Climate of Adelaide

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Adelaide has a hot Mediterranean climate (Köppen climate classification Csa),[1] with mild winters with moderate rainfall and hot, dry summers.[2] In summer (December to February) the average maximum is around 29 °C (84 °F), but there is considerable variation and Adelaide can usually expect several days a year when the daytime temperature is 40 °C (104 °F) or above.

Nine of the 10 warmest years ever recorded in Adelaide have occurred since 2002 onwards.[3] Furthermore, a spike in heat waves, droughts and record breaking high temperatures in Adelaide over the past decade has led to significant concerns over the effects of global warming and man-made climate change on the city.[4][5][6]

Overview[edit]

The record maximum temperature is 46.1 °C (115.0 °F), which was reached twice in January 1939. In winter (June to August) the average maximum is around 15–16 °C (59–61 °F) and the average minimum around 7–8 °C (45–46 °F). Frosts are common in the valleys of the Adelaide Hills, but rare elsewhere, with the most notable occurrences having occurred in July 1908 and July 1982. Because of the mild winters, there is usually no appreciable snowfall in Adelaide, except on rare occasions at Mount Lofty and in some towns in the Adelaide Hills. The city has 87.5 clear days annually.

Adelaide is the driest of the Australian capital cities. Rainfall is unreliable, light and infrequent throughout summer. The average in January and February is around 20 millimetres (0.8 inches), but completely rainless months are by no means uncommon, and in 1893 sixty-nine days passed without measurable rainfall. In contrast, the winter has fairly reliable rainfall with June being the wettest month of the year, averaging around 80 mm. Alarmingly, the city has also recorded almost 10 consecutive years of below average Spring rainfall, with 2014 on track to continuing this trend.

2013-14 was the second hottest summer ever recorded in Adelaide,[7] while autumn 2014 was the fourth warmest autumn ever recorded in South Australia,[8] including a record run of 16 consecutive days in May with maximum temperatures over 20 °C within the city and metro areas.[9][10]

Climate data and extremes[edit]

Climate data for Adelaide (Kent Town, 1977–2013)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 45.7
(114.3)
44.3
(111.7)
41.9
(107.4)
36.9
(98.4)
29.2
(84.6)
25.4
(77.7)
23.1
(73.6)
30.4
(86.7)
34.3
(93.7)
39.0
(102.2)
43.0
(109.4)
42.5
(108.5)
45.7
(114.3)
Average high °C (°F) 29.3
(84.7)
29.4
(84.9)
26.4
(79.5)
22.7
(72.9)
18.9
(66)
16.1
(61)
15.3
(59.5)
16.6
(61.9)
19.0
(66.2)
21.8
(71.2)
25.2
(77.4)
27.0
(80.6)
22.3
(72.1)
Average low °C (°F) 17.1
(62.8)
17.2
(63)
15.3
(59.5)
12.4
(54.3)
10.2
(50.4)
8.1
(46.6)
7.5
(45.5)
8.2
(46.8)
9.7
(49.5)
11.5
(52.7)
14.1
(57.4)
15.6
(60.1)
12.2
(54)
Record low °C (°F) 9.2
(48.6)
9.5
(49.1)
7.2
(45)
4.3
(39.7)
1.5
(34.7)
−0.4
(31.3)
0.4
(32.7)
1.6
(34.9)
2.6
(36.7)
4.7
(40.5)
5.3
(41.5)
8.0
(46.4)
−0.4
(31.3)
Rainfall mm (inches) 19.0
(0.748)
13.5
(0.531)
27.2
(1.071)
39.6
(1.559)
59.9
(2.358)
79.3
(3.122)
75.9
(2.988)
69.2
(2.724)
58.7
(2.311)
42.8
(1.685)
30.2
(1.189)
28.6
(1.126)
544.9
(21.453)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.2 mm) 4.4 3.6 5.8 8.0 12.1 14.9 16.3 16.6 13.4 10.2 8.2 7.0 120.5
 % humidity 36 36 41 47 55 61 60 55 51 45 40 39 47
Mean monthly sunshine hours 325.5 285.3 266.6 219.0 167.4 138.0 148.8 186.0 204.0 257.3 273.0 294.5 2,765.4
Source: Bureau of Meteorology [11]

Recorded extremes (records from West Tce weather station 1839-1977 & Kent Town weather station 1977–present):

  • Hottest temperature – 46.1 °C (115.0 °F), 12 January 1939
  • Coldest temperature – −0.4 °C (31.3 °F), 8 June 1982
  • Hottest Minimum - 33.9 °C (93.0 °F), 29 January 2009
  • Coldest Maximum - 8.3 °C (46.9 °F), 29 June 1922
  • Wettest month – 217.9 mm (8.58 in), June 1916
  • Wettest 24 hours - 141.5 mm (5.57 in), 7 February 1925

Increasing frequency of heat waves (2008-2014)[edit]

March 2008 heatwave[edit]

Graph showing daily maximum and minimum temperatures in Adelaide during record heat wave in 2008.

Between 3 March and 17 March 2008 Adelaide recorded 15 consecutive days of 35 °C (95 °F) or above, and 13 consecutive days of 37.8 °C (100.0 °F) or above — both records for an Australian capital city. (The record number of consecutive days of 37.8 °C or above in any Australian city is held by Marble Bar in Western Australia, which experienced 160 consecutive days in 1923–24.)

January–February 2009 heatwave[edit]

During January and February 2009 Adelaide was affected by the early 2009 southeastern Australia heat wave. The heatwave broke numerous records and affected all of south-eastern Australia, including Melbourne, another southern Australian city, where some outdoor games were cancelled during the 2009 Australian Open.

The heatwave commenced in Adelaide on 26 January 2009 (Australia Day), with a temperature of 36.6 °C (98 °F). From 27 January the temperature soared above 40 °C (104 °F) degrees for 6 consecutive days, until 2 February where the temperature dropped to 38.8 °C (102 °F). This is the longest straight run of 40C temperatures in Adelaide. On 28 January, the third day into the heatwave, the temperature reached 45.7 °C (114 °F), making it the 3rd hottest day on record in Adelaide. On that same night, the temperature only dipped to 33.9 °C (93 °F), making it the highest minimum temperature on record in South Australia. The maximum temperatures stayed higher than 30C for another six days, including two more 40C plus days (6 and 7 February) until dropping back to 24.8C on 8 February 2009.

November 2009 heatwave[edit]

In November 2009 Adelaide was affected by the late 2009 southeastern Australia heatwave which occurred in the states of South Australia, Victoria and New South Wales. Daily maximum temperatures during the heat wave were roughly 10 °C (18 °F) above average in many locations. Capital cities Adelaide and Melbourne recorded temperatures over 40 °C (104 °F) and 35 °C (95 °F) respectively, which are unusual for November. Above average temperatures in the region began in late October and persisted until mid-November 2009.

Temperature records for November in Adelaide set during the heatwave:

  • 10 consecutive days over 30 °C (86 °F).
  • 8 consecutive days over 35 °C (95 °F) – new record set on 13 November, breaking the previous record of 4 consecutive days, which was set in 1894.[13]
  • 6 consecutive days over 38 °C (100 °F) – breaking the previous record of 3 consecutive days, which was set in 1888, 1922 and 1984.[14]
  • Hottest November day – 43.0 °C (109.4 °F) on 19 November 2009 at 4:32pm ACDT, breaking the previous record of 42.0 °C (107.6 °F) set on 13 November 1993.[15]

Summer 2013-2014 heatwave[edit]

Adelaide experienced another record-breaking run of hot weather during the summer of 2013–2014.

As of 12 February 2014, records for Adelaide set during the 2013-2014 summer heatwave (beginning in December) include:[16]

  • Hottest February day – 44.7 °C (112.5 °F) on 2 February 2014.
  • Record number of days exceeding 40 °C (104 °F) during the summer months (December, January and February) – 13 so far.
  • Record number of days exceeding 42 °C (108 °F) during a calendar year - 9 so far.
  • Record number of consecutive days exceeding 42 °C (108 °F) – 5.

References[edit]

  1. ^ Tapper, Andrew; Tapper, Nigel (1996). Gray, Kathleen, ed. The weather and climate of Australia and New Zealand (First ed.). Melbourne, Australia: Oxford University Press. p. 300. ISBN 0-19-553393-3. 
  2. ^ Griffin, T. & McCaskill, M. (Editors, 1986): Atlas of South Australia. South Australian Government Printing Division in association with Wakefield Press on behalf of the South Australia Jubilee 150 Board, Adelaide. ISBN 0 7243 4688 0
  3. ^ Bureau of Metereology says heavy rains on way across South Australia on Friday, after scorching heat, The Australian, 12 February 2014
  4. ^ Cook, Craig (11 February 2014). "Today’s top of 40.9C breaks new record in South Australia of number of summer days with maximum over 40 degrees". The Australian. Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  5. ^ "Climate change in South Australia". Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  6. ^ "Heatwaves increasing in Australia". Retrieved 11 February 2014. 
  7. ^ "Adelaide's hottest summer on record". ABC Online. 11 February 2014. Retrieved 4 June 2014. 
  8. ^ "South Australia in Autumn 2014". Retrieved 11 June 2014. 
  9. ^ BoM: Adelaide Metro & Hills in May 2014: A warm end to autumn Accessed 5 June 2014.
  10. ^ BoM: Special Climate Statement 49 – an exceptionally prolonged autumn warm spell over much of Australia 4 June 2014. Accessed 5 June 2014.
  11. ^ "Climate statistics for ADELAIDE (KENT TOWN)". Climate statistics for Australian locations. Bureau of Meteorology. Retrieved January 16, 2014. 
  12. ^ "Climate Statistics for Adelaide Airport (1955-2012)". Retrieved February 24, 2014. 
  13. ^ "Adelaide sweats in landmark heatwave". ABC News Online. 12 November 2009. Retrieved 12 November 2009. 
  14. ^ Dutschke, Brett (12 November 2009). "Little relief from record heat in SA". Weatherzone. Retrieved 12 November 2009. 
  15. ^ "Adelaide, South Australia November 2009 Daily Weather Observations". Bureau of Meteorology. 
  16. ^ Bureau of Metereology says heavy rains on way across South Australia on Friday, after scorching heat, The Australian, 12 February 2014