Close-mid central rounded vowel

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Close-mid central rounded vowel
ɵ
ö
IPA number 323
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɵ
Unicode (hex) U+0275
X-SAMPA 8
Kirshenbaum @.<umd>
Braille ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
Sound

The close-mid central rounded vowel, or high-mid central rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɵ, a lowercase barred letter o, and should not be confused with the Greek letter theta, θ, which in IPA corresponds to a consonant sound, the voiceless dental fricative. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ö.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

The character ɵ has been used in several Latin-derived alphabets such as the one for Janalif, but in that language it denotes a different sound than it does in the IPA. The character is homographic with Cyrillic Ө. The Unicode code point is U+019F Ɵ latin capital letter o with middle tilde (HTML &#415;).

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Cantonese ceot7 [tsʰɵt˥] 'to go out' See Cantonese phonology
Dutch Standard Netherlandic[1][2] hut [ɦɵ̟t] 'hut' Somewhat fronted. Typically transcribed as /ʏ/ or /œ/. It corresponds to [ʊ̈] in Belgium. See Dutch phonology
English Some dialects cooperate [kɵˈɒpəɹeɪt] 'cooperate' Reduced /oʊ/ in dialects that retain rounding. Pronounced with protruded lips, more closely transcribed [ɵʷ] or [əʷ].[citation needed]
Australian bird [bɵːd] 'bird' Typically transcribed as /ɜː/. Some speakers may pronounce this vowel unrounded ([ɘː]). See Australian English phonology
New Zealand[3] Somewhat fronted. May be lower ([ø̞̈ː ~ œ̈ː]).
Received Pronunciation[4] foot [fɵt] 'foot' Younger speakers. Others pronounce [ʊ]. See English phonology
New England Some speakers. Others pronounce [ʊ]. Particularly an Eastern New England phenomenon in the region.
Hull[5] goat [ɡɵːt] 'goat' Corresponds to /oʊ/ in other dialects.
Hiw[6] yöykö [jөjkөŋ] 'forget'
Irish Munster[7] dúnadh [ˈd̪ˠɰuːn̪ˠɰө̠˔] 'closing' Slightly raised and slightly retracted;[7] allophone of /ə/ adjacent to broad consonants, when the vowel in the preceeding syllable is either /uː/ or /ʊ/.[7] See Irish phonology
Limburgish Dialect of Hamont[8] Rus [ʀɵs²] 'a Russian' Somewhat lowered in Hamont.[8] May be transcribed /ʏ/.[8][9]
Maastrichtian[9] un [ɵn] 'onion'
Mongolian[10] өгөх [ɵɡɵx] 'to give'
Norwegian Stavanger[11] gull [ɡɵl] 'gold' Corresponds to [ʉ̞] in Standard Eastern Norwegian. See Norwegian phonology
Tajik кӯҳ [kʰɵːh] 'mountain' Often realised as /uː/ by many speakers
Toda ? [pɵːr̘] 'name'
Uzbek to‘g‘ri [t̪ɤɵʁˈɾɪ] 'right, true'
West Frisian put [pɵ̟t] 'well' Somewhat fronted. Typically transcribed as /ʏ/ or /œ/

The vowel transcribed /ɵ/ in Central Standard Swedish[12] and Standard Russian[13][14] is actually mid ([ɵ̞]).[12][13][14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  2. ^ Rietveld & Van Heuven (2009), p. 68.
  3. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98–99.
  4. ^ "Received Pronunciation Phonology". The British Library. 
  5. ^ Williams & Kerswill (1999), pp. 143 and 146.
  6. ^ François (2013), p. 207.
  7. ^ a b c Ó Sé (2000)
  8. ^ a b c Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  9. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  10. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 62, 66–67.
  11. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 19.
  12. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  13. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969), pp. 62–63.
  14. ^ a b Crosswhite (2000), p. 167.

Bibliography[edit]