Close-mid central unrounded vowel

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Close-mid central unrounded vowel
ɘ
ë
IPA number 397
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ɘ
Unicode (hex) U+0258
X-SAMPA @\
Kirshenbaum @<umd>
Braille ⠲ (braille pattern dots-256) ⠑ (braille pattern dots-15)
Sound

The close-mid central unrounded vowel, or high-mid central unrounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ɘ. This is a reversed letter e, and should not be confused with the schwa ə, which is a turned e. It was added to the IPA in 1993; before that, this vowel was transcribed ë. This letter may be used with a lowering diacritic ɘ̞, to denote the mid central unrounded vowel.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
æ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
Symbols with diacritics do not appear on the official IPA vowel chart. They are shown here for an easier access to articles.
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Dutch Standard[1][2] bit About this sound [bɘ̟t]  'bit' Somewhat fronted,[1] more so in Belgium.[2] The height also varies, it's been variously described as lowered close-mid[2] and raised close-mid.[1][3] It's typically transcribed as /ɪ/, the way it's pronounced in some dialects.[4] See Dutch phonology
English Australian[5][6] bird [bɘːd] 'bird' Typically transcribed as /ɜː/. Many speakers pronounce this vowel rounded ([ɵː]). See Australian English phonology
Cardiff[7] foot [fɘ̠t] 'foot' Retracted; corresponds to /ʊ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
New Zealand[8] bit [bɘt] 'bit' Corresponds to /ɪ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Southern American [9] nut [nɘt] 'nut' Some dialects.[9] Corresponds to /ʌ/ in other dialects. See English phonology
Irish Munster[10] sáile [ˈsˠɰaːlʲɘ̟˔] 'salt water' Slightly raised and slightly fronted;[10] allophone of /ə/ next to non-palatal slender consonants.[10] See Irish phonology
Kazakh тіл [tɘl] 'language'
Korean [ɘː.ɾɯn] 'senior' See Korean phonology.
Mongolian[11] үсрэ [usɘɾɘ̆] 'jump'
Paicî  ?? [kɘ̄ɾɘ̄] 'spider'
Polish[12] mysz About this sound [mɘ̟ʂ]  'mouse' Somewhat fronted. Typically transcribed as /ɨ/. See Polish phonology
Russian[13] солнце [ˈs̪o̞n̪t̪͡s̪ɘ] 'sun' This occurs only for some speakers after /t͡s/. See Russian phonology
Skolt Sami vuõˊlǧǧem [vʲuɘlɟ͡ʝːɛm] 'I left'
Zapotec Tilquiapan[14] ne [nɘ] 'and'

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]