Close-mid front rounded vowel

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Close-mid front rounded vowel
ø
IPA number 310
Encoding
Entity (decimal) ø
Unicode (hex) U+00F8
X-SAMPA 2
Kirshenbaum Y
Braille ⠳ (braille pattern dots-1256)
Sound

The close-mid front rounded vowel, or high-mid front rounded vowel, is a type of vowel sound, used in some spoken languages. The symbol in the International Phonetic Alphabet that represents this sound is ø, a lowercase letter o with a diagonal stroke through it, derived from the Danish, Norwegian and Faroese alphabets which use the letter to represent this sound. The symbol is commonly referred to as "o, slash" in English.

The IPA prefers terms "close" and "open" for vowels, and the name of the article follows this. However, a large number of linguists,[who?] perhaps a majority,[citation needed] prefer the terms "high" and "low".

Close-mid front compressed vowel[edit]

Features[edit]

IPA vowel chart
Front Near-​front Central Near-​back Back
Close
Blank vowel trapezoid.svg
iy
ɨʉ
ɯu
ɪʏ
eø
ɘɵ
ɤo
ɛœ
ɜɞ
ʌɔ
aɶ
ɑɒ
Near-close
Close-mid
Mid
Open-mid
Near-open
Open
Paired vowels are: unrounded • rounded
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IPA help • IPA key • chart • Loudspeaker.svg chart with audio • view

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Chinese Wu tzeu [tsøː] 'most'
Danish købe [ˈkʰøːb̥ə] 'buy' See Danish phonology
English South African[1] bird [bø̈ːd] 'bird' Centralized, present in General and Broad varieties. For some speakers it may be lower. In Cultivated it's central unrounded [əː].
Tyneside[2] Somewhat centralized.
Estonian köök [køːk] 'kitchen'
Faroese øl [øːl] 'beer'
French[3] peu [pø] 'few' See French phonology
Franco-Provençal [ˈføʎə] 'daughter'
German Standard[4] schön About this sound [ʃø̈ːn]  'beautiful' Centralized.[4] Realization of /øː/ according to Kohler (1999) and Lodge (2009). Mangold (2005) places it on the same height as /ə/ (i.e. [ø̞̈]) on the vowel chart. See German phonology
Hungarian[5] nő [nø̠ː] 'woman' Somewhat retracted. See Hungarian phonology
Lombard Western coeur [køːr] 'heart' Also written ö, particularly in Switzerland and Italy.
Ngwe Mmockngie dialect [nøɣə̀] 'sun'
Norwegian Standard Eastern[6] søt [sø̠ːt̪] 'sweet' Somewhat retracted and lowered. See Norwegian phonology
Tromsø[7] [søːt] See Norwegian phonology
Portuguese Micaelense[8] boi [ˈbø] 'ox' Allophone of /o/. See Portuguese phonology
Some European speakers[9] dou [ˈd̪øw] 'I give'
Rotuman mösʻạki [møːsʔɔki] 'to put to bed'

Vowel transcribed /øː/ in Belgian Dutch is in fact mid central [ɵ̞ː].[10]

Close-mid front protruded vowel[edit]

Close-mid front protruded vowel
ø̫
øʷ

Catford notes that most languages with rounded front and back vowels use distinct types of labialization, protruded back vowels and compressed front vowels. However, a few languages, such as Scandinavian ones, have protruded front vowels. One of these, Swedish, even contrasts the two types of rounding in front vowels (see near-close near-front rounded vowel, with Swedish examples of both types of rounding).

As there are no diacritics in the IPA to distinguish protruded and compressed rounding, an old diacritic for labialization,   ̫, will be used here as an ad hoc symbol for protruded front vowels. Another possible transcription is øʷ or (a close-mid front vowel modified by endolabialization), but this could be misread as a diphthong.

Features[edit]

Occurrence[edit]

Language Word IPA Meaning Notes
Swedish Central Standard[11] öl About this sound [ø̫ːl̪]  'beer' May be diphthongized to [øə̯]. See Swedish phonology

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Bibliography[edit]

  • Engstrand, Olle (1999), "Swedish", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A Guide to the usage of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, p. 140, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Fougeron, Cecile; Smith, Caroline L. (1993), "French", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 23 (2): 73–76, doi:10.1017/S0025100300004874 
  • Iivonen, Antti; Harnud, Huhe (2005), "Acoustical comparison of the monophthong systems in Finnish, Mongolian and Udmurt", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (1): 59–71, doi:10.1017/S002510030500191X 
  • Kohler, Klaus J. (1990), "German", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association: A guide to the use of the International Phonetic Alphabet, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, pp. 86–89, ISBN 0-521-65236-7 
  • Kristoffersen, Gjert (2000), "Segments", The Phonology of Norwegian, Oxford University Press, pp. 14–18, ISBN 978-0-19-823765-5 
  • Lass, Roger (2002), "South African English", in Mesthrie, Rajend, Language in South Africa, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 9780521791052 
  • Lee, Hyun Bok (1999), "Korean", Handbook of the International Phonetic Association, Cambridge University Press, pp. 120–122, ISBN 0-521-63751-1 
  • Lodge, Ken (2009), A Critical Introduction to Phonetics, ISBN 978-0-8264-8873-2 
  • Mangold, Max (2005), Das Aussprachewörterbuch, Duden, p. 37, ISBN 9783411040667 
  • Szende, Tamás (1994), "Hungarian", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 24 (2): 91–94, doi:10.1017/S0025100300005090 
  • Vanvik, Arne (1979), Norsk fonetik, Oslo: Universitetet i Oslo, ISBN 82-990584-0-6 
  • Verhoeven, Jo (2005), "Belgian Standard Dutch", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 35 (2): 243–247, doi:10.1017/S0025100305002173 
  • Watt, Dominic; Allen, William (2003), "Tyneside English", Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33 (2): 267–271, doi:10.1017/S0025100303001397