Geography of Macau

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Geography of Macau

1. Location, size, border, and coastline
2. Topography
3. Climate
4. Natural resources

4.1. Fresh water

5. Land use and reclamation
6. Environmental factors
7. See also

Other Macau topics
Culture & Demographics - Education - Economy
Geography - History - Politics & Gov.
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Macau is a city on the southern coast of China. It is located at the south of Guangdong Province, on the tip of the peninsula formed by the Zhujiang (Pearl River) estuary on the east and the Xijiang (West River) on the west. Macau is situated 60 km west of Hong Kong and 145 km southwest of Guangzhou, the capital of Guangdong Province. It is immediately adjacent to the Zhuhai Special Economic Zone.

The region comprises the Macau Peninsula and the islands of Taipa and Coloane. Macau was once an island but gradually a connecting sandbar turned into a narrow isthmus. Land reclamation in the 17th century made Macau into a peninsula, and a barrier gate was built to mark the separation between the peninsula and the mainland. Pre-colonial records show that Macau totalled only 2.78 km2 (1.07 sq mi) but began to increase as a result of Portuguese settlement. Land growth has accelerated since the last quarter of the 20th century, from 15 km2 (5.8 sq mi) in 1972 to 16.1 km2 (6.22 sq mi) in 1983 to 21.3 km2 (8.22 sq mi) square kilometres in 1994. Macau's size has gradually increased as result of continued land reclamation, especially on Taipa and Coloane. In 2010, the total land area was approximately 29.7 km².

There is a 0.34 km (0.21 mi) long border between Macau and mainland China and a forty-kilometer-long coastline. The main border crossing between Macau and China is the Portas do Cerco (Barrier Gate) Frontier Checkpoint on the Macau side, and the Gongbei checkpoint on the Chinese side.

Location, size, border, and coastline[edit]

Geographic coordinates: 22°10′N 113°33′E / 22.167°N 113.550°E / 22.167; 113.550

Area:
total: 28.2 km²
land: 28.2 km²
water: 0 km²

Land boundaries:
total: 0.34 km
border city: Zhuhai, Guangdong Province 0.34 km
Coastline: 41 km
Maritime claims: not specified

Topography[edit]

The administrative divisions within Macau (Click here for Satellite Image)


Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the South China Sea and China

Terrain: generally flat
Elevation extremes:
lowest point: South China Sea 0 m
highest point: Coloane Alto 172 m (564 ft)

Macau has generally flat terrain resulting from extensive land reclamation, but numerous steep hills mark the original natural land mass. The modern high-rise skyline of Macau obscures much of the hilly landscape. The Macau skyline both defines and obscures its topography.

The Macau Peninsula is narrow in shape but varies in terrain:

The East Ocean Watching Hill, West Ocean Watching Hill, Persimmon Hill, Lotus Hill, Luosi Hill and Qingzhou Hill are famous scenic spots in Macau. The Persimmon Hill used to be a fortress surrounded by stone walls. The fortress, which resembles an imposing European castle, is now a tourist attraction. Standing on the Persimmon Hill, one gains a panoramic view of both Macau and the nearby Zhuhai.

The West Ocean Watching Hill, a tranquil scenic spot, is noted for the cathedral and the bishop's mansion on its top. Viewed from the Nanxi Bay in the distance, particularly against the evening glow, the cathedral and the mansion stand in their full splendor. From the top of the Persimmon Hill, one sees the Nanxi Bay and the high rise buildings there as well as the sea and the sea – spanning bridge.

Climate[edit]

Macau
Climate chart (explanation)
J F M A M J J A S O N D
 
 
32
 
18
12
 
 
59
 
18
13
 
 
83
 
21
16
 
 
217
 
25
20
 
 
362
 
28
24
 
 
340
 
30
26
 
 
290
 
32
26
 
 
352
 
31
26
 
 
194
 
30
25
 
 
117
 
27
22
 
 
43
 
23
18
 
 
35
 
20
14
Average max. and min. temperatures in °C
Precipitation totals in mm
Source: WMO

Although Macau is located in the tropics, it has a humid subtropical climate (Köppen climate classification Cwa), because the Siberian pressure system in the winter pushes cool air further south than similar semipermanent permanent high pressure systems. Its average year-round temperature is 22.7 °C (72.9 °F). Summers are very hot and humid: the July average temperature is 28.9 °C (84.0 °F) and the highest daytime temperature could reach 35 °C (95 °F). However, the heat is generally less intense than many places in mainland China due to the coastal location. Winters are short and mild: the January average is 15.0 °C (59.0 °F) and the lowest temperature could drop to 5 °C (41 °F), but very rarely any lower. There is about 2,120 millimetres (83 in) of rainfall annually, with drier winters.

Macau is exposed to tropical storms originating from the southern Pacific Ocean during the summer. Major destruction occurred in September 1874, when a devastating typhoon hit Macau and high seas swept across the low-lying area of the peninsula. There are always a few tropical storm occurrences in Macau each year (typically between May to October), although they vary in strengths. When they occur, they usually bring strong winds, rainfall and lower temperatures.

Prevailing winds and weather types change follow the monsoon pattern. It is warm and moist when the southeast and southwest winds coming from Pacific Ocean, and typhoons are relatively common during summertime; and is dry and slightly cold when the north winds coming from Siberia or the northern part of Mainland China.

During the transition period from northeast monsoon to southwest monsoon (March and April), the weather is moist and foggy. It is Macau's spring season. Summer is from May to September, when the southeast and southwest monsoon prevailing. It is rather hot and rainy. The weather in autumn (the end of September and October) is sunny and warm, when the southwest monsoon withdrawing gradually and the northeast monsoon advancing south. It is generally regarded as the most comfortable season there. Winter is from November to February next year, when the northeast monsoon prevailing. It is mainly dry, with occasional cold fronts arriving.

There are moderate to high levels of humidity year-round, with an annual average of 79.3%. Annual sunshine totals are moderate, at more than 1800 hours.


Climate data for Macau (1971–2000)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 17.7
(63.9)
17.7
(63.9)
20.7
(69.3)
24.5
(76.1)
28.1
(82.6)
30.3
(86.5)
31.5
(88.7)
31.2
(88.2)
30.0
(86)
27.4
(81.3)
23.4
(74.1)
19.6
(67.3)
25.2
(77.4)
Average low °C (°F) 12.2
(54)
13.1
(55.6)
16.2
(61.2)
20.2
(68.4)
23.6
(74.5)
25.7
(78.3)
26.3
(79.3)
26.0
(78.8)
24.9
(76.8)
22.3
(72.1)
17.8
(64)
13.8
(56.8)
20.2
(68.4)
Rainfall mm (inches) 32.4
(1.276)
58.8
(2.315)
82.5
(3.248)
217.4
(8.559)
361.9
(14.248)
339.7
(13.374)
289.8
(11.409)
351.6
(13.843)
194.1
(7.642)
116.9
(4.602)
42.6
(1.677)
35.2
(1.386)
2,122.9
(83.579)
Avg. rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm) 6 10 12 12 15 17 16 16 13 7 5 4 133
 % humidity 74.3 80.6 84.9 86.2 85.6 84.4 82.2 82.5 79.0 73.4 69.3 68.8 79.27
Mean monthly sunshine hours 132.4 81.8 75.9 87.8 138.4 168.2 226.2 194.7 182.2 195.0 177.6 167.6 1,827.8
Source: SMG [1]

Natural resources[edit]

Negligible. In the past, large amounts of granite were extracted from Macau's hills for use as building material.

Fresh water[edit]

Relying on the water supply of Xijiang River, Macau is at present suffering its worst ever crisis of salinity in freshwater during dry season in 2006 which takes place in late winter and early spring time. The salinity level of freshwater has recently aggrandised far above the standard set up by the World Health Organization or WHO. By the end of 2007, Macau will be able to solve the problem of tap-water supply with relatively high level of salinity after the completion of the Ping Gang project. This project is aimed at shifting the intake of raw-water on the Xijiang River 20 km upstream in order to give a wide berth to the salt tide in the province of Guangdong.

Land use and reclamation[edit]

Macau Peninsula and Ilha Verde in 1889
Macau Peninsula, Taipa and Coloane in 1912

No arable land, pastures, forest, or woodland. Because of this deficiency, Macau's people traditionally have looked to the sea for their livelihood.

arable land: 0%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 100% (2011)

In 2010 plans were announced for an additional 3.5 square kilometres of land reclamation in Macau, to be carried out over five years and divided into six phases. These areas cover an area east of the Outer Harbour Ferry Terminal, an area south of Avenida Sun Yat Sen, and the north side of Taipa Island.[2]

The change of total area of Macau (in km square) since the year of 1912:

Year Area of Macau Peninsula Area of Taipa Area of Coloane Area of Cotai Total area of Macau
1912 3.4* 2.3 5.9 —— 11.6
1936 5.2 2.6 6.0 —— 13.8
1957 5.5 3.3 6.3 —— 15.1
1986 5.8 3.7 7.1 —— 16.6
1991 6.5 4.0 7.6 —— 18.1
1996 7.7 5.8 7.6 —— 21.3
1999 7.8 6.2 7.6 —— 23.8
2000 8.5 6.2 7.6 —— 25.4
2001 8.5 6.2 7.6 3.5 25.8
2002 8.5 6.2 7.6 4.5 26.8
2003 8.7 6.2 7.6 4.7 27.3
2004 8.8 6.4 7.6 4.7 27.5
2005 8.9 28.2
2006 28.6

Environmental factors[edit]

Dense urban environment.

Geography – note: essentially urban; three bridges connect the two islands of Coloane and Taipa to the peninsula on mainland, and an isthmus connects Coloane and Taipa.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "100 Years of Macao Climate". Retrieved 2011-02-16. 
  2. ^ Alexandra Lages (19 June 2010). "Land reclamation to be done in the next 5 years". Macau Daily Times. Retrieved 26 April 2011.