Close central rounded vowel

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Close central rounded vowel
ʉ
ü
IPA number 318
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ʉ
Unicode (hex) U+0289
X-SAMPA }
Kirshenbaum u"
Braille ⠴ (braille pattern dots-356) ⠥ (braille pattern dots-136)
Sound

The close central rounded vowel, or high central rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ʉ, and the equivalent X-SAMPA symbol is }. Both the symbol and the sound are commonly referred to as "barred u".

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists, perhaps a majority, prefer the terms "high" and "low".

In most languages this rounded vowel is pronounced with protruded lips (endolabial). However, in a few cases the lips are compressed (exolabial).

There is also a near-close central rounded vowel in some languages.

Close central protruded vowel[edit]

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view
  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
  • Its roundedness is protruded, which means that the corners of the lips are drawn together, and the inner surfaces exposed.

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Armenian Some Eastern dialects[1] յուղ [jʉʁ] 'oil' Allophone of /u/ after /j/
Berber Ayt Seghrouchen[2] ? [lːæjˈɡːʉɾ] 'he goes' Allophone of /u/ after velar consonants.
English Australian[3] choose [t͡ʃʉːz] 'choose' In Australian English it's fronted [ʉ̟ː]. In Cockney and Estuary English it's often a diphthong [ʊʉ̯~əʉ̯]. In Scotland and the Scouse accent it can be more front. The exact length also varies between dialects. See Australian English phonology and English phonology
Central Eastern American[4]
Cockney[5]
Dublin
Estuary[6]
Modern RP speakers[7]
New Zealand[8]
Norfolk[9]
Scouse[10]
Scottish[11]
South African[12]
Ulster[13] Long allophone of /u/. See English phonology
Irish ciúin [cʉ̠ːnʲ] 'quiet' Allophone of /uː/ and /u/. See Irish phonology
Polish judzić [ˈjʉd͡ʑi̝t͡ɕ] 'to egg on' Allophone of /u/ between palatalized consonants. See Polish phonology
Russian[14] кюрий [ˈkʲʉrʲɪj] 'curium' Allophone of /u/ between palatalized consonants. See Russian phonology
West Frisian drúf [drʉ̞ːf] 'grape' Lowered and a bit fronted. Typically transcribed as /yː/.

Close central compressed vowel[edit]

Close central compressed vowel
ʉ͍
ɨ͡β̞
ɨᵝ

As there is no official diacritic for compression in the IPA, the spread-lip diacritic   ͍ will be used here with the rounded vowel ʉ as an ad hoc symbol. Other possible transcriptions are ɨ͡β̞ (simultaneous [ɨ] and labial compression) and ɨᵝ ([ɨ] modified with labial compression).

Features[edit]

  • Its vowel height is close, also known as high, which means the tongue is positioned as close as possible to the roof of the mouth without creating a constriction that would be classified as a consonant.
  • Its vowel backness is central, which means the tongue is positioned halfway between a front vowel and a back vowel.
  • Its roundedness is compressed, which means that the margins of the lips are tense and drawn together in such a way that the inner surfaces are not exposed.

Occurrence[edit]

This vowel is typically transcribed with ʉ. It also occurs in some dialects of Swedish, but see also close front compressed vowel. The close back vowels of Norwegian and Swedish are also compressed. See close back compressed vowel.

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Norwegian[15] hus [hʉ͍ːs] 'house' See Norwegian phonology
Swedish ful [fʉ͍ːl] 'ugly' See Swedish phonology

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Abdel-Massih, Ernest T. (1971), A Reference Grammar of Tamazight, Ann Arbor: University of Michigan 
  • Dum-Tragut, Jasmine (2009), Armenian: Modern Eastern Armenian, Amsterdam: John Benjamins Publishing Company 
  • Harrington, J.; Cox, F.; Evans, Z. (1997), "An acoustic phonetic study of broad, general, and cultivated Australian English vowels", Australian Journal of Linguistics 17: 155–184, doi:10.1080/07268609708599550 
  • Jones, Daniel; Ward, Dennis (1969), The Phonetics of Russian, Cambridge University Press 
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford: Oxford University Press 
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2 
  • Mannell, R.; Cox, F.; Harrington, J. (2009), An Introduction to Phonetics and Phonology, Macquarie University 
  • Matthews, William (1938), Cockney, Past and Present: a Short History of the Dialect of London, Detroit: Gale Research Company 
  • Przedlacka, Joanna (2001), "Estuary English and RP: Some Recent Findings", Studia Anglica Posnaniensia 36: 35–50 
  • Scobbie, James M; Gordeeva, Olga B.; Matthews, Benjamin (2006). Acquisition of Scottish English Phonology: an overview. Edinburgh: QMU Speech Science Research Centre Working Papers. 
  • Watson, Kevin (2007), "Liverpool English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 37 (3): 351–360, doi:10.1017/s0025100307003180