Climate of Mecca

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search

Coordinates: 21°25′0″N 39°49′0″E / 21.41667°N 39.81667°E / 21.41667; 39.81667

Cumulus humilis cloud over Mecca city

Mecca features desert climate. Unlike other cities, Mecca retains its hot temperature in winter, which can range from 18 °C (64 °F) at night to 30 °C (86 °F) in the day. Summer temperatures are extremely hot, often being over 40 °C (104 °F) during the day, dropping to 30 °C (86 °F) at night.[1] Rain usually falls in Mecca in small amounts between November and January. The rainfall, as scant as it is, also presents the threat of flooding and has been a danger since earliest times. According to Al-Kurdī, there had been 89 historic floods by 1965, including several in the period. In the last century the most severe one occurred in 1942. Since then, dams have been constructed to ameliorate the problem.

Climate data for Mecca (1980-2007)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 37.0
(98.6)
38.3
(100.9)
42.0
(107.6)
44.7
(112.5)
49.4
(120.9)
49.4
(120.9)
49.8
(121.6)
49.6
(121.3)
49.4
(120.9)
46.8
(116.2)
40.8
(105.4)
37.8
(100)
49.8
(121.6)
Average high °C (°F) 29.9
(85.8)
30.8
(87.4)
33.9
(93)
36.8
(98.2)
40.3
(104.5)
41.9
(107.4)
41.3
(106.3)
40.5
(104.9)
40.8
(105.4)
38
(100)
34.2
(93.6)
31
(88)
36.62
(97.87)
Daily mean °C (°F) 23.5
(74.3)
24.1
(75.4)
27.1
(80.8)
29.7
(85.5)
33.2
(91.8)
34.9
(94.8)
35.2
(95.4)
34.7
(94.5)
34.4
(93.9)
31.2
(88.2)
27.7
(81.9)
24.7
(76.5)
30.03
(86.08)
Average low °C (°F) 17.2
(63)
17.4
(63.3)
20.4
(68.7)
22.7
(72.9)
26.2
(79.2)
28
(82)
29.1
(84.4)
29
(84)
28
(82)
24.5
(76.1)
21.2
(70.2)
18.5
(65.3)
23.52
(74.26)
Record low °C (°F) 11.0
(51.8)
10.0
(50)
13.0
(55.4)
15.6
(60.1)
20.3
(68.5)
22.0
(71.6)
23.4
(74.1)
23.4
(74.1)
22.0
(71.6)
18.0
(64.4)
16.4
(61.5)
12.4
(54.3)
10.0
(50)
Rainfall mm (inches) 20.6
(0.811)
1.4
(0.055)
6.2
(0.244)
11.6
(0.457)
0.6
(0.024)
0.0
(0)
1.5
(0.059)
5.6
(0.22)
5.3
(0.209)
14.2
(0.559)
21.7
(0.854)
21.4
(0.843)
110.1
(4.335)
Avg. precipitation days 4.1 0.9 2.0 1.9 0.7 0.0 0.2 1.6 2.3 1.9 3.9 3.6 23.1
 % humidity 58 54 48 43 36 33 34 39 45 50 58 59 46.4
Mean daily sunshine hours 7 8 9 10 11 10 9 10 10 10 8 7 9.1
Source #1: [2]
Source #2: Weather2Travel (sunshine)[3]

Factors[edit]

Mecca is at an elevation of 909 ft above sea level, and approximately 80 km inland from the Red Sea.[1] Flash floods are common during winter season even though the amount of precipitation is low. Since Mecca is located in a desert, dust storms are common in the city.

  • Shamal winds occur in Mecca mostly during summer months, these Shamal winds are very dusty and remain at peak in the morning but decreases at night. These winds also occur in winter but not often.[4]
  • Sandstorm or Dust storm both these phenomenon affect Mecca almost every month but especially during summer months.[5]
  • Westerly winds bring thunderstorms to many parts of including Mecca during winter months and sometimes hailstorms also occur in the city.[6]

Extreme weather events[edit]

Since Mecca is located in a low-lying region, it is threatened by seasonal flash floods despite the low amount of annual precipitation. There are less than 110 millimetres (4.3 in) of rainfall during the year, mainly falling in the winter months. Temperatures are high throughout the year and in summer it may reach 45 °C (113 °F).[7] Following are some extreme weather events in Mecca.

  • In November 2009, Makkah Province was badly affected when record-breaking rainfall of 90 millimetres (3.5 in) hit the province causing flash floods all over the province. It was the worst flood in 27 years.[8]
  • In November 2010, a thunderstorm killed 3 people in Makkah city following heavy rainfall. Most of the city remained under flood warning the entire night.[9]
  • In December 2010, once again the city was flooded when light to moderate intensity rainfall battered the holy city, claiming the lives of 4 people. While condition in Makkah Province was also comparable to the provincial capital.[10][11]
  • In January 2011, Heavy rainfall created flood like situation in the provinces especially Jeddah where 111 millimetres (4.4 in) occurred in just 3 hours killing four people.[12][13]

References[edit]