Climate of Barcelona

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Barcelona
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
41
 
13
4
 
 
29
 
15
5
 
 
42
 
16
7
 
 
49
 
18
9
 
 
59
 
21
12
 
 
42
 
24
16
 
 
20
 
28
19
 
 
61
 
28
19
 
 
85
 
26
17
 
 
91
 
22
13
 
 
58
 
17
8
 
 
51
 
14
6
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: WMO[1]

Barcelona and its metropolitan area has a Subtropical-Mediterranean climate[2] (Köppen climate classification: Csa),[3] with mild winters and warm summers. According to Troll-Paffen climate classification, Barcelona has a warm-temperate subtropical climate (Warmgemäßigt-subtropisches Zonenklima).[4] According to Siegmund/Frankenberg climate classification, Barcelona has a subtropical climate.[5] Barcelona is located on the eastern coast of the Iberian Peninsula, so Atlantic west winds often arrive in Barcelona with low humidity, producing no rain. The proximity of the Atlantic, its latitude, and the relief, are the reasons why the summers are not as dry as in most other Mediterranean Basin locations.

Temperature[edit]

General[edit]

Yearly max temp Yearly mean temp Yearly min temp
20 °C (68 °F) 15 °C (59 °F) 11 °C (52 °F)

Its average annual temperature is 20 °C (68 °F) during the day and 11 °C (52 °F) at night. In the coldest month – January, typically the temperature ranges from 8 to 17 °C (46 to 63 °F) during the day and 2 to 10 °C (36 to 50 °F) at night. In the warmest month – August, the typically temperature ranges from 25 to 31 °C (77 to 88 °F) during the day and about 20 °C (68 °F) at night. Large fluctuations in temperature are rare.[6]

Seasonal climate[edit]

Winter in Barcelona: mild temperatures and partly green flora

Winter[edit]

Winters in Barcelona are mild. December, January and February are the coldest months, with average temperatures around 14 °C (57 °F) during the day and 5 °C (41 °F) at night. Slight frost at night is more common on the hills around the city and in the outer metropolitan area (far from the sea). Frost during the day has never been recorded in the city and inner metropolitan area. In winter the average temperature during the day is 10–17 °C (50–63 °F); only on about four days a year does the temperature fall below 10 °C (50 °F).

Summer[edit]

Generally the summer season lasts about six months, from May to October. July and August are the warmest months, with average temperatures around 27–28 °C (81–82 °F) during the day and 20 °C (68 °F) at night. In June and September the average temperature is around 25 °C (77 °F) during the day and 15 °C (59 °F) at night, and in May and October the average temperature is around 21 °C (70 °F) during the day and 13 °C (55 °F) at night. Daytime temperatures above 32 °C (90 °F) are rare.

Transitional months[edit]

Two months – April and November – are transitional, with the temperature sometimes exceeding 20 °C (68 °F), and an average temperature of 17–18 °C (63–64 °F) during the day and 8–9 °C (46–48 °F) at night.[6]

Sunshine[edit]

Sunshine duration is 2,524 hours per year, from 138 - average 4.5 hours of sunshine per day in December to 310 - average 10 hours of sunshine per day in July.[6] This is the middling value for the southern half of Europe because in this part of the continent, sunshine duration varies from about 2,000 to about 3,000 hours per year. However, this is 60% larger value than in northern half of Europe, where sunshine duration is around 1500 hours per year. In winter Barcelona has about three times (150%) more sun duration than in the northern half of Europe.

Climate data for Barcelona
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Mean monthly sunshine hours 149 163 200 220 244 262 310 282 219 180 146 138 2,524
Mean daily sunshine hours 4.80 5.71 6.45 7.33 7.87 8.73 10.0 9.09 7.30 5.80 4.86 4.45 6.9
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[6]

Daylight[edit]

Barcelona enjoys one of the most optimal number of hours of daylight in Europe. Days in winter are not as short as in the northern part of the continent, the average hours of daylight in December, January and February is 10 hours[7] (for comparison: London[8] or Moscow[9] or Warsaw[10] - about 8 hours).

Average hours of daylight[7]
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec
hours of light 10 11 12 13 15 15 15 14 12 11 10 9
hours of Twilight/Night 14 13 12 11 9 9 9 10 12 13 14 15

Precipitation[edit]

Barcelona has on average only 55 precipitation days a year, therein average several rainy days per month (≥ 1 mm), ranging from 2 in July to 6 in October. The average annual precipitation is less than 640 mm (25 inches), ranging from 20 mm (0.79 inch) in July to 91 mm (3.58 inch) in October.[6]

Climate data for Barcelona
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Precipitation mm (inches) 41
(1.61)
29
(1.14)
42
(1.65)
49
(1.93)
59
(2.32)
42
(1.65)
20
(0.79)
61
(2.4)
85
(3.35)
91
(3.58)
58
(2.28)
51
(2.01)
640
(25.2)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 5 4 5 5 5 4 2 4 5 6 5 5 55
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[6]

Humidity[edit]

Average relative humidity is 72%, ranging from 69% in July to 75% in October.[6]

Climate data for Barcelona
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
 % humidity 73 71 71 71 73 72 69 72 73 75 74 73 72
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[6]

Snow[edit]

Snowfalls are very rare, but slight frost at night is more common on the hills around the city and in the depths of the metropolitan area (far from the sea).[11][12] Two heavy snowfalls occurred in Christmas 1962,[13] and according to old news sources,[which?] in 1887. In the twenty-first century snow has fallen on 23 February 2013, 2 February 2012, 8 March 2010, 14 February 2010, 6 January 2009, 27 January 2006, 28 February 2005, 29 February 2004, 18 February 2003 and 14 December 2001. So, almost each winter could snow once specially on February.[14]

Climate data for Barcelona
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Avg. snowy days 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[6]

Temperature extremes[edit]

The highest temperature recorded during the day is 37.4 °C (99.3 °F) on the 27 August 2010. On the August 2003 reported record, the average maximum temperature during the day was 32.8 °C (91.0 °F). The coldest temperature recorded was −8.0 °C (17.6 °F) at night on 27 December 1962.[14]

Climate data for Barcelona
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 22.4
(72.3)
24.5
(76.1)
27.5
(81.5)
26.5
(79.7)
32.0
(89.6)
34.9
(94.8)
36.0
(96.8)
37.4
(99.3)
34.0
(93.2)
30.4
(86.7)
27.0
(80.6)
27.0
(80.6)
37.4
(99.3)
Record low °C (°F) −7.2
(19)
−6.6
(20.1)
−1.4
(29.5)
0.1
(32.2)
3.0
(37.4)
7.8
(46)
11.4
(52.5)
9.5
(49.1)
7.6
(45.7)
3.8
(38.8)
−1.4
(29.5)
−8
(18)
−8
(18)
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[15]

Fog[edit]

Barcelona is generally a sunny city, however, some days of fog and spells of overcast days are not rare. Sea fog is frequent in early spring, when the first warm African air masses come in over the cold sea water.

Thunderstorms[edit]

Thunderstorms, which occasionally reach severe limits, are common from mid August until November. The most recent major summer storm was on the 31 July 2002,[16] when over 200 mm (7.87 in) of rain were recorded at some observatories.

Winds[edit]

Though Barcelona is normally not a windy city, it is affected by sea breezes from May/June to September and winds from the west and northwest in winter. Eastern gales sometimes cause floods on the coastline. East and northeast winds can exceed 100 km/h (62.14 mph). In winter Barcelona is sometimes affected by the tramontana or mistral winds, like other places in the Northwestern Mediterranean Basin.

Sea temperature[edit]

Average annual temperature of sea is about 18 °C (64 °F). In the coldest month – January, the average sea temperature is 13 °C (55 °F). In the warmest month – August, the average sea temperature is 25 °C (77 °F).[7]

Average sea temperature:[7]
Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
13 °C (55 °F) 13 °C (55 °F) 13 °C (55 °F) 14 °C (57 °F) 17 °C (63 °F) 20 °C (68 °F) 23 °C (73 °F) 25 °C (77 °F) 23 °C (73 °F) 20 °C (68 °F) 17 °C (63 °F) 15 °C (59 °F) 18 °C (64 °F)

Seasonal information[edit]

Because of the mild temperatures, much of the vegetation (palm species for example) remains green throughout the year, while the leaves of many deciduous trees do not fall until February. New leaves appear in March. Snow is rare in Barcelona (falling only once every two years on average), although there are resorts for winter sports in the Pyrenees 100–150 km from the city. Because of the climate and geographical location, the city hopes to host the 2026 Winter Olympics. The opening and closing ceremonies, medal ceremonies and indoor sports would be held in Barcelona, while outdoor sports would be held in ski resorts in the Pyrenees, mainly La Molina.[17] Summers in Barcelona area are long and warm. Summer temperatures - above 20 °C (68 °F) - begin as early as April, although in this month the sea temperature is still cool: about 15 °C (59 °F). The summer season ends in October, although even in November temperatures can often exceed 20 °C (68 °F) and the sea temperature remains mild - 17 °C (63 °F). Over the summer season (6 months), the average temperatures is 21–28 °C (70–82 °F) during the day and the average sea temperature is 22 °C (72 °F). The weather in Barcelona during spring or autumn can be very changeable weather. During these months it can rain fairly constantly, but you can just as well experience consecutive sunny days. The difference between temperatures during day and night is about 10-15 °C (20-30 °F).[18]

Climatic data for Barcelona area[edit]

Climate data for Barcelona (Barcelona Airport, altitude: 4 m.a.s.l., 1971–2000, location)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.4
(56.1)
14.6
(58.3)
15.9
(60.6)
17.6
(63.7)
20.5
(68.9)
24.2
(75.6)
27.5
(81.5)
28.0
(82.4)
25.5
(77.9)
21.5
(70.7)
17.0
(62.6)
14.3
(57.7)
20.0
(68)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.9
(48)
10.0
(50)
11.3
(52.3)
13.1
(55.6)
16.3
(61.3)
20.0
(68)
23.1
(73.6)
23.7
(74.7)
21.1
(70)
17.1
(62.8)
12.6
(54.7)
10.0
(50)
15.6
(60.1)
Average low °C (°F) 4.4
(39.9)
5.3
(41.5)
6.7
(44.1)
8.5
(47.3)
12.0
(53.6)
15.7
(60.3)
18.6
(65.5)
19.3
(66.7)
16.7
(62.1)
12.6
(54.7)
8.1
(46.6)
5.7
(42.3)
11.1
(52)
Precipitation mm (inches) 41
(1.61)
29
(1.14)
42
(1.65)
49
(1.93)
59
(2.32)
42
(1.65)
20
(0.79)
61
(2.4)
85
(3.35)
91
(3.58)
58
(2.28)
51
(2.01)
640
(25.2)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 5 4 5 5 5 4 2 4 5 6 5 5 55
Mean monthly sunshine hours 149 163 200 220 244 262 310 282 219 180 146 138 2,524
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[6]
Climate data for Barcelona (Barcelona Airport, altitude: 4 m.a.s.l., 2001–2010, location)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.66
(56.59)
13.91
(57.04)
16.07
(60.93)
18.33
(64.99)
21.47
(70.65)
25.97
(78.75)
28.43
(83.17)
28.86
(83.95)
26.23
(79.21)
22.61
(72.7)
17.56
(63.61)
13.80
(56.84)
20.58
(69.04)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.38
(48.88)
9.76
(49.57)
11.92
(53.46)
14.37
(57.87)
17.60
(63.68)
22.10
(71.78)
24.76
(76.57)
24.93
(76.87)
22.20
(71.96)
18.51
(65.32)
13.10
(55.58)
9.51
(49.12)
16.52
(61.74)
Average low °C (°F) 5.09
(41.16)
5.60
(42.08)
7.77
(45.99)
10.41
(50.74)
13.72
(56.7)
18.24
(64.83)
21.09
(69.96)
20.99
(69.78)
18.08
(64.54)
14.40
(57.92)
8.64
(47.55)
5.22
(41.4)
12.44
(54.39)
Precipitation mm (inches) 32.6
(1.283)
40.6
(1.598)
32.7
(1.287)
37.3
(1.469)
53.8
(2.118)
11.4
(0.449)
25.1
(0.988)
63.6
(2.504)
75.2
(2.961)
87.2
(3.433)
33.9
(1.335)
35.3
(1.39)
529
(20.83)
Avg. precipitation days (≥ 1 mm) 3.3 4.7 4.1 5.1 4.7 2.2 1.9 4.7 5.3 5.9 3.7 5.0 50.6
Mean monthly sunshine hours 158.0 170.6 206.3 239.0 257.6 287.2 292.5 264.2 229.3 195.9 152.5 137.3 2,590.4
Source: Agencia Estatal de Meteorología[19]
Climate data for Barcelona
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.6
(56.5)
14.2
(57.6)
16.1
(61)
18.6
(65.5)
21.7
(71.1)
25.9
(78.6)
28.2
(82.8)
29.0
(84.2)
26.1
(79)
22.7
(72.9)
17.6
(63.7)
14.0
(57.2)
20.6
(69.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.4
(48.9)
10.0
(50)
12.0
(53.6)
14.1
(57.4)
17.8
(64)
22.1
(71.8)
24.6
(76.3)
25.1
(77.2)
22.1
(71.8)
18.4
(65.1)
12.9
(55.2)
9.8
(49.6)
16.7
(62.1)
Average low °C (°F) 5.2
(41.4)
5.8
(42.4)
8.0
(46.4)
10.8
(51.4)
14.1
(57.4)
18.3
(64.9)
21.0
(69.8)
21.2
(70.2)
18.3
(64.9)
14.8
(58.6)
9.3
(48.7)
5.8
(42.4)
12.7
(54.9)
Avg. precipitation days 5.2 5.6 5.0 6.0 6.7 3.3 2.7 4.1 4.9 6.7 5.3 7.2 62.7
Source: Climatebase.ru[20]
Climate data for Badalona, suburb joined to Barcelona (data from 1956-1969)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.7
(56.7)
14.7
(58.5)
16.6
(61.9)
18.3
(64.9)
21.7
(71.1)
25.3
(77.5)
27.5
(81.5)
27.1
(80.8)
25.4
(77.7)
24.3
(75.7)
17.3
(63.1)
13.7
(56.7)
20.5
(68.9)
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.0
(48.2)
9.9
(49.8)
11.9
(53.4)
13.4
(56.1)
17.1
(62.8)
20.5
(68.9)
23.1
(73.6)
23.0
(73.4)
21.1
(70)
18.7
(65.7)
12.8
(55)
9.6
(49.3)
15.8
(60.4)
Average low °C (°F) 4.3
(39.7)
5.0
(41)
7.2
(45)
8.6
(47.5)
12.6
(54.7)
15.7
(60.3)
18.8
(65.8)
18.9
(66)
16.8
(62.2)
13.1
(55.6)
8.3
(46.9)
5.6
(42.1)
11.2
(52.2)
Source: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[21]
Climate data for Sant Adrià de Besòs, suburb joined to Barcelona (data from 1932-1970)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.5
(56.3)
14.4
(57.9)
16.7
(62.1)
19.4
(66.9)
22.2
(72)
25.2
(77.4)
29.0
(84.2)
28.9
(84)
26.9
(80.4)
23.0
(73.4)
17.0
(62.6)
13.8
(56.8)
20.8
(69.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.6
(47.5)
9.2
(48.6)
11.6
(52.9)
14.2
(57.6)
17.1
(62.8)
20.4
(68.7)
23.9
(75)
23.9
(75)
21.9
(71.4)
17.8
(64)
12.3
(54.1)
9.4
(48.9)
15.9
(60.6)
Average low °C (°F) 3.7
(38.7)
4.0
(39.2)
6.6
(43.9)
8.9
(48)
12.0
(53.6)
15.6
(60.1)
18.8
(65.8)
18.9
(66)
16.9
(62.4)
12.5
(54.5)
7.6
(45.7)
5.0
(41)
10.9
(51.6)
Source: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[22]
Climate data for El Prat de Llobregat, suburb joined to Barcelona (data from 1935-1969)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 12.8
(55)
13.8
(56.8)
15.3
(59.5)
17.8
(64)
20.9
(69.6)
24.6
(76.3)
27.3
(81.1)
27.4
(81.3)
25.4
(77.7)
21.5
(70.7)
17.0
(62.6)
13.7
(56.7)
19.8
(67.6)
Daily mean °C (°F) 8.4
(47.1)
9.2
(48.6)
11.2
(52.2)
13.5
(56.3)
16.4
(61.5)
20.4
(68.7)
23.0
(73.4)
23.3
(73.9)
21.4
(70.5)
17.2
(63)
12.7
(54.9)
9.6
(49.3)
15.5
(59.9)
Average low °C (°F) 4.1
(39.4)
4.5
(40.1)
7.2
(45)
9.2
(48.6)
12.0
(53.6)
16.3
(61.3)
18.8
(65.8)
19.2
(66.6)
17.3
(63.1)
13.0
(55.4)
8.4
(47.1)
5.4
(41.7)
11.3
(52.3)
Source: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[23]
Climate data for Mataró on the north-east of Barcelona (data from 1931-1969)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 14.0
(57.2)
13.7
(56.7)
15.8
(60.4)
17.2
(63)
20.3
(68.5)
24.0
(75.2)
26.8
(80.2)
27.3
(81.1)
25.1
(77.2)
21.6
(70.9)
16.9
(62.4)
13.8
(56.8)
19.7
(67.5)
Daily mean °C (°F) 10.3
(50.5)
10.2
(50.4)
12.3
(54.1)
14.0
(57.2)
16.9
(62.4)
20.7
(69.3)
23.5
(74.3)
23.9
(75)
21.7
(71.1)
18.0
(64.4)
13.6
(56.5)
10.6
(51.1)
16.3
(61.3)
Average low °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
6.7
(44.1)
8.9
(48)
10.7
(51.3)
13.5
(56.3)
17.3
(63.1)
20.2
(68.4)
20.4
(68.7)
18.2
(64.8)
14.5
(58.1)
10.4
(50.7)
7.4
(45.3)
12.9
(55.2)
Source: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[24]
Climate data for Sabadell on the north of Barcelona, on the hills (elevation: 190 m, (data from 1938-1969)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 12.6
(54.7)
14.2
(57.6)
17.0
(62.6)
19.6
(67.3)
22.8
(73)
26.8
(80.2)
29.6
(85.3)
29.1
(84.4)
26.3
(79.3)
21.9
(71.4)
16.7
(62.1)
12.9
(55.2)
20.8
(69.4)
Daily mean °C (°F) 7.5
(45.5)
8.8
(47.8)
11.2
(52.2)
13.6
(56.5)
16.8
(62.2)
20.6
(69.1)
23.5
(74.3)
23.3
(73.9)
20.9
(69.6)
16.5
(61.7)
11.5
(52.7)
8.1
(46.6)
15.2
(59.4)
Average low °C (°F) 2.4
(36.3)
3.4
(38.1)
5.4
(41.7)
7.6
(45.7)
10.8
(51.4)
14.5
(58.1)
17.5
(63.5)
17.6
(63.7)
15.5
(59.9)
11.1
(52)
6.4
(43.5)
3.4
(38.1)
9.6
(49.3)
Source: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[25]
Climate data for Caldes de Montbui on the north-west of Barcelona, on the hills (elevation: 203 m (666 ft), data from 1941-1969)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 13.3
(55.9)
14.7
(58.5)
17.7
(63.9)
20.5
(68.9)
23.7
(74.7)
27.7
(81.9)
30.9
(87.6)
29.9
(85.8)
27.4
(81.3)
23.0
(73.4)
17.6
(63.7)
13.6
(56.5)
21.7
(71.1)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.7
(44.1)
7.8
(46)
10.6
(51.1)
13.1
(55.6)
16.3
(61.3)
20.2
(68.4)
23.3
(73.9)
23.0
(73.4)
20.6
(69.1)
16.2
(61.2)
11.0
(51.8)
7.5
(45.5)
14.7
(58.5)
Average low °C (°F) 0.0
(32)
0.9
(33.6)
3.6
(38.5)
5.7
(42.3)
8.9
(48)
12.8
(55)
15.7
(60.3)
16.2
(61.2)
13.8
(56.8)
9.5
(49.1)
4.4
(39.9)
1.5
(34.7)
7.8
(46)
Source: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[26]
Climate data for Martorell on the west of Barcelona in the depths of the land (elevation: 56 m, data from 1964-1970)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 11.6
(52.9)
12.8
(55)
16.3
(61.3)
20.7
(69.3)
25.8
(78.4)
29.5
(85.1)
33.0
(91.4)
31.3
(88.3)
26.3
(79.3)
21.2
(70.2)
15.0
(59)
10.8
(51.4)
21.2
(70.2)
Daily mean °C (°F) 6.8
(44.2)
7.6
(45.7)
10.4
(50.7)
14.1
(57.4)
18.4
(65.1)
21.9
(71.4)
25.4
(77.7)
24.8
(76.6)
20.8
(69.4)
16.2
(61.2)
10.2
(50.4)
6.6
(43.9)
15.3
(59.5)
Average low °C (°F) 2.1
(35.8)
2.4
(36.3)
4.6
(40.3)
7.5
(45.5)
11.1
(52)
14.3
(57.7)
17.9
(64.2)
18.4
(65.1)
15.4
(59.7)
11.1
(52)
5.5
(41.9)
2.5
(36.5)
9.4
(48.9)
Source: Sistema de Clasificación Bioclimática Mundial[27]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Weather Information for Barcelona". World Weather Information Service. Retrieved 2010-08-02. 
  2. ^ "Servei Meteorològic de Catalunya". Meteo.cat. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  3. ^ "World Map of Köppen−Geiger Climate Classification". 
  4. ^ Climatic map by Istituto Geografico De Agostini, according to Troll-Paffen climate classification
  5. ^ Die Klimatypen der Erde - Pädagogische Hochschule in Heidelberg
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j "Standard Climate Values. Barcelona Aeropuerto". Retrieved 2014-09-05. 
  7. ^ a b c d "Weather2Travel.com: Barcelona Climate Guide". Retrieved 2011-06-16. 
  8. ^ http://www.weather2travel.com/climate-guides/united-kingdom/london.php
  9. ^ http://www.weather2travel.com/climate-guides/russia-europe/moscow.php
  10. ^ http://www.weather2travel.com/climate-guides/poland/warsaw.php
  11. ^ "TETHYS". Tethys.cat. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  12. ^ "Barcelona es, o no, ciudad de nieves | Associació Catalana de Meteorologia". Acam.cat. Retrieved 2009-07-07. 
  13. ^ "Situacions extraodinaries | Associació Catalana de Meteorologia". Acam.cat. 1962-12-27. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  14. ^ a b "Valores Extremos for Barcelona" (pdf) (www version) – Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
  15. ^ "Extreme Temperature Reports: Barcelona Aeropuerto". Retrieved 19 December 2012. 
  16. ^ "Montgat". Geocities.com. Archived from the original on 2009-10-27. Retrieved 2009-05-22. 
  17. ^ "Barcelona optará a los Juegos Olímpicos de Invierno 2022". Publico.es. Retrieved March 5, 2011. 
  18. ^ "Barcelona Weather Guide". barcelona-university.es. Retrieved May 13, 2014. 
  19. ^ Valores climatológicos normales y estadísticos de estaciones principales - Agencia Estatal de Meteorología
  20. ^ Barcelona - Climatebase.ru
  21. ^ "ESP BARCELONA - BADALONA". 
  22. ^ "ESP BARCELONA - SAN ADRIAN DEL BESOS". 
  23. ^ "ESP BARCELONA - EL PRAT DE LLOBREGAT". 
  24. ^ "ESP BARCELONA - MATARO". 
  25. ^ "ESP BARCELONA - SABADELL". 
  26. ^ "ESP BARCELONA - CALDES DE MONTBUI". 
  27. ^ "ESP BARCELONA - MARTORELL".