Clonally transmissible cancer
A parasitic cancer or transmissible cancer is a cancer cell or cluster of cancer cells that can be transmitted from animal to animal.
Examples in animals
Cancer is not normally a contagious disease, but there are three known exceptions in dogs, Tasmanian devils and Syrian hamsters. These cancers have a relatively stable genome as they are transmitted. Because of their transmission, it was initially thought that these diseases were caused by the transfer of oncoviruses, in the manner of cervical cancer caused by HPV.
- Canine transmissible venereal tumor (CTVT) is sexually transmitted cancer in dogs. It was experimentally transplanted between dogs in 1876 by M. A. Novinsky (1841–1914). A single malignant clone of CTVT cells has colonized dogs worldwide, representing the oldest known malignant cell line in continuous propagation.
- Contagious reticulum cell sarcoma of the Syrian hamster can be transmitted from one Syrian hamster to another by means of the bite of the mosquito Aedes aegypti.
Instances of transmission of human cancer
Transmissible cancers are rare in humans. A malignant fibrous histiocytoma was contracted from a patient by a surgeon when he injured his hand during an operation. More recently, Barrozi and colleagues found that a significant fraction of Kaposi's sarcoma occurring after transplantation may be due to tumorous outgrowth of donor cells. Although Kaposi's sarcoma is caused by a virus (Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus), in these cases, it appears likely that transmission of virus-infected tumor cells—rather than the free virus—caused tumors in the transplant recipients.
- Retrovirology A sexually transmitted parasitic cancer
- Pearse, A.-M., Swift, K. (2006). "Allograft theory: Transmission of devil facial-tumour disease". Nature 439 (7076): 549. doi:10.1038/439549a. PMID 16452970.
- Murgia C, Pritchard JK, Kim SY, Fassati A, Weiss RA (August 2006). "Clonal origin and evolution of a transmissible cancer". Cell 126 (3): 477–87. doi:10.1016/j.cell.2006.05.051. PMC 2593932. PMID 16901782.
- COPPER, H.L.; MacKay, CM; Banfield, WG (1964-10-01). "CHROMOSOME STUDIES OF A CONTAGIOUS RETICULUM CELL SARCOMA OF THE SYRIAN HAMSTER". J Natl Cancer Inst 33: 691–706. PMID 14220251.
- Banfield, William G.; Woke, PA; MacKay, CM; Cooper, HL (1965-05-28). "Mosquito Transmission of a Reticulum Cell Sarcoma of Hamsters". Science 148 (3674): 1239–1240. doi:10.1126/science.148.3674.1239. PMID 14280009.
- Belov K (February 2011). "The role of the Major Histocompatibility Complex in the spread of contagious cancers". Mamm. Genome 22 (1-2): 83–90. doi:10.1007/s00335-010-9294-2. PMID 20963591.
- Welsh JS (2011). "Contagious cancer". Oncologist 16 (1): 1–4. doi:10.1634/theoncologist.2010-0301. PMID 21212437.
- Gärtner, Hermine-Valeria; Seidl, Christian; Luckenbach, Christine; Schumm, Georg; Seifried, Erhard; Ritter, Horst; Bültmann, Burkhard (1996), "Genetic analysis of a sarcoma accidentally transplanted from a patient to a surgeon.", New England Journal of Medicine 335 (20): 1494–1497, doi:10.1056/NEJM199611143352004, PMID 8890100, retrieved 2009-03-29