Saint

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In traditional Christian iconography, saints are often depicted with halos, a symbol of holiness; note how Judas Iscariot at the forefront is the only apostle without a halo.

A saint is one who has been recognized for having an exceptional degree of holiness. While the English term "saint" originated in Christianity, historians of religion now use the term "in a more general way to refer to the state of special holiness that many religions attribute to certain people,"[1] with the Jewish Tzadik, the Islamic Mu'min, the Hindu rishi or guru, and the Buddhist arhat or bodhisattva also referred to as saints. Depending on the religion, saints are recognized either through official church recognition or by popular acclaim (see folk saints).[1][2]

In Christianity, "saint" has a wide variety of meanings, depending on its usage and the denomination. The original Christian usage referred to any believer who is "in Christ" and in whom Christ dwells, whether in heaven or in earth.[3] In Orthodox and Catholic teachings, all Christians in heaven are considered to be saints, but some are considered to be worthy of higher honor, emulation, or veneration, with official church recognition given to some saints through canonization or glorification.[4]

General characteristics[edit]

The English word saint is from the Latin sanctus, in origin a term in indigenous tradition connected to the name of the god Sancus, but in Christian context used to translate the Greek ἅγιος (hagios), derived from the verb ἁγιάζω (hagiazo), which means "to set apart", "to sanctify" or "to make holy".[5] The word appears 229 times in the Greek New Testament,[clarification needed] and 60 times in the corresponding text of the King James Version.[6]

As used by the apostolic authors of scripture, saint did not refer to deceased persons who have been granted sainthood, but rather to living persons who had dedicated themselves to God.[5]

The word was originally a technical term in ancient Roman religion, but due to its "globalized" use in Christianity, the modern term (in English or Romance languages) is now also seen as translation of comparable terms for people "worthy of veneration for their holiness or sanctity" in other religions.

Many religions also use similar concepts but different terminology to venerate individuals worthy of honor in some way,[1] Author John A. Coleman (Society of Jesus, Graduate Theological Union, Berkeley, California) wrote that saints across various cultures and religions have the following family resemblances:[7]

  1. exemplary model
  2. extraordinary teacher
  3. wonder worker or source of benevolent power
  4. intercessor
  5. a life often refusing material attachments or comforts
  6. possession of a special and revelatory relation to the holy.[8]

The anthropologist [9] Lawrence Babb in an article about Sathya Sai Baba asks the question "Who is a saint?", and responds by saying that in the symbolic infrastructure of some religions, there is the image of a certain extraordinary spiritual king's "miraculous powers", to whom frequently a certain moral presence is attributed. These saintly figures, he asserts, are "the focal points of spiritual force-fields", exerting "powerful attractive influence on followers but touch the inner lives of others in transforming ways as well."[10]

Christianity[edit]

Catholicism[edit]

Further information: General Roman Calendar
A portrait depicting Saint Francis of Assisi by Italian artist, Cimabue (1240-1302)

The Catholic Church teaches that it does not make or create saints, but rather, recognizes them.[11] In the Church, the title of Saint refers to a person who has been formally canonized (officially recognized) by the Catholic Church, and is therefore believed to be in Heaven.

By this definition, there are many people that the church believes to be in Heaven who have not been formally declared saints but who are otherwise referred to as saints, since they are believed to be completely perfect in holiness.[12] Unofficial devotions to uncanonized individuals take place in certain regions.[13] Sometimes the word "saint" is used to refer to living Christians.[14]

In 993, Pope John XV was the first pope to proclaim a saint. At the request of the German ruler, he canonized Bishop Ulrich of Augsburg on 31 January 993. Before that time, saint cults had been local and spontaneous.[15] Pope John XVIII then declared a cult of five Polish martyrs.[15] Pope Benedict VIII would later declare the Armenian hermit Symeon a saint, but it was not until the time of Pope Innocent III that popes claimed an exclusive monopoly on the canonization of saints.[15] Walter of Pontoise was the last person in Western Europe to be canonized by an authority other than the Pope; he was canonized by Hugh de Boves, the Archbishop of Rouen in 1153.[16][17] A decree of Pope Alexander III of 1170, gave the prerogative to the pope thenceforth, so far as the Western Church was concerned.[16]

One Catholic website states that "There are over 10,000 named saints and beatified people from history, the Roman Martyrology and Orthodox sources, but no definitive head count".[18]

Rev. Alban Butler published Lives of the Saints in 1756, containing 1,486 saints. The latest edition of this work, edited by Father Herbert Thurston, S.J., and British author Donald Attwater, contains the lives of 2,565 saints.[19] Monsignor Robert Sarno, an official of Vatican's Congregation for the Causes of Saints, expressed that it is impossible to say the exact number of saints.[20]

In his book, Saint of the Day, editor Leonard Foley, OFM, says this of saints: "[Saints'] surrender to God's love was so generous an approach to the total surrender of Jesus that the Church recognizes them as heroes and heroines worthy to be held up for our inspiration. They remind us that the Church is holy, can never stop being holy and is called to show the holiness of God by living the life of Christ."[21]

In his book, on Making Saints, author Kenneth L. Woodward notes the following:

A saint is always someone through whom we catch a glimpse of what God is like—and of what we are called to be. Only God "makes" saints, of course. The church merely identifies from time to time a few of these for emulation. The church then tells the story. But the author is the Source of the grace by which saints live. And there we have it: A saint is someone whose story God tells.[22]

The veneration of saints, in Latin, cultus, or the "cult of the saints", describes a particular popular devotion or abandonment to a particular saint or saints. Although the term "worship" is sometimes used, it is intended in the old-sense meaning to honor or give respect (dulia). According to the Catholic Church, Divine Worship is properly reserved only for God (latria) and never to the saints.[23] They can be asked to intercede or pray for those still on earth,[24] just as one can ask someone on Earth to pray for them.

A saint may be designated as a patron saint of a particular cause or profession, or invoked against specific illnesses or disasters, sometimes by popular custom and sometimes by official statements of the Magisterium.[25] Saints are not thought to have power of their own, but only that granted by God. Relics of saints are respected in a similar manner to holy images and icons. The practices of past centuries in venerating relics of saints for healing is taken from the early Church.[26]

For example, an American deacon claimed in 2000 that Blessed John Henry Newman interceded with God to cure him. The American, Jack Sullivan, asserted that after addressing Newman he was cured of spinal stenosis in a matter of hours. In 2009, a panel of theologians concluded that Sullivan's recovery was the result of his prayer to Newman. According to the Catholic Church, to be deemed a miracle, "a medical recovery must be instantaneous, not attributable to treatment, disappear for good."[27]

Once a person has been declared a saint, the body of the saint is considered holy.[28] The remains of saints are called holy relics and are usually used in churches. Saints' personal belongings may also be used as relics.[28] Some of the saints have a symbol that represents their life.

In Church tradition, a person who is seen as exceptionally holy can be declared a saint by a formal process, called canonization. Formal canonization is a lengthy process often taking many years, even centuries.[29]

The first step in this process is an investigation of the candidate's life, undertaken by an expert. After this, the report on the candidate is given to the bishop of the area and more studying is done. It is then sent to the Congregation for the Causes of Saints in Rome.[30]

If the application is approved, the person may be granted the title of "Venerable".[30] Further investigations may lead to the candidate's beatification and given title of "Blessed."[30] At a minimum, two important miracles are required to be formally declared a saint. These miracles must be posthumous.[30] Finally, when all of this is done the Pope canonizes the saint.[30]

Anglicanism[edit]

Main article: Saints in Anglicanism

In the Anglican Communion and the Continuing Anglican movement, the title of Saint refers to a person who has been elevated by popular opinion as a pious and holy person. The saints are seen as models of holiness to be imitated, and as a 'cloud of witnesses' that strengthen and encourage the believer during his or her spiritual journey (Hebrews 12:1). The saints are seen as elder brothers and sisters in Christ. Official Anglican creeds recognise the existence of the saints in heaven.

So far as invocation of the saints is concerned,[31] one of the Church of England's Articles of Religion "Of Purgatory" condemns "the Romish Doctrine concerning...(the) Invocation of Saints" as "a fond thing vainly invented, and grounded upon no warranty of Scripture, but rather repugnant to the Word of God". However, each of the 44 member churches in the Anglican Communion are free to adopt and authorise their own official documents, and the Articles are not officially normative in all of them (e.g., The Episcopal Church USA, which relegates them to "Historical Documents"). Anglo-Catholics in Anglican provinces using the Articles often make a distinction between a "Romish" and a "Patristic" doctrine concerning the invocation of saints, permitting the latter.

In high-church contexts, such as Anglo-Catholicism, a saint is generally one to whom has been attributed (and who has generally demonstrated) a high level of holiness and sanctity. In this use, a saint is therefore not a believer, but one who has been transformed by virtue. In Catholicism, a saint is a special sign of God's activity. The veneration of saints is sometimes misunderstood to be worship, in which case it is derisively termed "hagiolatry".

Some Anglicans and Anglican churches, particularly Anglo-Catholics, personally ask prayers of the saints. However, such a practice is seldom found in any official Anglican liturgy. Unusual examples of it are found in The Korean Liturgy 1938, the liturgy of the Diocese of Guiana 1959 and The Melanesian English Prayer Book.

Anglicans believe that the only effective Mediator between the believer and God the Father, in terms of redemption and salvation, is God the Son, Jesus Christ. Historical Anglicanism has drawn a distinction between the intercession of the saints and the invocation of the saints. The former was generally accepted in Anglican doctrine, while the latter was generally rejected. There are some, however, in Anglicanism, who do beseech the saints' intercession. Those who beseech the saints to intercede on their behalf make a distinction between "mediator" and "intercessor", and claim that asking for the prayers of the saints is no different in kind than asking for the prayers of living Christians. Anglican Catholics understand sainthood in a more Catholic or Orthodox way, often praying for intercessions from the saints and celebrating their feast days.

According to the Church of England, a saint is one who is sanctified, as it translates in the Authorised King James Version (1611) 2 Chronicles 6:41

Now therefore arise, O LORD God, into thy resting place, thou, and the ark of thy strength: let thy priests, O LORD God, be clothed with salvation, and let thy saints rejoice in goodness.

In the Bible, only one person is expressly called a saint: "They envied Moses also in the camp, and Aaron the saint of the LORD." (Psalms 106:16-18) The apostle Paul declared himself to be "less than the least of all saints" in Ephesians 3:8.

Eastern Orthodoxy[edit]

Further information: Glorification

In the Eastern Orthodox Church a saint is defined as anyone who is in Heaven, whether recognized here on earth, or not.[4] By this definition, Adam and Eve, Moses, the various prophets, except for the angels and archangels are all given the title of "Saint". Sainthood in the Orthodox Church does not necessarily reflect a moral model, but the communion with God: there are countless examples of people who lived in great sin and became saints by humility and repentance, such as Mary of Egypt, Moses the Ethiopian, and of course Dysmas, the repentant thief who was crucified. Therefore, a more complete definition of what a saint is, has to do with the way that saints, through their humility and their love of humankind, saved inside them the entire Church, and loved all people.

Orthodox belief considers that God reveals his saints through answered prayers and other miracles.[4] Saints are usually recognized by a local community, often by people who directly knew them. As their popularity grows they are often then recognized by the entire church. The formal process of recognition involves deliberation by a synod of bishops.[4] If successful, this is followed by a service of Glorification in which the Saint is given a day on the church calendar to be celebrated by the entire church.[32] This does not, however, make the person a saint; the person already was a saint and the Church ultimately recognized it.

It is believed that one of the ways the holiness (sanctity) of a person is revealed, is through the condition of their relics (remains).[citation needed] In some Orthodox countries (such as Greece, but not in Russia) graves are often reused after 3 to 5 years because of limited space. Bones are washed and placed in an ossuary, often with the person's name written on the skull. Occasionally when a body is exhumed something miraculous is reported as having occurred; exhumed bones are claimed to have given off a fragrance, like flowers, or a body is reported as having remained free of decay, despite not having been embalmed (traditionally the Orthodox do not embalm the dead) and having been buried for some years in the earth.

The reason relics are considered sacred is because, for the Orthodox, the separation of body and soul is unnatural.[citation needed] Body and soul both comprise the person, and in the end, body and soul will be reunited; therefore, the body of a saint shares in the "Holiness" of the soul of the saint.[citation needed] As a general rule only clergy will touch relics in order to move them or carry them in procession, however, in veneration the faithful will kiss the relic to show love and respect toward the saint. The altar in an Orthodox church usually contains relics of saints,[33] often of martyrs. Church interiors are covered with the Icons of saints.

Because the Church shows no true distinction between the living and the dead (the saints are considered to be alive in Heaven), saints are referred to as if they were still alive. Saints are venerated but not worshipped. They are believed to be able to intercede for salvation and help mankind either through direct communion with God, or by personal intervention.

In the Eastern Orthodox Church, the title Ὅσιος, Hosios (f. Ὁσία Hosia) is also used. This is a title attributed to saints who had lived a monastic or eremitic life, and it is equal to the more usual title of "Saint".[citation needed]

Oriental Orthodoxy[edit]

The Oriental Orthodox churches ‒ the Armenian Apostolic Church, the Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, the Tewahedo Church, the Malankara Orthodox Syrian Church, and the Syriac Orthodox Church ‒ follow a canonization process unique to each church. The Coptic Orthodox Church of Alexandria, for example, has the requirement that at least 50 years must pass following a prospective saint's death before the Coptic Orthodox Church's pope can canonize the saint.

Protestantism[edit]

Further information: Universal priesthood (doctrine)

In many Protestant churches, the word "saint" is used more generally to refer to anyone who is a Christian. This is similar in usage to Paul's numerous references in the New Testament of the Bible.[34] In this sense, anyone who is within the Body of Christ (i.e., a professing Christian) is a 'saint' because of their relationship with Christ Jesus. Many Protestants consider intercessory prayers to the saints to be idolatry as an application of divine worship that should be given only to God himself is being given to other believers, dead or alive.[35] Many Protestant sects also consider the practice to be similar to necromancy as the dead are believed to be awaiting resurrection, unable to do anything for the living saint.

Within some Protestant traditions, "saint" is also used to refer to any born-again Christian. Many emphasize the traditional New Testament meaning of the word, preferring to write "saint" to refer to any believer, in continuity with the doctrine of the priesthood of all believers.

Lutheranism[edit]

In the Lutheran Church, all Christians, whether in heaven or on earth, are regarded as saints. However, the church still recognizes and honors specific saints, including some of those recognized by the Catholic Church, but in a qualified way: according to the Augsburg Confession,[36] the term "saint" is used in the manner of the Catholic Church only insofar as to denote a person who received exceptional grace, was sustained by faith, and whose good works are to be an example to any Christian. Traditional Lutheran belief accounts that prayers to the saints are prohibited, as they are not mediators of redemption.[37][38] But, Lutherans do believe that saints pray for the Christian Church in general.[39] Philip Melancthon, the author of the Apology of the Augsburg Confession, approved honoring the saints by saying they are honored in three ways:

1. By thanking God for examples of His mercy;
2. By using the saints as examples for strengthening our faith; and
3. By imitating their faith and other virtues.[40][41][42]

The Lutheran Churches also have liturgical calendars in which they honor individuals as saints.

Methodism[edit]

Further information: Saints in Methodism

While Methodists as a whole do not practice the patronage or veneration of saints, they do honor and admire them. Methodists believe that all Christians are saints, but mainly use the term to refer to bibilical people, Christian leaders, and martyrs of the faith. Many Methodist churches are named after saints, such as the Twelve Apostles, John Wesley, etc. Although, most are named after geographical locations associated with an early circuit or prominent location. Some Methodist congregations observe All Saints Day if they follow the liturgical calendar. Many encourage the study of saints, that is, the biography of holy people.

The 14th Article of Religion in the United Methodist Discipline states,

The Romish doctrine concerning purgatory, pardon, worshiping, and adoration, as well of images as of relics, and also invocation of saints, is a fond thing, vainly invented, and grounded upon no warrant of Scripture, but repugnant to the Word of God.

John Wesley, the theological father of world Methodism, did not practice or permit Catholic practices associated with the veneration of the Virgin Mary or prayers to saints.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints[edit]

The beliefs within The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (LDS Church) with regard to saints are similar but not quite the same as the Protestant tradition. In the New Testament, saints are all those who have entered into the Christian covenant of baptism. The qualification "latter-day" refers to the doctrine that members are living in the "latter days", before the Second Coming of Christ, and is used to distinguish the members of the LDS Church, which considers itself the restoration of the ancient Christian church.[43] Members are therefore often referred to as "Latter-day Saints" or "LDS", and among themselves as "saints".[44]

Other religions[edit]

The use of the term "saint" is not exclusive to Christianity. In many religions, there are people who have been recognized within their tradition as having fulfilled the highest aspirations of religious teaching. In English, the term saint is often used to translate this idea from many world religions.

African diaspora[edit]

Cuban Santería, Haitian Vodou, Brazilian Umbanda, Candomblé, and other similar syncretist religions adopted the Catholic saints, or at least the images of the saints, and applied their own spirits/deities to them. They are worshiped in churches (where they appear as saints) and in religious festivals, where they appear as the deities. The name santería was originally a pejorative term for those whose worship of saints deviated from Catholic norms.

Buddhism[edit]

Main articles: Buddha and Bodhisattva

Buddhists hold the Arhats and Arahants in special esteem as well as Bodhisattvas and Buddhas.

Hinduism[edit]

Main article: Hindu saints

There are many men and women in Hinduism who are revered as saints. Like many religions, Hinduism has no formal canonization process, with numerous individuals reaching the status of saint among their followers and among Hindus in general. Hindu saints are also variously called gurus, sadhus, rishis, swamis, and other names.[45]

"Sant" is unrelated to the false cognate English "saint". Traditionally, "sant" referred to two specific groups: a group of Vaishnava poet-saints in Maratha between the thirteenth and eighteenth centuries, and a loose group of "nirguna bhakti" believers in Punjab and Rajasthan from the fifteenth century on.[46][47][48]

Islam[edit]

Main article: Wali

In Sufism, the major wali (friend of Allah) is considered master in the art of spiritual purification. Many Sufis hold the title Hadrat (literally Presence, a title of respectables) in esteem. Scholars have also noted the parallels between the regard for some Sufi figures in popular Muslim observance and Christian ideas of sainthood. In some Muslim countries there are shrines at the tombs of Sufi saints, with the observation of festival days on the anniversary of death, and a tradition of miracle-working.[49]

Judaism[edit]

Main article: Tzadik

The term Tzadik "righteous", and its associated meanings, developed in Rabbinic thought from its Talmudic contrast with Hasid ("Pious" honorific), to its exploration in Ethical literature, and its esoteric spiritualisation in Kabbalah. In Hasidic Judaism, the institution of the Tzadik assumed central importance, combining former elite mysticism with social movement for the first time.

Sikhism[edit]

The concept of sant or bhagat is found in North Indian religious thought including Sikhism. Figures such as Kabir, Ravidas, Nanak, and others are widely regarded as belonging to the Sant tradition. Some of their mystical compositions are incorporated in the Guru Granth Sahib. The term "Sant" is still sometimes loosely applied to living individuals in the Sikh and related communities.[50]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Historians of religion have liberated the category of sainthood from its narrower Christian associations and have employed the term in a more general way to refer to the state of special holiness that many religions attribute to certain people. The Jewish hasid or tsaddiq, the Islamic Mu'min, the Zoroastrian fravashi, the Hindu rsi or guru, the Buddhist arahant or bodhisattva, the Daoist shengren, the Shinto kami and others have all been referred to as saints."Lindsay Jones, ed. (2005). Thomson Gale Encyclopedia of Religion (in Tajik). Sainthood (Second ed.). Macmillan Reference USA. p. 8033. 
  2. ^ "Veneration of saints is a universal phenomenon. All monotheistic and polytheistic creeds contain something of its religious dimension... " Issachar Ben-Ami (1998). Saint Veneration Among the Jews in Morocco. Wayne State University Press. p. 13. ISBN 978-0-8143-2198-0. Retrieved 7 September 2012. 
  3. ^ Wycliffe Bible Encyclopedia, "saint", ISBN 0-8024-9697-0, "Christians in general are 'saints' in NT usage, and the term is common in reference to the inclusive membership of a local church . . . Other references in the NT equate Christians in general with 'saints' . . . All these are identified as saints because they are in Christ Jesus."
  4. ^ a b c d Bebis G [1]
  5. ^ a b "Saints - Baker's Evangelical Dictionary of Biblical Theology". Biblestudytools.com. Salem Communications. Retrieved December 19, 2012. 
  6. ^ "What does the word "saint" mean in the Bible from a Protestant Sola scriptura point of view?". Retrieved December 19, 2012. [unreliable source?]
  7. ^ Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues, Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. p. 239
  8. ^ Coleman, John A. S.J. "Conclusion: after sainthood", in Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. pp 214-217
  9. ^ Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. page 239
  10. ^ Babb, Lawrence A. "Sathya Sai Baba's Saintly Play", in Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987. pp 168-170
  11. ^ The Catechism of the Catholic Church From the Knights of Columbus website
  12. ^ What is a saint? Vatican Information Service, 29 July 1997
  13. ^ Folk_saint from Citizendium
  14. ^ "Catechism of the Catholic Church (Second Edition)". Scborromeo.org. Retrieved 2013-10-12. 
  15. ^ a b c Luscombe, David and Riley-Smith, Jonathan. 2004. New Cambridge Medieval History: C.1024-c.1198, Volume 4. p. 12.
  16. ^ a b William Smith, Samuel Cheetham, A Dictionary of Christian Antiquities (Murray, 1875), 283.
  17. ^ "Alexander III". Saint-mike.org. Retrieved 2013-10-12. 
  18. ^ All About Saints at Catholic Online (USA) FAQs- Saints and Angels
  19. ^ "Religion: 2,565 Saints". Time. 1956-08-06. Retrieved 2010-05-23. 
  20. ^ "Keeping Saints Alive". CBS News. 2010-04-04. 
  21. ^ Saint of the Day edited by Leonard Foley, OFM, (Cincinnati: St. Anthony Messenger Press, 2003), xvi. ISBN 0-86716-535-9
  22. ^ Woodward, Kenneth L. (1996). Making Saints: How the Catholic Church Determines Who Becomes a Saint, Who Doesn't, and Why. New York: Simon and Schuster. p. 13. ISBN 0684815303. Retrieved August 9, 2012. 
  23. ^ Scully, Teresita Do Catholics Worship Mary? on American Catholic.org
  24. ^ The Intercession of the Saints on Catholic.com
  25. ^ Patron Saints from Catholic Encyclopedia (1913) on Wikisource.org
  26. ^ Acts 19:11-12
  27. ^ Jenna Russell, "Marshfield man's prayer an answer in sainthood query", The Boston Globe April 28, 2009, B1,4.
  28. ^ a b Relics Catholic Encyclopedia on NewAdvent.org
  29. ^ Table of the Canonizations during the Pontificate of His Holiness John Paul II on Vatican.va
  30. ^ a b c d e http://people.howstuffworks.com/question6191.htm
  31. ^ "Article XXII". Eskimo.com. Retrieved 2013-10-12. 
  32. ^ Frawley J The Glorification of the Saints in the Orthodox Church at Orthodox Church in America, Syosset, New York
  33. ^ Hopko T "The Orthodox Faith"
  34. ^ "Beloved of God, Called to Be Saints", New Testament Gospel Doctrine Teacher's Manual. The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Salt Lake City, Utah. p. 150.
  35. ^ "The Sin of Idolatry and the Catholic Concept of Iconic Participation". Philvaz.com. Retrieved 2012-12-25. 
  36. ^ A Confession of Faith Presented in Augsburg by certain Princes and Cities to His Imperial Majesty Charles V in the Year 1530
  37. ^ Apology of the Augsburg Confession XXI 14-30
  38. ^ Smalcald Articles-II 25
  39. ^ Apology of the Augsburg Confession XXI 9
  40. ^ Apology of the Augsburg Confession XXI 4-7
  41. ^ Lutheran teaching
  42. ^ Augsburg Confession XXI 1
  43. ^ Smith, Joseph Jr. "Pearl Of Great Price". 
  44. ^ M. Russell Ballard, "Faith, Family, Facts, and Fruits", Ensign, Nov 2007, 25–27
  45. ^ Robin Rinehart (1 January 2004). Contemporary Hinduism: Ritual, Culture, and Practice. ABC-CLIO. pp. 87–90. ISBN 978-1-57607-905-8. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  46. ^ Karine Schomer; W. H. McLeod (1 January 1987). The Sants: Studies in a Devotional Tradition of India. Motilal Banarsidass Publ. pp. 2–3. ISBN 978-81-208-0277-3. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  47. ^ Jacqueline Jones (2009). Performing the Sacred: Song, Genre, and Aesthetics in Bhakti. ProQuest. p. 7. ISBN 978-1-109-06430-8. Retrieved 3 June 2013. 
  48. ^ The authoritative Oxford English Dictionary, 2nd ed., has an entry for "sant", with Sanskrit etymology, and one for "saint", but does not cross-reference them in any way
  49. ^ Michael Gilsenan (1973). Saint and Sufi in Modern Egypt. Oxford. ISBN 0-19-823181-4. 
  50. ^ Dwyer, Graham (2002). The Divine and the Demonic: Supernatural Affliction and Its Treatment in North India. New York: RoutledgeCurzon. p. 25. 

Bibliography[edit]

  • Beyer, Jürgen, et al., eds. Confessional sanctity (c. 1550 - c. 1800). Mainz: Philipp von Zabern, 2003.
  • Bruhn, Siglind. Saints in the Limelight: Representations of the Religious Quest on the Post-1945 Operatic Stage. Hillsdale, New York: Pendragon Press, 2003. ISBN 978-1-57647-096-1.
  • Cunningham, Lawrence S. The Meaning of Saints. San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1980.
  • Hawley, John Stratton, ed. Saints and Virtues. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987.
  • Hein, David. "Saints: Holy, Not Tame." Sewanee Theological Review 49 (2006): 204-17.
  • Jean-Luc Deuffic (éd.), Reliques et sainteté dans l'espace médiéval [2]
  • O'Malley, Vincent J. "Ordinary Suffering of Extraordinary Saints", 1999. ISBN 0-87973-893-6
  • Perham, Michael. The Communion of Saints. London: Alcuin Club / SPCK, 1980.
  • Watchtower Bible and Tract Society. Insight on the Scriptures: Volume 1. Brooklyn,: Watch Tower Bible and Tract Society, 1988.
  • Woodward, Kenneth L. Making Saints. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1996.

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]