Geography of Niger
||This article needs additional citations for verification. (April 2013)|
|Coastline||0 km (landlocked)|
|Land boundaries||5,697 km|
|Countries bordered||Algeria 956 km
Benin 266 km
Burkina Faso 628 km
Chad 1,175 km
Libya 354 km
Mali 821 km
Nigeria 1,497 km
|Highest point||Mont Idoukal-n-Taghès, 2,022 m|
|Lowest point||Niger River, 200 m|
- Arable land
88.16 % (2011)
|Irrigated land||736.6 km² (2005)|
|Total renewable water resources||33.65 km3 (2011)|
|Climate:||desert to tropical|
|Terrain:||mostly desert plains and sand dunes, hills in the north|
|Natural resources||uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum|
|Natural hazards||recurring droughts|
|Environmental issues||overgrazing, soil erosion, deforestation, poaching|
Niger is a landlocked nation in West Africa located along the border between the Sahara and Sub-Saharan regions. Its geographic coordinates are longitude 16°N and latitude 8°E. Its area is 1.267 million square kilometers, of which 1 266 700 km² is land and 300 km² water, making Niger slightly less than twice the size of the U.S. state of Texas.
Political geography 
Surrounded by seven other countries, Niger has a total of 5,697 km of borders. The longest border is with Nigeria to the south, at 1,497 km. This is followed by Chad to the east (1,175 km), Algeria to the north-northwest (956 km), and Mali to the west (821 km). Niger also has short borders in its far southwest frontier (Burkina Faso at 628 km and Benin at 266 km) and to the north-northeast (Libya at 354 km).
Physical geography 
Niger's climate is largely hot and dry, with much desert area. In the extreme south, there is a tropical climate on the edges of the Niger River Basin. The terrain is predominantly desert plains and sand dunes, with flat to rolling plains in the south and hills in the north. Lake Chad at the southeast corner of the country is shared between Niger, Nigeria, Chad and Cameroon.
Extreme points 
- Northernmost point: Tripoint with Algeria and Libya, Agadez Region: 23°31'N.
- Southernmost point: Benin/Niger/Nigeria tripoint, Dosso Region: 11°42'N
- Easternmost point: border with Chad, Agadez Region: 16°00'E
- Westernmost point: border with Mali and Burkina Faso, Tillabéri Region: 0°07'E
- Highest point: Mont Idoukal-n-Taghès, Aïr Massif, Agadez Region:2,022 m (6,634 ft)
- Lowest point: Niger River at Nigeria border, Dosso Region: 200 m (656 ft)
Natural resources 
Niger possesses the following natural resources:
Agricultural geography 
Land in Niger is used as arable land (660 km² of land in Niger is irrigated) and as pasture. There are some forests and woodland. The table below describes the land use in Niger, as of 2011.
|Use||Percentage of Area|
Natural hazards 
Recurring droughts are a hazard in Niger. The 2012 Sahel drought, along with failed crops, insect plagues, high food prices and conflicts is currently effecting Niger causing a hunger crisis. Many families in Niger, still recovering from the 2010 Sahel famine, are being effect by the 2012 Sahel drought.
Current issues 
Current environmental issues in Niger include: overgrazing, soil erosion, deforestation, desertification and endangered wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion), which are threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction.
International agreements 
Niger is a party to the following agreements:
- Climate Change
- Endangered species
- Environmental Modification
- Hazardous Wastes
- Nuclear Test Ban
- Ozone Layer Protection
See also 
- CIA 2012 World Factbook
- "The World Factbook". Central Intelligence Agency website. Retrieved 2013-04-25.
- "West African food crisis 2012". www.trust.com. 2013-01-22. Retrieved 2013-04-27.
- Fominyen, George (2012-05-24). "Coming weeks critical to tackle Sahel hunger ? U.N. humanitarian chief". www.trust.cm. Retrieved 2013-04-27.
Further reading 
- L. Herrmann, K. Stahr and K. Vennemann. Atlas of Natural and Agronomic Resources of Niger and Benin, "Deutsche Forschungsgemeinschaft" (German Research Foundation), the University of Hohenheim. (No date). Accessed 2008-02-22.