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Cloud gaming, also called gaming on demand, is a type of online gaming that allows direct and on-demand streaming of games onto a computer, similar to video on demand, through the use of a thin client, in which the actual game is stored on the operator's or game company's server and is streamed directly to computers accessing the server through the client. This allows access to games without the need of a console and largely makes the capability of the user's computer unimportant, as the server is the system that is running the processing needs. The controls and button presses from the user are transmitted directly to the server, where they are recorded, and the server then sends back the game's response to the input controls.
Gaming on demand is a game service which takes advantage of a broadband connection, large server clusters, encryption and compression to stream game content to a subscriber's device. Users can play games without downloading or installing the actual game. Game content isn't stored on the user's hard drive and game code execution occurs primarily at the server cluster, so the subscriber can use a less powerful computer to play the game than the game would normally require, since the server does all performance-intensive operations usually done by the end user's computer. Most cloud gaming platforms are closed and proprietary, the first open source cloud gaming platform was not released until April, 2013. 
Recent developments 
In the year 2000, G-cluster, the original pioneer of cloud gaming demonstrated the technology on Electronic Entertainment Expo, E3. The original offering was cloud gaming service over WiFi to handheld devices.
Video game developer Crytek began research on a cloud gaming system in 2005 for their game Crysis, but halted development in 2007 to wait until the infrastructure and cable net providers were up for the task.
On March 10, 2010, OnLive officially launched. The OnLive Game Service then turned on in the US on June 17, 2010, at an initial monthly service fee of $4.95, plus the cost of games and the OnLive microconsole. However, this fee was not to be applied for a year while OnLive worked out their business model and anyone who signed up during 2010 would not be charged until 2011 as well as have their account marked as a "founding member". Later, the fee was removed altogether as part of a review of this business model and as of October 2010, there are no plans to reintroduce this fee to simply use the service.
On February 27, 2011, Gaikai, which allows game publishers and others to embed free streaming gameplay trials on their web sites, launched its open beta with games from Electronic Arts including Dead Space 2, Mass Effect 2, and Sims 3. Gaikai-enabled games can be embedded directly inside websites, on Facebook, or on mobile devices and IPTVs. In spring 2011, Gaikai went live with multiple partnerships including Walmart and The Escapist, as well as announcing deals with Eurogamer and Capcom. Gaikai-enabled games stream from within web browsers without requiring downloads, special plug-ins, or registration, and can be activated by clicking on an enabled advertisement or visiting a Gaikai-powered game destination.
On March 10, 2011,Cloud Union, a Chinese cloud gaming company, launched cloud gaming services in China.
On April 28, 2011, Free, a French Internet service provider, launched "GameTree TV", a gaming on demand platform for the Freebox Revolution, its advanced IPTV set-top-box. The service is based on the GameTree TV platform by TransGaming Inc.
On September 8, 2011, Ubitus, a Taiwanese cloud computing company, launched G CLOUD service based on its product GameCloud, on NTT docomo LTE commercial network with NHN Japan collaboration. It was the world’s first commercial cloud gaming service on LTE network. It was also the world's first commercial cloud gaming service offering MMO and support in-app billing that integrates directly with telecommunication’s payment option. The service covered NTT docomo's Android tablets and smartphone devices.
In July 2012, Cloud Union's cloud gaming service subscribers exceeded 300,000.
In August 2012, Square Enix launched their Core Online games service, which offers free and advertising-supported access to some games from their catalog via a web browser. As of February 2013, there are four games available through the service: Hitman: Blood Money, Lara Croft and the Guardian of Light, Mini Ninjas and Tomb Raider: Underworld.
September 11, 2012 saw the launch of CiiNOW, a new cloud gaming platform. CiiNOW claims to have pioneered a new approach called hybrid streaming. Hybrid streaming consists of streaming graphics primitives as well as video simultaneously. It utilizes some processing on a client to achieve better quality at lower bandwidth.
On April 17, 2013 the first open source cloud gaming system, GamingAnywhere, was released. GamingAnywhere allows researchers to test their new ideas on a real testbed, service providers to build their services on top of it, and end users to set up game servers using their home workstations (and play anywhere, anytime).
- 2002: Phantom Entertainment announces cloud gaming console.
- 2004: The Phantom makes appearance at E3 2004.
- 2004: G-cluster launches the first deployment of cloud gaming in Japan 
- 2005: G-cluster launches the first commercial live deployment of cloud gaming in Europe 
- 2006: The Phantom cancelled.
- 2008: The first HD 720p service showcased by G-cluster on Amino STB.
- 2009: OnLive and Gaikai announce cloud based gaming services.
- 2010: SFR launches cloud gaming on demand service on IPTV commercially in France.
- 2010: OnLive launches.
- 2011: Ubitus GameCloud launches cloud gaming service, G CLOUD, on docomo LTE commercially with NHN Japan .
- 2011: Gaikai launches.
- 2011: CloudUnion launches.
- 2012: itsmy launches mobile cloud gaming.
- 2012: Big Fish Games launches Big Fish Unlimited, a cloud gaming service with 100+ games streaming instantly to personal computers, mobile device and internet connected TVs.
- 2012: LG-U+ and Ubitus launched C-games cloud gaming service in South Korea.
- 2012: Ubitus Launched the GameNow Cloud Gaming Service in the US with Verizon Wireless 4G LTE Customers Having First Access. 
- 2012: Square Enix launches their CoreOnline streaming games service for web browsers.
- 2012: CiiNOW launched as a cloud gaming service for Windows, Mac OS X, Linux, Android, and a set-top box.
- 2012: Orange France launches cloud gaming service on IPTV powered by G-cluster technology
- 2013: Reports of Ubitus planning to launch a cloud gaming service on Google TV.
- 2013: Ubitus and one2free bring the first LTE cloud gaming service to Hong Kong.
- 2013: GamingAnywhere, the first open source cloud gaming system is released.
See also 
- "Exclusive: Does cloud gaming spell the end for consoles?". TechRadar. March 24, 2009. Retrieved October 7, 2010.
- "Taking gaming into the 'cloud'". BBC News. June 9, 2009. Retrieved October 7, 2009.
- Beaumont, Claudine (June 18, 2010). "OnLive launches cloud-based gaming service". The Daily Telegraph (London). Retrieved October 7, 2010.
- Crowther, Joe (June 17, 2010). "OnLive launch cloud gaming platform". Metro. Retrieved October 7, 2010.
- "GamingAnywhere -- An Open Source Cloud Gaming System". April 17, 2013. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
- "Crytek was way ahead of OnLive". That VideoGame Blog. April 2, 2009. Retrieved July 13, 2011.
- Dobra, Andrei (April 27, 2009). "Crytek Attempted Cloud Gaming Way Before OnLive". Softpedia. Retrieved October 7, 2010.
- Perlman, Steve (2010-03-10). "OnLive: Coming to a Screen Near You". OnLive.com. Retrieved 2010-03-10.
- Shiels, Maggie (2010-03-11). "'Console killer' OnLive to launch in June". news.bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2010-03-11.
- "Gaikai cloud gaming service goes live". February 27, 2011. Retrieved March 14, 2011.
- "Gaikai to add 10 million monthly active users by fall 2011". June 24, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- Zimmerman, Conrad (May 3, 2010). "World of Warcraft running on an iPad?". Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- "Perry promises Gaikai on TVs by 2012". June 10, 2011. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- Snider,Mike (July 5, 2011). "Capcom teams up with cloud video game company Gaikai". USA Today. Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- "What is Gaikai?". Retrieved July 5, 2011.
- "Sony acquires cloud gaming service Gaikai for $380m". Retrieved 2012-07-05.
- http://beta.coreonline.com/help Core Online help.
- Shereshevsky, Ilya. "Consultant". Retrieved 12 September 2012.
- "KID provide Trial play of "Remember11" with G-Cluster Technology".
- "Club iT and Alcatel Bring G-Cluster Gaming-on-Demand to Cyprus Telecommunications Authority Interactive TV Service As Part of Alcatel’s Open Media Platform".
- "Amino Unveils G-cluster Streaming Games Service in HD". March 20, 2008. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- "GDC: OnLive Announces Cloud-Based Gaming Service". March 24, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- "GDC: OnLive rival Gaikai cloud gaming device announced by David Perry". April 6, 2009. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- "Jeux à la Demande TV". Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- "Welcome to OnLive!". June 15, 2010. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- "World’s First Commercial LTE Cloud Gaming Service: Ubitus and NHN Japan bundles "G CLOUD" into NTT DOCOMO Android Tablet". September 8, 2011. Retrieved November 24, 2011.
- "NHN JAPAN Announced to Include G-CLOUD Service in Dragon Nest". September 19, 2011. Retrieved November 23, 2011.
- "Gaikai cloud gaming service goes live". February 27, 2011. Retrieved March 15, 2011.
- "itsmy launches 'play anywhere' cloud gaming". March 14, 2012. Retrieved April 30, 2012.
- "Big Fish Games Launched Big Fish Unlimited Cloud Gaming Service". July 26, 2012 url=http://www.onlivespot.net/2012/07/big-fish-games-launched-big-fish.html.
- "LG U+ Launched C-games Cloud Gaming Service in South Korea Powered by Ubitus and NVIDIA Geforce GRID". July 30, 2012. Retrieved August 1, 2012.
- "Ubitus Launched the GameNow Cloud Gaming Service in the US with Verizon Wireless 4G LTE Customers Having First Access". Nov 3, 2012. Retrieved Nov 4, 2012.
- "Google TV getting Ubitus support, promising 'console and MMO' quality gaming". Jan 7, 2012.
- "Ubitus and one2free Join Forces to Bring the First Commercial LTE Cloud Gaming Service to Hong Kong". Jan 8, 2012.
- Article by Paul Hyman on MSN.com
- Article by Jeff Norman / Cloud Gaming: Making the Joystick Airborne - CloudTweaks.com