Close-mid back rounded vowel

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Close-mid back rounded vowel
o
IPA number 307
Encoding
Entity (decimal) o
Unicode (hex) U+006F
X-SAMPA o
Kirshenbaum o
Sound

The close-mid back rounded vowel, or high-mid back rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is o.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Arabic Egyptian بؤ [boʔ] 'mouth' See Egyptian Arabic phonology
Bulgarian уста [os̪ˈt̪a] 'mouth' See Bulgarian language
Catalan[1] sóc [sok] 'I am' See Catalan phonology
Chinese Cantonese gou1 [kou] 'tall' See Cantonese phonology
Wu [ho] 'flower'
Czech oko [ˈoko] 'eye' See Czech phonology
Danish Standard[2] kone [ˈkʰoːnə] 'wife' See Danish phonology
Dutch Standard Belgian[3] kool About this sound [koːɫ]  'cabbage' In the Netherlands often diphthongized to [oʊ]. See Dutch phonology
Northeastern
Standard
Netherlandic
Leuven maken [ˈmoːkə] 'make' Corresponds to /aː/ in standard Dutch.
English Australian[4] yawn [joːn] 'yawn' See Australian English phonology
Cockney[5] In non-final position it can also be a diphthong like [oʊ] or [ɔo]. Word finally it's [ɔː]~[ɔə]~[ɔwə].
Estuary
New Dublin Most speakers. Other Dublin accents use []~[ɑː]~[ɒː].
New Zealand[6] See English phonology
South African[7] General and Broad varieties. Cultivated SAE has a more open vowel.
Irish go [ɡoː] 'go' Can also be a diphthong like [oʊ] or [əʊ], depending on the dialect.
Scottish[8]
General Indian[9]
General Pakistani[10] Varies between [oː~əʊ~ʊ].
North–Central American Usually diphthongized to [oʊ].
Singaporean[11]
Estonian tool [toːlʲ] 'chair'
Faroese tosa [ˈtoːsa] 'speak'
French[12] réseau [ʁeˈzo] 'net' See French phonology
German Standard[13] oder About this sound [ˈʔoːdɐ]  'or' See German phonology
Hindustani दो/دو [ˈd̪oː] 'two' See Hindustani phonology
Hungarian kór [koːr] 'disease' See Hungarian phonology
Italian[14] foro [ˈfoːro] 'hole' See Italian phonology
Korean 보수 bosu [ˈpoːsu] 'salary' See Korean phonology
Luxembourgish[15] Sonn [zon] 'sun'
Marathi गोड [ɡoɖ] 'sweet' See Marathi phonology
Norwegian Stavanger[16] lov [lo̟ːʋ] 'law' Somewhat fronted. It corresponds to [o̞ː] in Standard Eastern Norwegian. See Norwegian phonology
Silesian Ślůnsk [ˈɕlonsk] 'Silesia'
Polish jojo [ˈjojɔ] 'yo-yo' Allophone of /ɔ/ between palatal or palatalized consonants. See Polish phonology
Portuguese[17] dois [d̪ojʃ] 'two' See Portuguese phonology
Swedish åka About this sound [ˈoːka]  'travel' See Swedish phonology
Ukrainian вона [vo'nɑ] 'she' Unstressed о. See Ukrainian phonology
Vietnamese tô [toː] 'bowl' See Vietnamese phonology
West Frisian bok [bok] 'billy-goat'

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Carbonell, Joan F.; Llisterri, Joaquim (1992), "Catalan", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 22 (1–2): 53–56, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004618 
  • Deterding, David (2000), "Measurements of the /eɪ/ and /oʊ/ vowels of young English speakers in Singapore", in Brown, Adam; Deterding, David; Ling, Low Ee Ling, The English Language in Singapore: Research on Pronunciation, Singapore: Singapore Association for Applied Linguistics, pp. 93–99 
  • Gilles, Peter; Trouvain, Jürgen (2013), "Luxembourgish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 43 (1): 67–74, doi:10.1017/S0025100312000278 
  • Harrington, J.; Cox, F.; Evans, Z. (1997), "An acoustic phonetic study of broad, general, and cultivated Australian English vowels", Australian Journal of Linguistics 17: 155–84, doi:10.1080/07268609708599550 
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • Matthews, William (1938), Cockney, Past and Present: a Short History of the Dialect of London, Detroit: Gale Research Company 
  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006), Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview, Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers 
  • Cruz-Ferreira, Madalena (1995), "European Portuguese", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 25 (2): 90–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005223 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Grønnum, Nina (1998), "Danish", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 28 (1–2): 99–105, doi:10.1017/S0025100300006290 
  • Kohler, Klaus J. (1999), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Mahboob, Ahmar; Ahmar, Nadra H. (2004), "Pakistani English: phonology", in Schneider, Edgar W., A handbook of varieties of English 1, Berlin; New York: Mouton de Gruyter, pp. 1003–1015 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, p. 37, ISBN 9783411040667 
  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
  • Roach, Peter (2004), "British English: Received Pronunciation", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (2): 239–245, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001768 
  • Roca, Iggy; Johnson, Wyn (1999), A Course in Phonology, Blackwell Publishing 
  • Rogers, Derek; d'Arcangeli, Luciana (2004), "Italian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 34 (1): 117–121, doi:10.1017/S0025100304001628 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 245, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Wells, J.C. (1982), Accents of English, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 
  • Wells, J.C. (1982), Accents of English 2: The British Isles, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press