Club of Madrid

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The Club de Madrid is an independent non-profit organization created to promote democracy and change in the international community. Composed of 89 former Presidents and Prime Ministers from 58 countries, the Club de Madrid is the world’s largest forum of former Heads of State and Government.

Among its main goals are the strengthening of democratic institutions and counselling on the resolution of political conflicts in two key areas: democratic leadership and governance and response to crisis and post-crisis situations.

The Club de Madrid works together with governments, inter-governmental organizations, civil society, scholars and representatives from the business world, to encourage dialogue in order to foster social and political change. The Club de Madrid also works on the search for effective methods to provide technical advice and recommendations to transitional nations taking steps to establish democracy.


There are currently 96 full Members, all of them previous government officials who have full voting rights. The Club also has institutional Members –those who belong to private and public organizations that share similar democratic objectives, including FRIDE, and the Gorbachev Foundation of North America (GNFA), both original sponsors of the founding conference in 2001. Additionally, the Club de Madrid has several honorary Members, such as Kofi Annan and Aung San Suu Kyi; and fellows, who are experts on democratic changeover.

The Club is based in Madrid (Spain), although meetings are held worldwide. Currently Vaira Vike-Freiberga, the former President of Latvia (1999-2007), is the organization's President, and it also has two Vice Presidents: Jennifer Shipley (New Zealand) and Jorge Fernando Quiroga (Bolivia).

The Club was created from an unprecedented event that was held in October 2001 in Madrid, a four day Conference on Democratic Transition and Consolidation (CDTC). This event brought together 35 world leaders, over 100 esteemed academics and policy specialists from Europe, The Americas, Asia, and Africa to discuss ideas and means of implementation from both objective and subjective perspectives. The conference discussed eight main topics:

  • Constitutional design
  • The Legislative branch and its relation with the Executive branch
  • The Judicial branch and its relation with Executive branch
  • Anti-corruption procedures
  • The role of the armed forces and security forces
  • Reform of the state bureaucracy
  • Strengthening of political and social pluralism and of political parties
  • Economic and social conditions.

Structure and Organization[edit]

The Club de Madrid's primary asset is its membership, which includes 96 distinguished former heads of state and government of democratic nations. The comparative advantage of the Club de Madrid is based on the following key assets:

  • Personal experience and status of its Members.
  • Access to the world’s leading experts on democracy.
  • Specialization in democratic transition and consolidation issues.
  • Practical approach of its activities, through the implementation of projects with tangible results.

Full Members are members of the Club de Madrid who provide their personal and political experience as former Heads of State and Government. Their appointment, based on a proposal from the Board of Directors, is approved by the General Assembly.

Direct exchanges with current leaders of countries in the process of democratic transition on a peer-to-peer basis, and the Member’s ability to deliver the right message at the right time are two of the major assets of the Club de Madrid. In this sense, the Members of the Club de Madrid can also help focus much needed international attention on targeted countries and leverage the work of other institutions trying to promote democracy.

The Club's members are supported by a network of world-class experts who work together to offer assistance on a range of democratic reform issues. The Club de Madrid is composed of four executive and advisory bodies:

  • General Assembly
  • Board of Directors
  • General Secretariat
  • Advisory Committee


Several members of the Club played prominent roles in the diplomatic and military proceedings aimed at ending the wars in the former Yugoslavia during the 1990s:

List of Current Members[edit]

Name Age Nation Party Office(s) held
Valdas Adamkus in 2005.JPEG Adamkus, ValdasValdas Adamkus 87  Lithuania zzzz None President of Lithuania (1998-2003, 2004-2009)
Esko Aho-crop.jpg Aho, EskoEsko Aho 60  Finland Centre Party Finland Centre Prime Minister of Finland (1991-1995)
Martti Ahtisaari.jpg Ahtisaari, MarttiMartti Ahtisaari 77  Finland Social Democratic Party Finland Social Democratic President of Finland (1994-2000)
al-Eryani, Abdul-kareemAbdul-kareem al-Eryani 79  Yemen
 North Yemen
GPC, GPC Prime Minister of North Yemen (1980-1983)
Prime Minister of Yemen (1998-2001)
al-Mahdi, SadiqSadiq al-Mahdi 78  Sudan Umma National Party Sudan Umma Prime Minister of Sudan (1966-1967, 1986-1989)
Óscar Arias.jpg Arias, ÓscarÓscar Arias 73  Costa Rica PLN Costa Rica PLN President of Costa Rica (1986-1990, 2006-2010)
Arzú, ÁlvaroÁlvaro Arzú 68  Guatemala PAN Guatemala PAN President of Guatemala (1996-2000)
Patricio Aylwin(2011).jpg Aylwin, PatricioPatricio Aylwin 95  Chile Christian Democratic Party Chile Christian Democratic President of Chile (1990-1994)
Aznar at the Azores, March 17, 2003.jpg Aznar, José MaríaJosé María Aznar 61  Spain PP Mexico PP President of the Government of Spain (1996-2004)
Michele Bachelet (2009).jpg Bachelet, MichelleMichelle Bachelet 62  Chile Socialist Party Chile Socialist President of Chile (2006-2010, 2014-present)
Executive Director of UN Women (2010-2013)
Rupiah Banda.jpg Banda, RupiahRupiah Banda 77  Zambia MMD, MMD President of Zambia (2008-2011)
Belisario Betancur.jpg Betancur, BelisarioBelisario Betancur 91  Colombia Conservative Party Colombia Conservative President of Colombia (1982-1986)
Carl Bildt under nationaldagsfirande vid Skansen 2009.jpg Bildt, CarlCarl Bildt 65  Sweden Moderate Party Sweden Moderate Prime Minister of Sweden (1991-1994)
High Representative for Bosnia and Herzegovina (1995-1997)
Birkavs, ValdisValdis Birkavs 72  Latvia LC, LC Prime Minister of Latvia (1993-1994)
KjellMagneBondevik.JPG Bondevik, Kjell MagneKjell Magne Bondevik 66  Norway Christian Democratic Party Norway Christian Democratic Prime Minister of Norway (1997-2000, 2001-2005)
Gro Harlem Brundtland1 2007 04 20.jpg Brundtland, Gro HarlemGro Harlem Brundtland 75  Norway Labour Party Norway Labour Prime Minister of Norway (1981, 1986-1989, 1990-1996)
Director-General of the World Health Organization (1998-2003)
BrutonJohn.png Bruton, JohnJohn Bruton 67  Ireland Fine Gael, Fine Gael Taoiseach of Ireland (1994-1997)
EU Ambassador to the United States (2004-2009)
Jerzy Buzek, 2010.JPG Buzek, JerzyJerzy Buzek 74  Poland Civic Platform, Civic Platform Prime Minister of Poland (1997-2001)
President of the European Parliament (2009-2012)
Felipe Calderon 20090130.jpg Calderón, FelipeFelipe Calderón 51  Mexico PAN Mexico PAN President of Mexico (2006-2012)
Micheline Calmy-Rey 2011.jpg Calmy-Rey, MichelineMicheline Calmy-Rey 69   Switzerland Social Democratic Party Switzerland Social Democratic Member of the Federal Council (2003-2011)
(President in 2011)
KimCampbell.jpg Campbell, KimKim Campbell 67  Canada Progressive Conservative Party Canada Progressive Conservative Prime Minister of Canada (1993)
Fhc-color.jpg Cardoso, Fernando HenriqueFernando Henrique Cardoso 83  Brazil Social Democracy Party Brazil Social Democracy President of Brazil (1995-2002)
Jimmy Carter1.jpg Carter, JimmyJimmy Carter 89  United States Democratic Party United States Democratic President of the United States (1977-1981)
Cavaco Silva 2007.jpg Cavaco Silva, AníbalAníbal Cavaco Silva 75  Portugal Social Democratic Party Portugal Social Democratic President of Portugal (2006–present)
Joaquim Chissano.jpg Chissano, JoaquimJoaquim Chissano 74  Mozambique FRELIMO, FRELIMO President of Mozambique (1986-2005)
Jean Chretien 2010.jpg Chrétien, JeanJean Chrétien 80  Canada Liberal Party Canada Liberal Prime Minister of Canada (1993-2003)
Bill Clinton.jpg Clinton, BillBill Clinton 67  United States Democratic Party United States Democratic President of the United States (1993-2001)
Dimitrov.JPG Dimitrov, PhilipPhilip Dimitrov 59  Bulgaria SDS Bulgaria SDS Prime Minister of Bulgaria (1991-1992)
Luisa Diogo, World Economic Forum Annual Meeting 2009 1.jpg Diogo, LuísaLuísa Diogo 56  Mozambique FRELIMO, FRELIMO Prime Minister of Mozambique (2004-2010)
Leonel Fernandez Reyna.jpg Fernández, LeonelLeonel Fernández 60  Dominican Republic PLD Dominican Republic PLD President of the Dominican Republic (1996-2000, 2004–2012)
Figueres, José MaríaJosé María Figueres 59  Costa Rica PLN Costa Rica PLN President of Costa Rica (1994-1998)
Finnbogadóttir, VigdísVigdís Finnbogadóttir 84  Iceland zzzz None President of Iceland (1980-1996)
Vicente Fox flag.jpg Fox, VicenteVicente Fox 72  Mexico PAN Mexico PAN President of Mexico (2000-2006)
Eduardo Frei Chiledebate.jpg Frei Ruiz-Tagle, EduardoEduardo Frei Ruiz-Tagle 72  Chile Christian Democratic Party Chile Christian Democratic President of Chile (1994-2000)
Yasuo Fukuda - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2008 cropped.JPG Fukuda, YasuoYasuo Fukuda 78  Japan Liberal Democratic Party Japan Liberal Democratic Prime Minister of Japan (2007-2008)
César Gaviria, World Economic Forum on Latin America 2009.jpg Gaviria, CésarCésar Gaviria 67  Colombia Liberal Party Colombia Liberal President of Colombia (1990-1994)
Secretary General of the Organization of American States (1994-2004)
Amine Gemayel 2007.jpg Gemayel, Amine PierreAmine Pierre Gemayel 72  Lebanon Kataeb Kata'eb President of Lebanon (1982-1988)
Felipe Gonzalez-Madrid-28 de enero de 2004.jpg González, FelipeFelipe González 72  Spain Socialist Workers Party Spain Socialist Workers President of the Government of Spain (1982-1996)
RIAN archive 850809 General Secretary of the CPSU CC M. Gorbachev (crop).jpg Gorbachev, MikhailMikhail Gorbachev 83  Russia
 Soviet Union
Communist Soviet Union Communist (until 1991) General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (1985-1991)
Chairman of the Supreme Soviet/President of the Soviet Union (1988-1991)
Alfred Gusenbauer (Erster Mai 2006).jpg Gusenbauer, AlfredAlfred Gusenbauer 54  Austria Social Democratic Party Austria Social Democratic Chancellor of Austria (2007-2008)
António Guterres.jpg Guterres, AntónioAntónio Guterres 65  Portugal Socialist Party Portugal Socialist Prime Minister of Portugal (1995-2002)
UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2005–present)
Bacharuddin Jusuf Habibie official portrait.jpg Habibie, Bacharuddin JusufBacharuddin Jusuf Habibie 78  Indonesia Golkar, Golkar President of Indonesia (1998-1999)
Tarja Halonen 1c389 8827-2.jpg Halonen, TarjaTarja Halonen 70  Finland Social Democratic Party Finland Social Democratic President of Finland (2000-2012)
Han Seung-Soo - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2009.jpg Han Seung-soo, Han Seung-soo 77  South Korea Saenuri, Saenuri Prime Minister of South Korea (2008-2009)
Hurtado, OsvaldoOsvaldo Hurtado 75  Ecuador Christian Democratic Union Ecuador Christian Democratic President of Ecuador (1981-1984)
Alain Juppé in Washington DC.jpg Juppé, AlainAlain Juppé 68  France UMP, UMP Prime Minister of France (1995-1997)
Bundesarchiv B 145 Bild-F074398-0021, Bonn, Pressekonferenz Bundestagswahlkampf, Kohl.jpg Kohl, HelmutHelmut Kohl 84  Germany
 West Germany
Christian Democratic Union Germany Christian Democratic Chancellor of West Germany (1982-1990)
Chancellor of Germany (1990-1998)
Koehlerhorst08032007.jpg Kohler, HorstHorst Köhler 71  Germany Christian Democratic Union Germany Christian Democratic President of Germany (2004-2010)
Wim Kok 1994.jpg Kok, WimWim Kok 75  Netherlands Labour Party Netherlands Labour Prime Minister of the Netherlands (1994-2002)
Konare27022007.jpg Konaré, Alpha OumarAlpha Oumar Konaré 68  Mali ADEMA-PASJ, ADEMA-PASJ President of Mali (1992-2002)
Chairman of the AU Commission (2003-2008)
Milan Kucan.jpg Kucan, MilanMilan Kučan 73  Slovenia
Communist Slovenia Communist (until 1990)
None (since 1990)
President of Slovenia (1991-2002)
John Agyekum Kufuor - World Economic Forum on Africa 2008.jpg Kufuor, JohnJohn Kufuor 75  Ghana NPP Ghana NPP President of Ghana (2001-2009)
Chairman of the AU (2007-2008)
Chandrika Kumaratunga.jpg Kumaratunga, ChandrikaChandrika Kumaratunga 69  Sri Lanka SLFP Sri Lanka SLFP President of Sri Lanka (1994-2005)
Aleksander kwasniewski konferencja.jpg Kwaśniewski, AleksanderAleksander Kwaśniewski 59  Poland zzzz None (since 1995) President of Poland (1995-2005)
Luisalbertolacalle2.jpg Lacalle, Luis AlbertoLuis Alberto Lacalle 73  Uruguay PN Uruguay PN President of Uruguay (1990-1995)
Ricardo Lagos - Visita a la Moneda 2006.JPG Lagos, RicardoRicardo Lagos 76  Chile PPD Chile PPD President of Chile (2000-2006)
Zlatko lagumdzija.jpg Lagumdžija, ZlatkoZlatko Lagumdžija 58  Bosnia and Herzegovina Social Democratic Party Bosnia and Herzegovina Social Democratic Chairman of the Council of Ministers of Bosnia and Herzegovina (2001-2002)
Lee Hong Koo.png Lee Hong-koo, Lee Hong-koo 58  South Korea NKP South Korea NKP Prime Minister of South Korea (1994-1995)
Ruud Lubbers 1985.jpg Lubbers, RuudRuud Lubbers 75  Netherlands Christian Democratic Appeal Netherlands Christian Democratic Prime Minister of the Netherlands (1982-1994)
UN High Commissioner for Refugees (2001-2005)
Mancham, JamesJames Mancham 74  Seychelles Democratic Party Seychellese Democratic President of Seychelles (1976-1977)
Mascarenhas Monteiro, AntónioAntónio Mascarenhas Monteiro 70  Cape Verde MPD Cape Verde MPD President of Cape Verde (1991-2001)
Quett Masire detail DF-SC-85-12044.JPEG Masire, KetumileKetumile Masire 89  Botswana BDP Botswana BDP President of Botswana (1980-1998)
Rexhep Meidani.jpg Meidani, RexhepRexhep Meidani 69  Albania Socialist Party Albania Socialist President of Albania (1997-2002)
Benjamin William Mkapa.jpg Mkapa, BenjaminBenjamin Mkapa 75  Tanzania CCM Tanzania CCM President of Tanzania (1995-2005)
Mogpow2.jpg Mogae, FestusFestus Mogae 74  Botswana BDP Botswana BDP President of Botswana (1998-2008)
Olusegun Obasanjo DD-SC-07-14396-cropped.jpg Obasanjo, OlusegunOlusegun Obasanjo 77  Nigeria PDP Nigeria PDP Head of the Federal Military Government of Nigeria (1976-1979)
President of Nigeria (1999-2007)
Roza Otunbayeva in 2011.jpg Otunbayeva, RozaRoza Otunbayeva 63  Kyrgyzstan Social Democratic Party Kyrgyzstan Social Democratic (2007-2010) President of Kyrgyzstan (2010-2011)
Anand Panyarachun.jpg Panyarachun, AnandAnand Panyarachun 81  Thailand zzzz None Prime Minister of Thailand (1991-1992)
Papandreou handover cropped.jpg Papandreou, GeorgeGeorge Papandreou 62  Greece Socialist Greece Socialist Prime Minister of Greece (2009-2011)
Andrespastranaarango.png Pastrana, AndrésAndrés Pastrana 59  Colombia Conservative Party Colombia Conservative President of Colombia (1998-2002)
PJPatterson.jpg Patterson, P.J.P.J. Patterson 79  Jamaica PNP Jamaica PNP (until 2011) Prime Minister of Jamaica (1992-2006)
Javier Pérez de Cuéllar.JPG Perez de Cuellar, JavierJavier Pérez de Cuéllar 94  Peru UPP Peru UPP Secretary-General of the United Nations (1982-1991)
President of the Council of Ministers of Peru (2000-2001)
Romano Prodi in Nova Gorica (2c).jpg Prodi, RomanoRomano Prodi 74  Italy Democratic Party Italy Democratic President of the European Commission (1999-2004)
President of the Council of Ministers of Italy (1996-1998, 2006-2008)
Jorge Quiroga-1.jpg Quiroga, JorgeJorge Quiroga 54  Bolivia PODEMOS Bolivia PODEMOS President of Bolivia (2001-2002)
RAMOS jan9 2004.jpg Ramos, Fidel V.Fidel V. Ramos 86  Philippines Lakas Philippines Lakas President of the Philippines (1992-1998)
José Ramos-Horta Portrait.jpg Ramos-Horta, José ManuelJosé Manuel Ramos-Horta 64  East Timor zzzz None Prime Minister of East Timor (2006-2007)
President of East Timor (2007-2012)
Pnr.jpg Rasmussen, Poul NyrupPoul Nyrup Rasmussen 71  Denmark Social Democrats Denmark Social Democrats Prime Minister of Denmark (1993-2001)
Mary Robinson at University of California, Santa Barbara 2011Oct21Cropped.jpg Robinson, MaryMary Robinson 70  Ireland zzzz None President of Ireland (1990-1997)
UN High Commissioner for Human Rights (1997-2002)
José Luis Rodríguez Zapatero en el Foro Económico Mundial (recortada).jpg Rodriguez Zapatero, Jose LuisJosé Luis Rodríguez Zapatero 53  Spain Socialist Workers Party Spain Socialist Workers President of the Government of Spain (2004-2011)
Petre Roman.jpg Roman, PetrePetre Roman 68  Romania
SR Romania
FSN Romania FSN (1989-1991) Prime Minister of Romania (1989-1991)
Jorge Sampaio 3.jpg Sampaio, JorgeJorge Sampaio 74  Portugal Socialist Party Portugal Socialist President of Portugal (1996-2006)
Gonzálo Sánchez de Lozada-Agencia BrasilAntonio Cruz.jpg Sanchez de Lozada, GonzaloGonzalo Sánchez de Lozada 84  Bolivia MNR Bolivia MNR President of Bolivia (1993-1997, 2002-2003)
PresidenteSanguinettti.jpg Sanguinetti, Julio MaríaJulio María Sanguinetti 78  Uruguay PC Uruguay PC President of Uruguay (1985-1990, 1995-2000)
Clinton Shipley walk.jpg Shipley, Jennifer MaryJennifer Mary Shipley 62  New Zealand National New Zealand National Prime Minister of New Zealand (1997-1999)
Fouad Sinora.jpg Siniora, FuadFuad Siniora 71  Lebanon FM Lebanon FM Prime Minister of Lebanon (2005-2009)
Mário Soares (2003).jpeg Soares, MarioMário Soares 89  Portugal Socialist Party Portugal Socialist Prime Minister of Portugal (1976-1978)
President of Portugal (1986-1996)
Suchocka, HannaHanna Suchocka 68  Poland UD Poland UD Prime Minister of Poland (1992-1993)
Boris Tadic 2010.jpg Tadić, BorisBoris Tadić 56  Serbia NDS Greens Serbia NDS-Greens President of Serbia (2004-2012)
Alejandro Toledo - Jerusalem 2011.jpg Toledo, AlejandroAlejandro Toledo 68  Peru PP Peru PP President of Peru (2001-2006)
Panama.MartinTorrijos.01.jpg Torrijos, MartinMartín Torrijos 51  Panama PRD Panama PRD President of Panama (2004-2009)
Danilo Türk - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2010 cropped.jpg Turk, MartinDanilo Türk 62  Slovenia zzzz None President of Slovenia (2007-2012)
Uteem, CassamCassam Uteem 73  Mauritius MMM Mauritius MMM President of Mauritius (1992-2002)
Guy Verhofstadt in 2005.jpg Verhofstadt, GuyGuy Verhofstadt 61  Belgium VLD Belgium VLD Prime Minister of Belgium (1999-2008)
Ministru prezidenta tikšanās ar eksprezidenti (4108711953).jpg Vike-Freiberga, VairaVaira Vīķe-Freiberga 76  Latvia zzzz None President of Latvia (1999-2007)
Ernesto Zedillo Ponce de Leon - World Economic Forum Annual Meeting Davos 2009.jpg Zedillo, ErnestoErnesto Zedillo 62  Mexico PRI Mexico PRI President of Mexico (1994-2000)

Member statistics[edit]

Regional background of members:

Political affiliation of members:

Office held (some members have held both):

List of Honorary Members[edit]

Name Age Nation Party Office(s) held
Kofi Annan.jpg Annan, KofiKofi Annan 76  Ghana zzzz None Secretary-General of the United Nations (1997-2006)

List of Members of the Constituent Foundations[edit]

Name Age Nation Party Office(s) held
Hidalgo, DiegoDiego Hidalgo 71  Spain PRISA Board of Directors
Founder, Club de Madrid

List of former members (deceased)[edit]

Name Died Nation Party Office(s) held
Argentina.RaulAlfonsin.01.jpg Alfonsin, RaulRaúl Alfonsín 20090331March 31, 2009(2009-03-31) (aged 82)  Argentina UCR Argentina UCR President of Argentina (1983-1989)
Visita del Calvo-Sotelo 1976.jpg Calvo-Sotelo, LeopoldoLeopoldo Calvo-Sotelo 20080503May 3, 2008(2008-05-03) (aged 82)  Spain UCD Spain UCD President of the Government of Spain (1981-1982)
Václav Havel cut out.jpg Havel, VaclevVáclav Havel 20111218December 18, 2011(2011-12-18) (aged 75)  Czech Republic
Civic Forum Czechoslovakia OF (1989-1993)
None (1993-2004)
President of Czechoslovakia (1989-1992)
President of the Czech Republic (1993-2003)
Inder Kumar Gujral 071.jpg Gujral, Inder KumarInder Kumar Gujral 20121130November 30, 2012(2012-11-30) (aged 92)  India Janata Dal, Janata Dal Prime Minister of India (1997-1998)
Ferenc Mádl.jpg Madl, FerencFerenc Mádl 20110529May 29, 2011(2011-05-29) (aged 80)  Hungary zzzz None President of Hungary (2000-2005)
Tadeusz Mazowiecki 80th birthday.jpg Mazowiecki, TadeuszTadeusz Mazowiecki 20131028October 28, 2013(2013-10-28) (aged 86)  Poland
PR Poland
KOS Poland KO "S" (1980-1991)
UD (1991-1994)
Prime Minister of Poland (1989-1991)
Lennart Meri 1998.jpg Meri, LennartLennart Meri 20060314March 14, 2006(2006-03-14) (aged 76)  Estonia
 Soviet Union
Isamaa Estonia Isamaa (since 1992) President of Estonia (1992-2001)
VPC May 2003.jpg Paniagua, ValentinValentín Paniagua 20061016October 16, 2006(2006-10-16) (aged 70)  Peru AC Peru AC President of Peru (2000-2001)
Adolfo Suárez González.jpg Suarez, AdolfoAdolfo Suárez 20140313March 13, 2014(2014-03-13) (aged 81)  Spain
Spain Estado Español
MN Spain MN (until 1977)
UCD Spain UCD (1977-1982)
President of the Government of Spain (1976-1981)


External links[edit]