Climate change and agriculture
Climate change and agriculture are interrelated processes, both of which take place on a global scale. Global warming is projected to have significant impacts on conditions affecting agriculture, including temperature, carbon dioxide, glacial run-off, precipitation and the interaction of these elements. These conditions determine the carrying capacity of the biosphere to produce enough food for the human population and domesticated animals. The overall effect of climate change on agriculture will depend on the balance of these effects. Assessment of the effects of global climate changes on agriculture might help to properly anticipate and adapt farming to maximize agricultural production.
At the same time, agriculture has been shown to produce significant effects on climate change, primarily through the production and release of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrous oxide, but also by altering the Earth's land cover, which can change its ability to absorb or reflect heat and light, thus contributing to radiative forcing. Land use change such as deforestation and desertification, together with use of fossil fuels, are the major anthropogenic sources of carbon dioxide; agriculture itself is the major contributor to increasing methane and nitrous oxide concentrations in Earth's atmosphere.
- 1 Impact of climate change on agriculture
- 1.1 Observed impacts
- 1.2 Projections
- 1.3 Regional
- 1.4 Poverty impacts
- 1.5 Mitigation and adaptation in developing countries
- 1.6 Crop development models
- 1.7 Temperature potential effect on growing period
- 1.8 Effect of elevated carbon dioxide on crops
- 1.9 Agricultural surfaces and climate changes
- 1.10 Erosion and fertility
- 1.11 Potential effects of global climate change on pests, diseases and weeds
- 1.12 Glacier retreat and disappearance
- 1.13 Ozone and UV-B
- 1.14 ENSO effects on agriculture
- 2 Impact of agriculture on climate change
- 3 See also
- 4 Notes
- 5 References
- 6 Further reading
- 7 External links
Impact of climate change on agriculture
|This section needs additional citations for verification. (July 2007)|
Despite technological advances, such as improved varieties, genetically modified organisms, and irrigation systems, weather is still a key factor in agricultural productivity, as well as soil properties and natural communities. The effect of climate on agriculture is related to variabilities in local climates rather than in global climate patterns. The Earth's average surface temperature has increased by 1.5 °F (0.83 °C) since 1880. Consequently, agronomists consider any assessment has to be individually consider each local area.
On the other hand, agricultural trade has grown in recent years, and now provides significant amounts of food, on a national level to major importing countries, as well as comfortable income to exporting ones. The international aspect of trade and security in terms of food implies the need to also consider the effects of climate change on a global scale.
A study published in Science suggests that, due to climate change, "southern Africa could lose more than 30% of its main crop, maize, by 2030. In South Asia losses of many regional staples, such as rice, millet and maize could top 10%".
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has produced several reports that have assessed the scientific literature on climate change. The IPCC Third Assessment Report, published in 2001, concluded that the poorest countries would be hardest hit, with reductions in crop yields in most tropical and sub-tropical regions due to decreased water availability, and new or changed insect pest incidence. In Africa and Latin America many rainfed crops are near their maximum temperature tolerance, so that yields are likely to fall sharply for even small climate changes; falls in agricultural productivity of up to 30% over the 21st century are projected. Marine life and the fishing industry will also be severely affected in some places.
Climate change induced by increasing greenhouse gases is likely to affect crops differently from region to region. For example, average crop yield is expected to drop down to 50% in Pakistan according to the UKMO scenario whereas corn production in Europe is expected to grow up to 25% in optimum hydrologic conditions.
More favourable effects on yield tend to depend to a large extent on realization of the potentially beneficial effects of carbon dioxide on crop growth and increase of efficiency in water use. Decrease in potential yields is likely to be caused by shortening of the growing period, decrease in water availability and poor vernalization.
In the long run, the climatic change could affect agriculture in several ways :
- productivity, in terms of quantity and quality of crops
- agricultural practices, through changes of water use (irrigation) and agricultural inputs such as herbicides, insecticides and fertilizers
- environmental effects, in particular in relation of frequency and intensity of soil drainage (leading to nitrogen leaching), soil erosion, reduction of crop diversity
- rural space, through the loss and gain of cultivated lands, land speculation, land renunciation, and hydraulic amenities.
- adaptation, organisms may become more or less competitive, as well as humans may develop urgency to develop more competitive organisms, such as flood resistant or salt resistant varieties of rice.
They are large uncertainties to uncover, particularly because there is lack of information on many specific local regions, and include the uncertainties on magnitude of climate change, the effects of technological changes on productivity, global food demands, and the numerous possibilities of adaptation.
Most agronomists believe that agricultural production will be mostly affected by the severity and pace of climate change, not so much by gradual trends in climate. If change is gradual, there may be enough time for biota adjustment. Rapid climate change, however, could harm agriculture in many countries, especially those that are already suffering from rather poor soil and climate conditions, because there is less time for optimum natural selection and adaption.
But much remains unknown about exactly how climate change may affect farming and food security, in part because the role of farmer behaviour is poorly captured by crop-climate models. For instance, Evan Fraser, a geographer at the University of Guelph in Ontario Canada, has conducted a number of studies that show that the socio-economic context of farming may play a huge role in determining whether a drought has a major, or an insignificant impact on crop production. In some cases, it seems that even minor droughts have big impacts on food security (such as what happened in Ethiopia in the early 1980s where a minor drought triggered a massive famine), versus cases where even relatively large weather-related problems were adapted to without much hardship. Evan Fraser combines socio-economic models along with climatic models to identify “vulnerability hotspots” One such study has identified US maize (corn) production as particularly vulnerable to climate change because it is expected to be exposed to worse droughts, but it does not have the socio-economic conditions that suggest farmers will adapt to these changing conditions.
So far, the effects of regional climate change on agriculture have been relatively limited. Changes in crop phenology provide important evidence of the response to recent regional climate change. Phenology is the study of natural phenomena that recur periodically, and how these phenomena relate to climate and seasonal changes. A significant advance in phenology has been observed for agriculture and forestry in large parts of the Northern Hemisphere.
Droughts have been occurring more frequently because of global warming and they are expected to become more frequent and intense in Africa, southern Europe, the Middle East, most of the Americas, Australia, and Southeast Asia. Their impacts are aggravated because of increased water demand, population growth, urban expansion, and environmental protection efforts in many areas. Droughts result in crop failures and the loss of pasture grazing land for livestock.
As part of the IPCC's Fourth Assessment Report, Schneider et al. (2007) projected the potential future effects of climate change on agriculture. With low to medium confidence, they concluded that for about a 1 to 3 °C global mean temperature increase (by 2100, relative to the 1990–2000 average level) there would be productivity decreases for some cereals in low latitudes, and productivity increases in high latitudes. In the IPCC Fourth Assessment Report, "low confidence" means that a particular finding has about a 2 out of 10 chance of being correct, based on expert judgement. "Medium confidence" has about a 5 out of 10 chance of being correct. Over the same time period, with medium confidence, global production potential was projected to:
- increase up to around 3 °C,
- very likely decrease above about 3 °C.
Most of the studies on global agriculture assessed by Schneider et al. (2007) had not incorporated a number of critical factors, including changes in extreme events, or the spread of pests and diseases. Studies had also not considered the development of specific practices or technologies to aid adaptation to climate change.
The US National Research Council (US NRC, 2011) assessed the literature on the effects of climate change on crop yields. US NRC (2011) stressed the uncertainties in their projections of changes in crop yields.
Their central estimates of changes in crop yields are shown above. Actual changes in yields may be above or below these central estimates. US NRC (2011) also provided an estimated the "likely" range of changes in yields. "Likely" means a greater than 67% chance of being correct, based on expert judgement. The likely ranges are summarized in the image descriptions of the two graphs.
The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report also describes the impact of climate change on food security. Projections suggested that there could be large decreases in hunger globally by 2080, compared to the (then-current) 2006 level. Reductions in hunger were driven by projected social and economic development. For reference, the Food and Agriculture Organization has estimated that in 2006, the number of people undernourished globally was 820 million. Three scenarios without climate change (SRES A1, B1, B2) projected 100-130 million undernourished by the year 2080, while another scenario without climate change (SRES A2) projected 770 million undernourished. Based on an expert assessment of all of the evidence, these projections were thought to have about a 5-in-10 chance of being correct.
The same set of greenhouse gas and socio-economic scenarios were also used in projections that included the effects of climate change. Including climate change, three scenarios (SRES A1, B1, B2) projected 100-380 million undernourished by the year 2080, while another scenario with climate change (SRES A2) projected 740-1,300 million undernourished. These projections were thought to have between a 2-in-10 and 5-in-10 chance of being correct.
Projections also suggested regional changes in the global distribution of hunger. By 2080, sub-Saharan Africa may overtake Asia as the world's most food-insecure region. This is mainly due to projected social and economic changes, rather than climate change.
Cline (2008) looked at how climate change might affect agricultural productivity in the 2080s. His study assumes that no efforts are made to reduce anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, leading to global warming of 3.3 °C above the pre-industrial level. He concluded that global agricultural productivity could be negatively affected by climate change, with the worst effects in developing countries (see graph opposite).
Lobell et al. (2008a) assessed how climate change might affect 12 food-insecure regions in 2030. The purpose of their analysis was to assess where adaptation measures to climate change should be prioritized. They found that without sufficient adaptation measures, South Asia and South Africa would likely suffer negative impacts on several crops which are important to large food insecure human populations.
Battisti and Naylor (2009) looked at how increased seasonal temperatures might affect agricultural productivity. Projections by the IPCC suggest that with climate change, high seasonal temperatures will become widespread, with the likelihood of extreme temperatures temperatures increasing through the second-half of the 21st century. Battisti and Naylor (2009) concluded that such changes could have very serious effects on agriculture, particularly in the tropics. They suggest that major, near-term, investments in adaptation measures could reduce these risks.
"Climate change merely increases the urgency of reforming trade policies to ensure that global food security needs are met" said C. Bellmann, ICTSD Programmes Director. A 2009 ICTSD-IPC study by Jodie Keane suggests that climate change could cause farm output in sub-Saharan Africa to decrease by 12 percent by 2080 - although in some African countries this figure could be as much as 60 percent, with agricultural exports declining by up to one fifth in others. Adapting to climate change could cost the agriculture sector $14bn globally a year, the study finds.
|This section requires expansion with: more detail regional/country level information. (February 2013)|
In Africa, IPCC (2007:13) projected that climate variability and change would severely compromise agricultural production and access to food. This projection was assigned "high confidence."
Africa's geography makes it particularly vulnerable to climate change, and seventy per cent of the population rely on rain-fed agriculture for their livelihoods. Tanzania's official report on climate change suggests that the areas that usually get two rainfalls in the year will probably get more, and those that get only one rainy season will get far less. The net result is expected to be that 33% less maize—the country's staple crop—will be grown.
In East and Southeast Asia, IPCC (2007:13) projected that crop yields could increase up to 20% by the mid-21st century. In Central and South Asia, projections suggested that yields might decrease by up to 30%, over the same time period. These projections were assigned "medium confidence." Taken together, the risk of hunger was projected to remain very high in several developing countries.
More detailed analysis of rice yields by the International Rice Research Institute forecast 20% reduction in yields over the region per degree Celsius of temperature rise. Rice becomes sterile if exposed to temperatures above 35 degrees for more than one hour during flowering and consequently produces no grain.
A 2013 study by the International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics (ICRISAT) aimed to find science-based, pro-poor approaches and techniques that would enable Asia's agricultural systems to cope with climate change, while benefitting poor and vulnerable farmers. The study's recommendations ranged from improving the use of climate information in local planning and strengthening weather-based agro-advisory services, to stimulating diversification of rural household incomes and providing incentives to farmers to adopt natural resource conservation measures to enhance forest cover, replenish groundwater and use renewable energy. A 2014 study found that warming had increased maize yields in the Heilongjiang region of China had increased by between 7 and 17% per decade as a result of rising temperatures.
Australia and New Zealand
Hennessy et al.. (2007:509) assessed the literature for Australia and New Zealand. They concluded that without further adaptation to climate change, projected impacts would likely be substantial: By 2030, production from agriculture and forestry was projected to decline over much of southern and eastern Australia, and over parts of eastern New Zealand; In New Zealand, initial benefits were projected close to major rivers and in western and southern areas. Hennessy et al.. (2007:509) placed high confidence in these projections.
With high confidence, IPCC (2007:14) projected that in Southern Europe, climate change would reduce crop productivity. In Central and Eastern Europe, forest productivity was expected to decline. In Northern Europe, the initial effect of climate change was projected to increase crop yields.
The major agricultural products of Latin American regions include livestock and grains, such as maize, wheat, soybeans, and rice. Increased temperatures and altered hydrological cycles are predicted to translate to shorter growing seasons, overall reduced biomass production, and lower grain yields. Brazil, Mexico and Argentina alone contribute 70-90% of the total agricultural production in Latin America. In these and other dry regions, maize production is expected to decrease. A study summarizing a number of impact studies of climate change on agriculture in Latin America indicated that wheat is expected to decrease in Brazil, Argentina and Uruguay. Livestock, which is the main agricultural product for parts of Argentina, Uruguay, southern Brazil, Venezuela, and Colombia is likely to be reduced. Variability in the degree of production decrease among different regions of Latin America is likely. For example, one study that estimated future maize production in Latin America predicted that by 2055 maize in eastern Brazil will have moderate changes while Venezuela is expected to have drastic decreases.
Suggested potential adaptation strategies to mitigate the impacts of global warming on agriculture in Latin America include using plant breeding technologies and installing irrigation infrastructure.
Climate justice and subsistence farmers in Latin America
Several studies that investigated the impacts of climate change on agriculture in Latin America suggest that in the poorer countries of Latin America, agriculture composes the most important economic sector and the primary form of sustenance for small farmers. Maize is the only grain still produced as a sustenance crop on small farms in Latin American nations. Scholars argue that the projected decrease of this grain and other crops will threaten the welfare and the economic development of subsistence communities in Latin America. Food security is of particular concern to rural areas that have weak or non-existent food markets to rely on in the case food shortages.
According to scholars who considered the environmental justice implications of climate change, the expected impacts of climate change on subsistence farmers in Latin America and other developing regions are unjust for two reasons. First, subsistence farmers in developing countries, including those in Latin America are disproportionately vulnerable to climate change Second, these nations were the least responsible for causing the problem of anthropogenic induced climate.
According to researchers John F. Morton and T. Roberts, disproportionate vulnerability to climate disasters is socially determined. For example, socioeconomic and policy trends affecting smallholder and subsistence farmers limit their capacity to adapt to change. According to W. Baethgen who studied the vulnerability of Latin American agriculture to climate change, a history of policies and economic dynamics has negatively impacted rural farmers. During the 1950s and through the 1980s, high inflation and appreciated real exchange rates reduced the value of agricultural exports. As a result, farmers in Latin America received lower prices for their products compared to world market prices. Following these outcomes, Latin American policies and national crop programs aimed to stimulate agricultural intensification. These national crop programs benefitted larger commercial farmers more. In the 1980s and 1990s low world market prices for cereals and livestock resulted in decreased agricultural growth and increased rural poverty.
In the book, Fairness in Adaptation to Climate Change, the authors describe the global injustice of climate change between the rich nations of the north, who are the most responsible for global warming and the southern poor countries and minority populations within those countries who are most vulnerable to climate change impacts.
Adaptive planning is challenged by the difficulty of predicting local scale climate change impacts. An expert that considered opportunities for climate change adaptation for rural communities argues that a crucial component to adaptation should include government efforts to lessen the effects of food shortages and famines. This researcher also claims that planning for equitable adaptation and agricultural sustainability will require the engagement of farmers in decision making processes.
A number of studies have been produced which assess the impacts of climate change on agriculture in North America. The IPCC Fourth Assessment Report of agricultural impacts in the region cites 26 different studies. With high confidence, IPCC (2007:14–15) projected that over the first few decades of this century, moderate climate change would increase aggregate yields of rain-fed agriculture by 5–20%, but with important variability among regions. Major challenges were projected for crops that are near the warm end of their suitable range or which depend on highly utilized water resources.
Droughts are becoming more frequent and intense in arid and semiarid western North America as temperatures have been rising, advancing the timing and magnitude of spring snow melt ﬂoods and reducing river flow volume in summer. Direct effects of climate change include increased heat and water stress, altered crop phenology, and disrupted symbiotic interactions. These effects may be exacerbated by climate changes in river ﬂow, and the combined effects are likely to reduce the abundance of native trees in favor of non-native herbaceous and drought-tolerant competitors, reduce the habitat quality for many native animals, and slow litter decomposition and nutrient cycling. Climate change effects on human water demand and irrigation may intensify these effects.
- United States
- Many crops will benefit from increased atmospheric CO
2 concentrations and low levels of warming, but higher levels of warming will negatively affect growth and yields. Extreme events will likely reduce crop yields.
- Weeds. diseases and insect pests benefit from warming, and will require more attention in regards to pest and weed control.
- Increasing CO
2 concentrations will reduce the land's ability to supply adequate livestock feed. Increased heat, disease, and weather extremes will likely reduce livestock productivity.
According to a paper by Deschenes and Greenstone (2006), predicted increases in temperature and precipitation will have virtually no effect on the most important crops in the US.[unbalanced opinion]
Polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic)
Anisimov et al.. (2007:655) assessed the literature for the polar region (Arctic and Antarctica). With medium confidence, they concluded that the benefits of a less severe climate were dependent on local conditions. One of these benefits was judged to be increased agricultural and forestry opportunities.
For the Guardian newspaper, Brown (2005) reported on how climate change had affected agriculture in Iceland. Rising temperatures had made the widespread sowing of barley possible, which had been untenable twenty years ago. Some of the warming was due to a local (possibly temporary) effect via ocean currents from the Caribbean, which had also affected fish stocks.
In a literature assessment, Mimura et al. (2007:689) concluded that on small islands, subsistence and commercial agriculture would very likely be adversely affected by climate change. This projection was assigned "high confidence."
Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute (ODI) have investigated the potential impacts climate change could have on agriculture, and how this would affect attempts at alleviating poverty in the developing world. They argued that the effects from moderate climate change are likely to be mixed for developing countries. However, the vulnerability of the poor in developing countries to short term impacts from climate change, notably the increased frequency and severity of adverse weather events is likely to have a negative impact. This, they say, should be taken into account when defining agricultural policy.
Mitigation and adaptation in developing countries
The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) has reported that agriculture is responsible for over a quarter of total global greenhouse gas emissions. Given that agriculture’s share in global gross domestic product (GDP) is about 4 percent, these figures suggest that agriculture is highly Green House Gas intensive. Innovative agricultural practices and technologies can play a role in climate mitigation and adaptation. This adaptation and mitigation potential is nowhere more pronounced than in developing countries where agricultural productivity remains low; poverty, vulnerability and food insecurity remain high; and the direct effects of climate change are expected to be especially harsh. Creating the necessary agricultural technologies and harnessing them to enable developing countries to adapt their agricultural systems to changing climate will require innovations in policy and institutions as well. In this context, institutions and policies are important at multiple scales.
Travis Lybbert and Daniel Sumner suggest six policy principles: (1) The best policy and institutional responses will enhance information flows, incentives and flexibility. (2) Policies and institutions that promote economic development and reduce poverty will often improve agricultural adaptation and may also pave the way for more effective climate change mitigation through agriculture. (3) Business as usual among the world’s poor is not adequate. (4) Existing technology options must be made more available and accessible without overlooking complementary capacity and investments. (5) Adaptation and mitigation in agriculture will require local responses, but effective policy responses must also reflect global impacts and inter-linkages. (6) Trade will play a critical role in both mitigation and adaptation, but will itself be shaped importantly by climate change.
Crop development models
Models for climate behavior are frequently inconclusive. In order to further study effects of global warming on agriculture, other types of models, such as crop development models, yield prediction, quantities of water or fertilizer consumed, can be used. Such models condense the knowledge accumulated of the climate, soil, and effects observed of the results of various agricultural practices. They thus could make it possible to test strategies of adaptation to modifications of the environment.
Because these models are necessarily simplifying natural conditions (often based on the assumption that weeds, disease and insect pests are controlled), it is not clear whether the results they give will have an in-field reality. However, some results are partly validated with an increasing number of experimental results.
Scenarios are used in order to estimate climate changes effects on crop development and yield. Each scenario is defined as a set of meteorological variables, based on generally accepted projections. For example, many models are running simulations based on doubled carbon dioxide projections, temperatures raise ranging from 1 °C up to 5 °C, and with rainfall levels an increase or decrease of 20%. Other parameters may include humidity, wind, and solar activity. Scenarios of crop models are testing farm-level adaptation, such as sowing date shift, climate adapted species (vernalisation need, heat and cold resistance), irrigation and fertilizer adaptation, resistance to disease. Most developed models are about wheat, maize, rice and soybean.
Temperature potential effect on growing period
Duration of crop growth cycles are above all, related to temperature. An increase in temperature will speed up development. In the case of an annual crop, the duration between sowing and harvesting will shorten (for example, the duration in order to harvest corn could shorten between one and four weeks). The shortening of such a cycle could have an adverse effect on productivity because senescence would occur sooner.
Effect of elevated carbon dioxide on crops
Carbon dioxide is essential to plant growth. Rising CO2 concentration in the atmosphere can have both positive and negative consequences.
Increased CO2 is expected to have positive physiological effects by increasing the rate of photosynthesis. Currently, the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere is 380 parts per million. In comparison, the amount of oxygen is 210,000 ppm. This means that often plants may be starved of carbon dioxide as the enzyme that fixes CO
2, RuBisCo, also fixes oxygen in the process of photorespiration. The effects of an increase in carbon dioxide would be higher on C3 crops (such as wheat) than on C4 crops (such as maize), because the former is more susceptible to carbon dioxide shortage. Studies have shown that increased CO2 leads to fewer stomata developing on plants which leads to reduced water usage. Under optimum conditions of temperature and humidity, the yield increase could reach 36%, if the levels of carbon dioxide are doubled.
Further, few studies have looked at the impact of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations on whole farming systems. Most models study the relationship between CO2 and productivity in isolation from other factors associated with climate change, such as an increased frequency of extreme weather events, seasonal shifts, and so on.
In 2005, the Royal Society in London concluded that the purported benefits of elevated carbon dioxide concentrations are "likely to be far lower than previously estimated when factors such as increasing ground-level ozone are taken into account."
Effect on quality
According to the IPCC's TAR, "The importance of climate change impacts on grain and forage quality emerges from new research. For rice, the amylose content of the grain—a major determinant of cooking quality—is increased under elevated CO2" (Conroy et al., 1994). Cooked rice grain from plants grown in high-CO
2 environments would be firmer than that from today's plants. However, concentrations of iron and zinc, which are important for human nutrition, would be lower (Seneweera and Conroy, 1997). Moreover, the protein content of the grain decreases under combined increases of temperature and CO2 (Ziska et al., 1997). Studies using FACE have shown that increases in CO2 lead to decreased concentrations of micronutrients in crop plants. This may have knock-on effects on other parts of ecosystems as herbivores will need to eat more food to gain the same amount of protein.
Studies have shown that higher CO2 levels lead to reduced plant uptake of nitrogen (and a smaller number showing the same for trace elements such as zinc) resulting in crops with lower nutritional value. This would primarily impact on populations in poorer countries less able to compensate by eating more food, more varied diets, or possibly taking supplements.
Reduced nitrogen content in grazing plants has also been shown to reduce animal productivity in sheep, which depend on microbes in their gut to digest plants, which in turn depend on nitrogen intake.
Agricultural surfaces and climate changes
Climate change may increase the amount of arable land in high-latitude region by reduction of the amount of frozen lands. A 2005 study reports that temperature in Siberia has increased three degree Celsius in average since 1960 (much more than the rest of the world). However, reports about the impact of global warming on Russian agriculture indicate conflicting probable effects : while they expect a northward extension of farmable lands, they also warn of possible productivity losses and increased risk of drought.
Sea levels are expected to get up to one meter higher by 2100, though this projection is disputed. A rise in the sea level would result in an agricultural land loss, in particular in areas such as South East Asia. Erosion, submergence of shorelines, salinity of the water table due to the increased sea levels, could mainly affect agriculture through inundation of low-lying lands.
Low lying areas such as Bangladesh, India and Vietnam will experience major loss of rice crop if sea levels rise as expected by the end of the century. Vietnam for example relies heavily on its southern tip, where the Mekong Delta lies, for rice planting. Any rise in sea level of no more than a meter will drown several km2 of rice paddies, rendering Vietnam incapable of producing its main staple and export of rice.
Erosion and fertility
The warmer atmospheric temperatures observed over the past decades are expected to lead to a more vigorous hydrological cycle, including more extreme rainfall events. Erosion and soil degradation is more likely to occur. Soil fertility would also be affected by global warming. However, because the ratio of carbon to nitrogen is a constant, a doubling of carbon is likely to imply a higher storage of nitrogen in soils as nitrates, thus providing higher fertilizing elements for plants, providing better yields. The average needs for nitrogen could decrease, and give the opportunity of changing often costly fertilisation strategies.
Due to the extremes of climate that would result, the increase in precipitations would probably result in greater risks of erosion, whilst at the same time providing soil with better hydration, according to the intensity of the rain. The possible evolution of the organic matter in the soil is a highly contested issue: while the increase in the temperature would induce a greater rate in the production of minerals, lessening the soil organic matter content, the atmospheric CO2 concentration would tend to increase it.
Potential effects of global climate change on pests, diseases and weeds
A very important point to consider is that weeds would undergo the same acceleration of cycle as cultivated crops, and would also benefit from carbonaceous fertilization. Since most weeds are C3 plants, they are likely to compete even more than now against C4 crops such as corn. However, on the other hand, some results make it possible to think that weedkillers could gain in effectiveness with the temperature increase.
Global warming would cause an increase in rainfall in some areas, which would lead to an increase of atmospheric humidity and the duration of the wet seasons. Combined with higher temperatures, these could favor the development of fungal diseases. Similarly, because of higher temperatures and humidity, there could be an increased pressure from insects and disease vectors.
Glacier retreat and disappearance
The continued retreat of glaciers will have a number of different quantitative impacts. In the areas that are heavily dependent on water runoff from glaciers that melt during the warmer summer months, a continuation of the current retreat will eventually deplete the glacial ice and substantially reduce or eliminate runoff. A reduction in runoff will affect the ability to irrigate crops and will reduce summer stream flows necessary to keep dams and reservoirs replenished.
Approximately 2.4 billion people live in the drainage basin of the Himalayan rivers. India, China, Pakistan, Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Myanmar could experience floods followed by severe droughts in coming decades. In India alone, the Ganges provides water for drinking and farming for more than 500 million people. The west coast of North America, which gets much of its water from glaciers in mountain ranges such as the Rocky Mountains and Sierra Nevada, also would be affected.
Ozone and UV-B
Some scientists think agriculture could be affected by any decrease in stratospheric ozone, which could increase biologically dangerous ultraviolet radiation B. Excess ultraviolet radiation B can directly affect plant physiology and cause massive amounts of mutations, and indirectly through changed pollinator behavior, though such changes are not simple to quantify. However, it has not yet been ascertained whether an increase in greenhouse gases would decrease stratospheric ozone levels.
ENSO effects on agriculture
ENSO (El Niño Southern Oscillation) will affect monsoon patterns more intensely in the future as climate change warms up the ocean's water. Crops that lie on the equatorial belt or under the tropical Walker circulation, such as rice, will be affected by varying monsoon patterns and more unpredictable weather. Scheduled planting and harvesting based on weather patterns will become less effective.
Areas such as Indonesia where the main crop consists of rice will be more vulnerable to the increased intensity of ENSO effects in the future of climate change. University of Washington professor, David Battisti, researched the effects of future ENSO patterns on the Indonesian rice agriculture using [IPCC]'s 2007 annual report and 20 different logistical models mapping out climate factors such as wind pressure, sea-level, and humidity, and found that rice harvest will experience a decrease in yield. Bali and Java, which holds 55% of the rice yields in Indonesia, will be likely to experience 9–10% probably of delayed monsoon patterns, which prolongs the hungry season. Normal planting of rice crops begin in October and harevest by January. However, as climate change affects ENSO and consequently delays planting, harvesting will be late and in drier conditions, resulting in less potential yields.
Impact of agriculture on climate change
The agricultural sector is a driving force in the gas emissions and land use effects thought to cause climate change. In addition to being a significant user of land and consumer of fossil fuel, agriculture contributes directly to greenhouse gas emissions through practices such as rice production and the raising of livestock; according to the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, the three main causes of the increase in greenhouse gases observed over the past 250 years have been fossil fuels, land use, and agriculture.
Agriculture contributes to greenhouse gas increases through land use in four main ways:
- CO2 releases linked to deforestation
- Methane releases from rice cultivation
- Methane releases from enteric fermentation in cattle
- Nitrous oxide releases from fertilizer application
Together, these agricultural processes comprise 54% of methane emissions, roughly 80% of nitrous oxide emissions, and virtually all carbon dioxide emissions tied to land use.
The planet's major changes to land cover since 1750 have resulted from deforestation in temperate regions: when forests and woodlands are cleared to make room for fields and pastures, the albedo of the affected area increases, which can result in either warming or cooling effects, depending on local conditions. Deforestation also affects regional carbon reuptake, which can result in increased concentrations of CO2, the dominant greenhouse gas. Land-clearing methods such as slash and burn compound these effects by burning biomatter, which directly releases greenhouse gases and particulate matter such as soot into the air.
Livestock and livestock-related activities such as deforestation and increasingly fuel-intensive farming practices are responsible for over 18% of human-made greenhouse gas emissions, including:
- 9% of global carbon dioxide emissions
- 35–40% of global methane emissions (chiefly due to enteric fermentation and manure)
- 64% of global nitrous oxide emissions (chiefly due to fertilizer use.)
Worldwide, livestock production occupies 70% of all land used for agriculture, or 30% of the land surface of the Earth.
- Environmental issues with agriculture
- Fisheries and Climate Change
- Food security
- Global warming and wine
- International Assessment of Agricultural Science and Technology for Development addressing the links between climate change & agriculture
- Land Allocation Decision Support System – a research tool that is used to test how climate change may affect agriculture (e.g. yield and quality)
- Retreat of glaciers since 1850
- Terra preta
- Water crisis
- Climate resilience
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change Special Report on Emissions Scenarios retrieved 26 June 2007
- Fraser, E. 2008. "Crop yield and climate change", Retrieved on 14 September 2009.
- UN Report on Climate Change retrieved 25 June 2007 Archived June 21, 2007 at the Wayback Machine
- This article incorporates public domain material from the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) document: Corn and Soybean Temperature Response, in: Agriculture, in: Karl, T.R., et al. (2009), Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 978-0-521-14407-0
- "Climate 'could devastate crops'". BBC News. 31 January 2008.
- Lobell DB, Burke MB, Tebaldi C, Mastrandrea MD, Falcon WP, Naylor RL (2008). "Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030". Science 319 (5863): 607–10. doi:10.1126/science.1152339. PMID 18239122.
- Fraser, E. 2007a. Travelling in antique lands: Studying past famines to understand present vulnerabilities to climate change. Climate Change 83:495-514.
- Simelton, E., E. Fraser, and M. Termansen. 2009. Typologies of crop-drought vulnerability: an empirical analysis of the socio-economic factors that influence the sensitivity and resilience to drought of three major food crops in China (1961–2001) Environmental Science & Policy 12:438-452.
- Fraser, E., M. Termansen, N. Sun, D. Guan, E. Simelton, P. Dodds, K. Feng, and Y. Yu. 2008. Quantifying socio economic characteristics of drought sensitive regions: evidence from Chinese provincial agricultural data. Comptes Rendus Geosciences 340:679-688.
- Fraser, E. D. G., E. Simelton, M. Termansen, S. N. Gosling, and A. South. 2013. ‘Vulnerability hotspots’: integrating socio-economic and hydrological models to identify where cereal production may decline due to climate change induced drought. Agricultural and Forest Meteorology 170:195-205.
- Rosenzweig, C (2007). "Executive summary". In ML Parry, et al., (eds.). Chapter 1: Assessment of Observed Changes and Responses in Natural and Managed Systems. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press (CUP): Cambridge, UK: Print version: CUP. This version: IPCC website. ISBN 0-521-88010-6. Retrieved 2011-06-25.
- Rosenzweig, C (2007). "22.214.171.124 Crops and livestock". In ML Parry, et al., (eds.). Chapter 1: Assessment of Observed Changes and Responses in Natural and Managed Systems. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press (CUP): Cambridge, UK: Print version: CUP. This version: IPCC website. ISBN 0-521-88010-6. Retrieved 2011-06-25.
- ML Parry, et al,, ed. (2007). "Definition of "phenology"". Appendix I: Glossary. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press (CUP): Cambridge, UK: Print version: CUP. This version: IPCC website. ISBN 0-521-88010-6. Retrieved 2011-06-25.
- Dai, A. (2011). "Drought under global warming: A review". Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Climate Change 2: 45–65. doi:10.1002/wcc.81.
- Mishra, A. K.; Singh, V. P. (2011). "Drought modeling – A review". Journal of Hydrology 403: 157. doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2011.03.049.
- Ding, Y.; Hayes, M. J.; Widhalm, M. (2011). "Measuring economic impacts of drought: A review and discussion". Disaster Prevention and Management 20 (4): 434. doi:10.1108/09653561111161752.
- Schneider, SH (2007). "19.3.1 Introduction to Table 19.1". In ML Parry, et al., (eds.). Chapter 19: Assessing Key Vulnerabilities and the Risk from Climate Change. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press (CUP): Cambridge, UK: Print version: CUP. This version: IPCC website. ISBN 0-521-88010-6. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- Parry, ML (2007). "Box TS.2. Communication of uncertainty in the Working Group II Fourth Assessment". In ML Parry, et al., (eds.). Technical summary. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press (CUP): Cambridge, UK: Print version: CUP. This version: IPCC website. ISBN 0-521-88010-6. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- Schneider, SH (2007). "126.96.36.199 Agriculture". In ML Parry, et al., (eds.). Chapter 19: Assessing Key Vulnerabilities and the Risk from Climate Change. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press (CUP): Cambridge, UK: Print version: CUP. This version: IPCC website. p. 790. ISBN 0-521-88010-6. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- Figure 5.1, p.161, in: Sec 5.1 FOOD PRODUCTION, PRICES, AND HUNGER, in: Ch 5: Impacts in the Next Few Decades and Coming Centuries, in: US NRC 2011
- Sec 5.1 FOOD PRODUCTION, PRICES, AND HUNGER, pp.160-162, in: Ch 5: Impacts in the Next Few Decades and Coming Centuries, in US NRC 2011
- Easterling, WE (2007). "5.6.5 Food security and vulnerability". In ML Parry, et al., (eds.). Chapter 5: Food, Fibre, and Forest Products. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-88010-6.
- Easterling, WE (2007). "Executive summary". In ML Parry, et al., (eds.). Chapter 5: Food, Fibre, and Forest Products. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-88010-6.
- "World hunger increasing". Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Newsroom. 30 October 2006. Retrieved 2011-07-07.
- Cline 2008
- Lobell & others 2008a (paywall). Lobell & others 2008b can be freely accessed.
- Battisti & Taylor 2009
- Ending hunger will require trade policy reform, Press Release, International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development, 12 October 2009.
- Climate change, agriculture and aid for trade, by Jodie Keane, ICTSD-IPC
- IPCC (2007). "Summary for Policymakers: C. Current knowledge about future impacts". Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [M.L. Parry et al. (eds.)]. Cambridge University Press.
- John Vidal (30 June 2005). "In the land where life is on hold". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 2008-01-22.
- Vulnerability to Climate Change: Adaptation Strategies and layers of Resilience, ICRISAT, Policy Brief No. 23, February 2013
- Meng, Q.; Hou, P.; Lobell, D. B.; Wang, H.; Cui, Z.; Zhang, F.; Chen, X. (2013). "The benefits of recent warming for maize production in high latitude China". Climatic Change 122: 341. doi:10.1007/s10584-013-1009-8.
- Hennessy, K. et al. (2007). "Chapter 11: Australia and New Zealand: Executive summary". In M.L. Parry et al. (eds.). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.
- JONES, P; THORNTON, P (April 2003). "The potential impacts of climate change on maize production in Africa and Latin America in 2055". Global Environmental Change 13 (1): 51–59. doi:10.1016/S0959-3780(02)00090-0.
- cite journal|last=Baethgen|first=WE|title=Vulnerability of the agricultural sector of Latin America to climate change|journal=Climate Research|date=1997|volume=9|pages=1–7|doi=doi:10.3354/cr009001
- Mendelsohn, R.; Dinar, A. (1 August 1999). "Climate Change, Agriculture, and Developing Countries: Does Adaptation Matter?". The World Bank Research Observer 14 (2): 277–293. doi:10.1093/wbro/14.2.277.
- Morton, J. F. (6 December 2007). "The impact of climate change on smallholder and subsistence agriculture". Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences 104 (50): 19680–19685. doi:10.1073/pnas.0701855104.
- Timmons Roberts, J. "The International Dimension of Climate Justice and the Need for International Adaptation Funding". Environmental Justice 2 (4): 185–190. doi:10.1089/env.2009.0029.
- cite journal|last=Davies|first=Mark|coauthors=Guenther, Bruce; Leavy, Jennifer; Mitchell, Tom; Tanner, Thomas|title=Climate Change Adaptation, Disaster Risk Reduction and Social Protection: Complementary Roles in Agriculture and Rural Growth?|journal=IDS Working Papers|volume=2009|issue=320|pages=01–37|doi=10.1111/j.2040-0209.2009.00320_2
- al.], edited by W. Neil Adger, Jouni Paavola, Saleemul Huq... [et (2006). Fairness in adaptation to climate change ([Online-Ausg.] ed.). Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press. ISBN 0-262-01227-8.
- Field, C.B., et al. (2007). "Sec. 14.4.4 Agriculture, forestry and fisheries". In ML Parry, et al., (eds.). Chapter 14: North America. Climate change 2007: impacts, adaptation and vulnerability: contribution of Working Group II to the fourth assessment report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-88010-6.
- "Vulnerability of riparian ecosystems to elevated CO2 and climate change in arid and semiarid western North America" Global Change Biology (2012) vol. 18, pp. 821–842, doi:10.1111/j.1365-2486.2011.02588.x
- This article incorporates public domain material from the US Global Change Research Program (USGCRP) document: USGCRP (2009). "Agriculture". In Karl, T.R.; Melillo. J.; Peterson, T.; Hassol, S.J. Global Climate Change Impacts in the United States. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 978-0-521-14407-0.. Public-domain status of this report can be found on p.4 of PDF
- "The Economic Impacts of Climate Change: Evidence from Agricultural Profits and Random Fluctuations in Weather".
- Anisimov, O.A., et al. (2007). "Chapter 15: Polar regions (Arctic and Antarctic): Executive summary". In M.L. Parry et al. (eds.). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.
- Paul Brown (30 June 2005). "Frozen assets". The Guardian. UK. Retrieved 2008-01-22.
- Mimura, N. et al. (2007). "Chapter 16: Small islands: Executive summary". In M.L. Parry et al. (eds.). Climate Change 2007: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability. Contribution of Working Group II to the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Cambridge University Press.
- "Climate change, agricultural policy and poverty reduction – how much do we know?". Overseas Development Institute. 2007. Retrieved 2007.
- IPCC. 2007. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. Contributions of Working Groups I, Ii, and Iiito the Fourth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Geneva: IPCC
- "Agricultural Technologies for Climate Change Mitigation and Adaptation in Developing Countries:Policy Options for Innovation and Technology Diffusion". International Centre for Trade and Sustainable Development. May 2010. Retrieved 23 October 2011.
- F. Woodward and C. Kelly (1995). "The influence of CO
2 concentration on stomatal density". New Phytologist 131 (3): 311–327. doi:10.1111/j.1469-8137.1995.tb03067.x.
- Bert G. Drake; Gonzalez-Meler, Miquel A.; Long, Steve P. (1997). "More efficient plants: A Consequence of Rising Atmospheric CO2?". Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 48: 609–639. doi:10.1146/annurev.arplant.48.1.609. PMID 15012276.
- Royal Society (2005) [Impact of climate change on crops worse than previously thought http://royalsociety.org/General_WF.aspx?pageid=7317&terms= Impact of climate change on crops worse than previously thought] archived
- "Climate Change 2001: Working Group II: Impacts, Adaptation and Vulnerability" IPCC
- Loladze, I (2002). "Rising atmospheric CO
2 and human nutrition: toward globally imbalanced plant stoichiometry?". Trends in Ecology & Evolution 17 (10): 457. doi:10.1016/S0169-5347(02)02587-9.
- Carlos E. Coviella and John T. Trumble (1999). "Effects of Elevated Atmospheric Carbon Dioxide on Insect-Plant Interactions". Conservation Biology (Conservation Biology, Vol. 13, No. 4) 13 (4): 700–712. doi:10.1046/j.1523-1739.1999.98267.x. JSTOR 2641685.
- The Food, the Bad, and the Ugly Scherer, Glenn Grist July, 2005
- Plague of plenty New Scientist Archive
- German Research Indicates Warming in Siberia, Global Warming Today, Global Warming Today
- Federal Service for Hydrometeorology and Environmental Monitoring 5Roshydromet), Strategic Forecast of Climate Change in the Russian Federation 2010–2015 and Its Impact on Sectors of the Russian Economy (Moscow 2005)
- The Danger of Climate Change for Russia – Expected Losses and Recommendations, By Alexey O. Kokorin and Inna G. Gritsevich, Moscow, russian analytical digest 23/07 
- Global warming 'will hurt Russia', 14:23 03 October 2003, NewScientist.com news service
- "Coping With Climate Change." Rice Today, IRRI. July–Sept (2007): 10–15. 
- Big melt threatens millions, says UN
- Glaciers melting at alarming speed
- Ganges, Indus may not survive: climatologists
- Himalaya glaciers melt unnoticed
- Glaciers Are Melting Faster Than Expected, UN Reports
- Ozone layer least fragile on record Brown, Paul The Guardian April 2005
- Dead link: http://news.independent.co.uk/world/environment/story.jsp?story=633349
- IPCC. Climate Change 2007: Synthesis Report. United Nations Environment Programme, 2007:Ch5, 8, and 10.
- Battisti, David S. et al. "Assessing risks of climate variability and climate change for Indonesian rice agriculture." Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America. No.19 (2007): 7752–7757.
- Food and Agriculture Organization of the UN retrieved 25 June 2007
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC)
- Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change
- IPCC Technical Summary retrieved 25 June 2007
- FAO, 2006, Livestock's long shadow
- Food and Agricultural Organization of the U.N. retrieved 25 June 2007
- Food and Agricultural Organization of the U.N. retrieved 27 June 2007
- Battisti, David; Naylor (2009), "Historical warnings of future food insecurity with unprecedented seasonal heat", Science 323 (5911): 240–4, doi:10.1126/science.1164363, PMID 19131626, retrieved 13 April 2012 .
- Cline, W.R. (March 2008), "Global Warming and Agriculture", Finance and Development (International Monetary Fund) 45 (1). Archived 17 August 2014.
- Lobell, David; Burke, Tebaldi, Mastrandrea, Falcon, Naylor (2008a), "Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security in 2030", Science 319 (5863): 607–10, doi:10.1126/science.1152339, PMID 18239122, retrieved 13 April 2012 .
- Lobell, D., et al. (2008b), Prioritizing climate change adaptation needs for food security - Policy Brief, Center on Food Security and the Environment, Stanford University. Archived 27 September 2014.
- US NRC (2011), Climate Stabilization Targets: Emissions, Concentrations, and Impacts over Decades to Millennia, Washington, D.C., USA: National Academies Press
- Fischer G., Shah M. and van Velthuizen H. (2002) "Climate Change and Agricultural Vulnerability". International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis. Report prepared under UN Institutional Contract Agreement 1113 for World Summit on Sustainable Development. Laxenburg, Austria
- Climate change pushing coffee to extinction? 17 October 2011
- Climate change on the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations website.
- A comprehensive report on the relationship between climate change, agriculture and food security by the International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI). See also an overview of IFPRI's climate change research.
- Climate Change, Rice and Asian Agriculture: 12 Things to Know Asian Development Bank
- LADSS – Climate Change and Agriculture – Are we asking the right questions?
- Food Security of Women in the Context of Climate Change – Online Discussion Forum
- The Guardian's [climate change coverage http://www.guardian.co.uk/environment/climate-change] often includes discussions about food security, including the 30 June 2005 article,One in six countries facing food shortage
- How is climate change threatening agriculture? section of official popularized version of IAASTD synthesis report (2008)
- Impacts of Climate Change on European Forests and Options for Adaptation Report to the European Commission Directorate-General for Agriculture and Rural Development; report written by European Forest Institute (EFI) with University of Natural Resources and Life Sciences, Vienna (BOKU), Institute of Forest Entomology, Forest Pathology and Forest Protection, INRA – UMR Biodiversité Gènes et Communautés and Accademia Italiana di Scienze Forestali (it) (Italian Academy of Forest Sciences (IAFS)) (November 2008)
- Climate Change and Agriculture in the ECA region a regional look by the World Bank at climate change and agriculture in countries in Europe and Central Asia.
- Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security (Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research) Global scientific research program that seeks to overcome the threats to agriculture and food security in a changing climate, exploring new ways of helping vulnerable rural communities adjust to global changes in climate.
- Meat Eater's Guide to Climate Change + Health (Environmental Working Group & CleanMetrics Corp.) Life-cycle assessment (LCA) of greenhouse gas emissions associated with 20 types of meat, fish, dairy and vegetable proteins, as well as these foods’ effects on health.
- Climate | Farming First