Closed kinetic chain exercises
Closed kinetic chain exercises or closed chain exercises (CKC) are physical exercises performed where the hand (for arm movement) or foot (for leg movement) is fixed in space and cannot move. The extremity remains in constant contact with the immobile surface, usually the ground or the base of a machine.
The opposite of CKC exercises are open kinetic chain exercises (OKC).
Closed chain exercises are often compound movements, that generally incur compressive forces, while open-chain exercises are often isolation movements that promote more shearing forces.
CKC exercises involve more than one muscle group and joint simultaneously rather than concentrating solely on one, as many OKC exercises do (single-joint movements), lending the former to more utilitarian and athletic activities.
Closed chain upper body exercises
Push-ups and their derivatives, pull-ups (or chin-ups) and dips, concentrate on a co-contraction of the triceps, biceps, deltoids, pectorals, lats, abdominals and lower back for stabilization in various ratios depending upon angle and leverage.
Closed chain lower body exercises
Squats, deadlifts, lunges, power cleans: these concentrate on a co-contraction of the quadriceps, hamstrings, hip flexors, soleus, and gastrocnemius muscles. The joints of movement include the knee, hip, and ankle.
- Electromyographic evaluation of closed and open kinetic chain knee rehabilitation exercises. Graham VL, Gehlsen GM, Edwards JA. J Athl Train. 1993 Spring;28(1):23-30.
- The relationship between open and closed kinetic chain strength of the lower limb and jumping performance. Blackburn JR, Morrissey MC. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 1998 Jun;27(6):430-5.
- Closed-kinetic chain upper-body training improves throwing performance of NCAA Division I softball players. Prokopy MP, Ingersoll CD, Nordenschild E, Katch FI, Gaesser GA, Weltman A. J Strength Cond Res. 2008 Nov;22(6):1790-8.
- Closed Kinetic Chain Exercise. A Comprehensive Guide to Multiple Joint Exercises. Todd Ellenbecker, George Davies 2001 ISBN 978-0-7360-0170-0
- Miller, John P. and Croce, Ronald V. (2007). "Analysis of Isokinetic and Closed Chain Movements for Hamstring Reciprocal Coactivation". Journal of Sport Rehabilitation (16): 319–325.