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Clinical chemistry (also known as chemical pathology, clinical biochemistry or medical biochemistry) is the area of clinical pathology that is generally concerned with analysis of bodily fluids.
The discipline originated in the late 19th century with the use of simple chemical tests for various components of blood and urine. Subsequent to this, other techniques were applied including the use and measurement of enzyme activities, spectrophotometry, electrophoresis, and immunoassay.
Most current laboratories are now highly automated to accommodate the high workload typical of a hospital laboratory. Tests performed are closely monitored and quality controlled.a is in essence the same as serum, but is obtained by centrifuging the blood without clotting. Plasma is obtained by centrifugation before clotting occurs. The type of test required dictates what type of sample is used.
A large medical laboratory will accept samples for up to about 700 different kinds of tests. Even the largest of laboratories rarely do all these tests themselves, and some must be referred to other labs.
This large array of tests can be further sub-categorised into sub-specialities of:
- General or routine chemistry - commonly ordered blood chemistries (e.g., liver and kidney function tests).
- Special chemistry - elaborate techniques such as electrophoresis, and manual testing methods.
- Clinical endocrinology - the study of hormones, and diagnosis of endocrine disorders.
- Toxicology - the study of drugs of abuse and other chemicals.
- Therapeutic Drug Monitoring - measurement of therapeutic medications blood levels to optimize dosage.
- Urinalysis - chemical analysis of urine for a wide array of diseases, along with other fluids such as CSF and effusions
- Fecal analysis - mostly for detection of gastrointestinal disorders.
Common clinical chemistry tests include:
-Renal (Kidney) Function Tests
-Liver Function Tests
- Total protein (serum)
- Bilirubin; direct; indirect; total
- Aspartate transaminase (AST)
- Alanine transaminase (ALT)
- Gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT)
- Alkaline phosphatase (ALP)
Panel tests 
A set of commonly ordered tests are combined into a panel:
- Basic metabolic panel (BMP) - 8 tests - sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), creatinine, glucose, calcium
- Comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) - 14 tests - above BMP plus total protein, albumin, alkaline phosphatase (ALP), alanine amino transferase (ALT), aspartate amino transferase (AST), bilirubin