Close-mid central rounded vowel

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Close-mid central rounded vowel
ɵ
ö
IPA number 323
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɵ
Unicode (hex) U+0275
X-SAMPA 8
Kirshenbaum @.<umd>
Braille ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠕ (braille pattern dots-135)
Sound

The close-mid central rounded vowel, or high-mid central rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɵ, a lowercase barred letter o, and should not be confused with the Greek letter theta, θ, which in IPA corresponds to a consonant sound, the voiceless dental fricative. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ö.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

The character ɵ has been used in several Latin-derived alphabets such as the one for Janalif, but in that language it denotes a different sound than it does in the IPA. The character is homographic with Cyrillic Ө. The Unicode code point is U+019F Ɵ latin capital letter o with middle tilde (HTML: &#415;).

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
Symbols with diacritics do not appear on the official IPA vowel chart. They are shown here for an easier access to articles.
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Cantonese ceot7 [tsʰɵt˥] 'to go out' See Cantonese phonology
Dutch Standard Netherlandic[1][2] hut [ɦɵ̟t] 'hut' Somewhat fronted. Typically transcribed as /ʏ/ or /œ/. It corresponds to [ʊ̈] in Belgium. See Dutch phonology
English Some dialects cooperate [kɵˈɒpəɹeɪt] 'cooperate' Reduced /oʊ/ in dialects that retain rounding. Pronounced with protruded lips, more closely transcribed [ɵʷ] or [əʷ].[citation needed]
Australian bird [bɵːd] 'bird' Typically transcribed as /ɜː/. Some speakers may pronounce this vowel unrounded ([ɘː]). See Australian English phonology
New Zealand[3] Somewhat fronted. May be lower ([ø̞̈ː ~ œ̈ː]).
Received Pronunciation[4] foot [fɵt] 'foot' Younger speakers. Others pronounce [ʊ]. See English phonology
New England Some speakers. Others pronounce [ʊ]. Particularly an Eastern New England phenomenon in the region.
Hull[5] goat [ɡɵːt] 'goat' Corresponds to /oʊ/ in other dialects.
Hiw[6] yöykö [jөjkөŋ] 'forget'
Irish Munster[7] dúnadh [ˈd̪ˠɰuːn̪ˠɰө̠˔] 'closing' Slightly raised and slightly retracted;[7] allophone of /ə/ adjacent to broad consonants, when the vowel in the preceeding syllable is either /uː/ or /ʊ/.[7] See Irish phonology
Limburgish Dialect of Hamont[8] Rus [ʀɵs²] 'a Russian' Somewhat lowered in Hamont.[8] May be transcribed /ʏ/.[8][9]
Maastrichtian[9] un [ɵn] 'onion'
Mongolian[10] өгөх [ɵɡɵx] 'to give'
Norwegian Stavanger[11] gull [ɡɵl] 'gold' Corresponds to [ʉ̞] in Standard Eastern Norwegian. See Norwegian phonology
Tajik кӯҳ [kʰɵːh] 'mountain' Often realised as /uː/ by many speakers
Toda ? [pɵːr̘] 'name'
Uzbek to‘g‘ri [t̪ɤɵʁˈɾɪ] 'right, true'
West Frisian put [pɵ̟t] 'well' Somewhat fronted. Typically transcribed as /ʏ/ or /œ/

The vowel transcribed /ɵ/ in Central Standard Swedish[12] and Standard Russian[13][14] is actually mid ([ɵ̞]).[12][13][14]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Gussenhoven (1992), p. 47.
  2. ^ Rietveld & Van Heuven (2009), p. 68.
  3. ^ Bauer et al. (2007), p. 98–99.
  4. ^ "Received Pronunciation Phonology". The British Library. 
  5. ^ Williams & Kerswill (1999), pp. 143 and 146.
  6. ^ François (2013), p. 207.
  7. ^ a b c Ó Sé (2000)
  8. ^ a b c Verhoeven (2007), p. 221.
  9. ^ a b Gussenhoven & Aarts (1999), p. 159.
  10. ^ Iivonen & Harnud (2005), pp. 62, 66–67.
  11. ^ Vanvik (1979), p. 19.
  12. ^ a b Engstrand (1999), p. 140.
  13. ^ a b Jones & Ward (1969), pp. 62–63.
  14. ^ a b Crosswhite (2000), p. 167.

Bibliography[edit]