenia". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  13. ^ "1985/86: JAT Yugoslav Airlines Long-haul Network". Routes Online. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  14. ^ "From Aeroput to JAT Airways". JAT Airlines. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  15. ^ "Continental Airlines Launches First Ever Non-Stop Transatlantic Service Between Cleveland and London" (Press release). Continental Airlines. June 29, 1999. 
  16. ^ Grant, Alison (December 3, 2009). "Continental Airlines Cancels Non-Stop Seasonal Flights From Cleveland to London". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  17. ^ "Continental: Cleveland-London nonstop is gone for good". USA Today. December 4, 2009. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  18. ^ Grant, Alison (October 22, 2009). "Continental Airlines' New Alliance May Smooth Connections for Northeast Ohio Travelers". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved September 8, 2011. 
  19. ^ http://www.departedflights.com/CLE74p1.html
  20. ^ "Concessions Transformation at Cleveland Hopkins International Airport is Generating New Jobs, Creating Need for Qualified Applicants". BAA Cleveland. June 11, 2009. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  21. ^ a b Outcalt and Guenther – The Encyclopedia of Cleveland History
  22. ^ "US Air Wants Mini-Hub in Cleveland". Pittsburgh Post-Gazette. February 23, 1987. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  23. ^ Cleveland Hopkins International Airport Concourse B Dedication Plaque
  24. ^ Engineering News-Record 183. McGraw-Hill. 1969. p. 48. Retrieved June 14, 2012. 
  25. ^ "Continental Airlines Concourse C". Robert P. Madison International. Retrieved June 14, 2012. 
  26. ^ a b "Continental Airlines Unveils State-of-the-Art Aviation Facility in Cleveland" (Press release). Continental Airlines. May 13, 1999. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  27. ^ Continental Airlines Concourse D – RPMI
  28. ^ http://www.washingtontimes.com/news/2014/apr/8/united-vacating-cleveland-airport-concourse/?utm_source=RSS_Feed&utm_medium=RSS
  29. ^ http://www.applevacations.com/flight-schedule/cle-cleveland/
  30. ^ US Airways to begin nonstop flights between Cleveland and Phoenix in October. Cleveland.com (2014-05-15). Retrieved on 2014-05-23.
  31. ^ "Cleveland, OH: Cleveland-Hopkins International (CLE)". Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  32. ^ U.S. International Air Passenger and Freight Statistics Report | Department of Transportation. Dot.gov (July 8, 2013). Retrieved on August 16, 2013.
  33. ^ "Taxis". Cleveland Airport System. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  34. ^ Beauprez, Jennifer (June 1, 1998). "Hopkins Rental Car Prices Flyin' Higher". Crain's Cleveland Business. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  35. ^ "Ship Crashes to Earth in Sight of Cleveland Airport". Evening Independent. May 25, 1938. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  36. ^ "Earthworms Stop Air Traffic in Cleveland". Milwaukee Journal (Cleveland). September 16, 1972. Retrieved January 21, 2012. 
  37. ^ "N16571 Accident description". Aviation Safety Network. Retrieved January 21, 2012. 
  38. ^ "Power Back on at Cleveland Airport". CNN. January 10, 2010. Retrieved January 10, 2010. 
  39. ^ Richards, Leah (December 9, 2012). "Cleveland Hopkins International Airport employee parking lot shooting under investigation". News Net 5. Retrieved December 9, 2012. 
  40. ^ "Police: Airport security officer killed in Ohio". Associated Press. December 10, 2012. Retrieved December 10, 2012. 
  41. ^ Nist, Cassandra (February 22, 2013). "No injuries reported after United plane slides off taxiway at Cleveland Hopkins Airport". WEWS-TV. Retrieved March 2, 2013. 
  42. ^ "Akron Canton Regional Airport". Akron Canton Airport. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  43. ^ a b Tucker, Brian (March 31, 2003). "Continental CEO Lets Fly With Tough Talk". Crain's Cleveland Business. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  44. ^ "Databases". Bureau of Transportation Statistics. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  45. ^ Gomez, Henry (January 19, 2004). "Cleveland's Continental Board Voice Cut in Half". Crain's Cleveland Business. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  46. ^ Smisek, Jeffrey A. (October 1, 2010). "What Does the Merger Mean for You". Continental Airlines. Archived from the original on October 3, 2010. Retrieved October 1, 2010. 
  47. ^ Stacklin, Jeff (December 13, 2006). "Continental Merger Heating Up". Crain's Cleveland Business. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  48. ^ "Continental to Join Star Alliance". Continental Airlines. June 19, 2008. Archived from the original on June 28, 2008. Retrieved June 19, 2008. 
  49. ^ O'Donnell, Paul (June 19, 2008). "Continental, United Agree to Link Airline Networks". The Plain Dealer. Retrieved June 19, 2008. 
  50. ^ Koenig, David (April 7, 2009). "DOT Plans to OK Continental Joining Star Alliance". USA Today. Retrieved April 30, 2010. 
  51. ^ Miller, Jay (November 10, 2010). "United Airlines CEO Smisek Says Cleveland Must 'Earn Its Hub Status Every Day'". Crain's Cleveland Business. Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  52. ^ Ramsey, Mike (September 28, 2011). "Airline Mergers Leave Airports Off the Radar". The Wall Street Journal. Retrieved September 28, 2011. 
  53. ^ Grant, Alison (June 7, 2009). "Regional Pilots Are Overworked, Industry Critics Say". The Plain Dealer (Cleveland). Retrieved July 5, 2012. 
  54. ^ Turbett, Peggy (June 1, 2012). "United Airlines Adds 10 Flights at Cleveland Hopkins Airport, Cuts 2 to Cincinnati". The Plain Dealer (Cleveland). Retrieved January 19, 2013. 
  55. ^ Miller, Jay (June 25, 2012). "United Execs Laud Efforts to Back Local Hub". Crain's Cleveland Business. Retrieved January 19, 2013. 
  56. ^ http://apnews.excite.com/article/20140202/DABMRDCO1.html
  57. ^ http://centreforaviation.com/analysis/frontier-airlines-continues-push-from-cleveland-as-dulles-fires-up-now-for-us-ulccs-part-2-173634

External links[edit]