|Classification and external resources|
Clitoromegaly (or macroclitoris) is an abnormal enlargement of the clitoris (not to be confused with the normal enlargement of the clitoris seen during sexual arousal) that is mostly congenital or acquired, though deliberately induced clitoris enlargement as a form of female genital body modification is achieved through various uses of anabolic steroids, including testosterone, and may also be referred to as clitoromegaly.
In Atlas of Human Sex Anatomy (1949) by Dr. Robert Latou Dickinson, the typical clitoris is defined as having a crosswise width of 3 to 4 mm. (0.12 - 0.16 inches) and a lengthwise width of 4 to 5 mm (0.16 - 0.20 inches). On the other hand, in Obstetrics and Gynecology medical literature, a frequent definition of clitoromegaly is when there is a CI[when defined as?] of greater than 35 mm2 (0.05 inches2), which is almost twice the size given above for an average sized clitoral hood.
In the most pronounced cases, clitoromegaly is a symptom of intersexuality since the large clitoris resembles a penis. The different grade of genital ambiguity is commonly measured by the Prader classification ranging, in ascending order of masculinisation, from 1: Female external genitalia with clitoromegaly through 5: Pseudo-Phallus looking like normal male external genitalia.
Clitoromegaly is otherwise a rare condition and can be either present by birth or acquired later in life. If present at birth, congenital adrenal hyperplasia can be one of the causes, since in this condition the adrenal gland of the female fetus produces additional androgens and the newborn baby has ambiguous genitalia which are not clearly male or female. In pregnant women, who received norethisterone during pregnancy masculanization of fetus occurs, resulting in hypertrophy of clitoris; although this is rarely seen nowadays due to use of safer progestogens. It can also be caused by the autosomal recessive congenital disorder known as Fraser syndrome.
In acquired clitoromegaly, the main cause is due to endocrine hormonal imbalance affecting the adult women, including polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) and hyperthecosis. Acquired clitoromegaly may also be caused by pathologies affecting the ovaries and other endocrine glands. These pathologies may include virulent (such as arrhenoblastoma) and neurofibromatosic tumors. This can also be caused by clitoral cysts. In addition, sometimes there may be no obvious or hormonal reason.
Female bodybuilders and athletes who use androgens, primarily to enhance muscular growth, strength and appearance (see Use of performance-enhancing drugs in sport), may also experience clearly evident enlargement of the clitoris and increases in libido. Women who use testosterone for therapeutic reasons (treating low libido, averting osteoporosis, as part of an anti-depressant regimen, etc.) experience some enlargement of the clitoris, although the dosages warranted for these conditions are much lower. Pseudoclitoromegaly or pseudohypertrophy of the clitoris "has been reported in small girls due to masturbation: manipulations of the skin of prepuce leads to repeated mechanical trauma, which expands the prepuce and labia minora, thus imitating true clitoral enlargement".
- "Dorland Medical Dictionary".
- Copcu E, Aktas A, Sivrioglu N, Copcu O, Oztan Y (2004). "Idiopathic isolated clitoromegaly: A report of two cases". Reprod Health 1 (1): 4. doi:10.1186/1742-4755-1-4. PMC 523860. PMID 15461813.
- Atilla Şenaylı, Etlik Ankara (December 2011). "Controversies on clitoroplasty". Therapeutic Advances in Urology 3 (6): 273–277. doi:10.1177/1756287211428165. PMC 3229251. PMID 22164197.
- S.V. Perovic, M.L. Djordjevic (2003, first published online on November 24, 2003). "Metoidioplasty: a variant of phalloplasty in female transsexuals". BJUI 92 (9): 981–985. doi:10.1111/j.1464-410X.2003.04524.x.
- Walter J. Meyer, Alice Webb, Charles A. Stuart, Jordan W. Finkelstein, Barbara Lawrence and Paul A. Walker (April 1986). "Physical and hormonal evaluation of transsexual patients: A longitudinal study". Archives of Sexual Behavior 15 (2): 121–138. doi:10.1007/BF01542220.
- Dickinson, Robert Latou (1949). Atlas of Human Sex Anatomy. Williams & Wilkins Co. ISBN 0-88275-014-3.
- "Female Sexual Anatomy: Clitoral and Labia Size".
- Prader Von, A. (1954). "Der genitalbefund beim Pseudohermaproditismus femininus des kongenitalen adrenogenitalen Syndroms. Morphologie, Hausfigkeit, Entwicklung und Vererbung der verschiedenen Genitalformen." Helv. Pediatr. Acta. 9: 231-248.
- "Congenital Adrenal Hyperplasia(CAH), Prader Scale". Archived from the original on 2008-05-09. Retrieved 2008-09-28.
- NA, Beischer; Cookson T, Sheedy M, Wein P. (Aug 1992). "Norethisterone and gestational diabetes.". Aust N Z J Obstet Gynaecol. 32 (3): 233–8. PMID 1445134. Retrieved 7 December 2012.
- van Haelst MM, Scambler PJ, Hennekam RC (2007). "Fraser syndrome: A clinical study of 59 cases and evaluation of diagnostic criteria". Am J Med Genet 143a (24): 3194–203. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31951. PMID 18000968.
- Mukhtar I Khan, MD. "Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome". Retrieved 2008-09-28.
- Horejsí J. (1997). "Acquired clitoral enlargement. Diagnosis and treatment.". Ann N Y Acad Sci. 816: 369–372. doi:10.1111/j.1749-6632.1997.tb52163.x. PMID 9238289.
- Linck D, Hayes MF. (2002). "Clitoral cyst as a cause of ambiguous genitalia". Obstet Gynecol. 99 (5 Pt 2): 963–966. doi:10.1016/S0029-7844(02)01967-1. PMID 11975977.
- Freberg, Laura A. (2009). Discovering Biological Psychology. Cengage Learning. p. 300. ISBN 978-0-547-17779-3. Retrieved November 7, 2012.
- "A Dangerous and Illegal Way to Seek Athletic Dominance and Better Appearance. A Guide for Understanding the Dangers of Anabolic Steroids". Drug Enforcement Administration. 2004. Retrieved November 7, 2012.