A coach is originally a large, usually closed, four-wheeled carriage with two or more horses harnessed as a team, controlled by a coachman and/or one or more postilions. It had doors in the sides, with generally a front and a back seat inside and, for the driver, a small, usually elevated seat in front called a box, box seat or coach box. The term "coach" first came into use in the 15th century, and spread across Europe. There are a number of types of coaches, with differentiations based on use, location and size. Special breeds of horses, such as the now-extinct Yorkshire Coach Horse, were developed to pull the vehicles.
Kocs (pronounced "kotch") was the Hungarian post town in the 15th century onwards, which gave its name to a fast light vehicle, which later spread across Europe. Therefore the English word coach, the Spanish and Portuguese coche, the German Kutsche, and the Slovak and Czech koč all probably derive from the Hungarian word "kocsi", literally meaning "of Kocs".
It was not until about the middle of the reign of Queen Elizabeth I, that coaches were introduced to England. Coaches were introduced into England from France by Henry FitzAlan, 19th Earl of Arundel.
The bodies of early coaches, as of American Concord stagecoaches, were hung on leather straps. In the eighteenth century steel springs were substituted, an improvement in suspension. An advertisement in the Edinburgh Courant for 1754 reads:
The Edinburgh stage-coach, for the better accommodation of passengers, will be altered to a new genteel two-end glass coach-machine, hung on steel springs, exceedingly light and easy...
A coach might have a built-in compartment called a boot, used originally as a seat for the coachman and later for storage. A luggage case for the top of a coach was called an imperial; the top, roof or second-story compartment of a coach was also known as an imperial. The front and rear axles were connected by a main shaft called the perch or reach. A crossbar known as a splinter bar supported the springs. Coaches were often decorated by painters using a sable brush called a liner.
Types of coaches
There are a number of coach types, including:
- araba, aroba or arba: used in Turkey and neighboring countries
- coachee: American, shaped like a coach but longer and open in front
- Concord coach: large, closed, horse-drawn; body swung on leather thorough braces, driver's seat outside in front, covered baggage compartment at the rear
- The park drag carriage was a lighter, more elegant version of the road coach. A park drag (or simply drag) is also known as a "private coach" as it was owned by private individuals for their own personal driving. A park drag has seats on its top and is usually driven to a team of four well-matched carriage horses.
- fly: horse-drawn, public
- funeral coach: hearse
- hack or hackney: let for hire
- hackney coach or jarvey: used as a hackney carriage; especially, one with four wheels, drawn by two horses, seats for six persons
- fiacre: small
- rumble-tumble: heavy, moves with a deep rumbling sound
- stagecoach: heavy, usually four-in-hand, closed; formerly made regular trips between stations, carrying passengers and goods
- tally-ho: a four-in-hand (the Tally-ho was the name of a coach that once plied between London and Birmingham)
- whirlicote: heavy, luxurious
The business of a coachman (or coachee, formerly coacher) was to drive a coach. He was also called a jarvey or jarvie, especially in Ireland (Jarvey was a nickname for Jarvis). If he drove dangerously fast or recklessly he was a jehu (from Jehu, king of Israel, who was noted for his furious attacks in a chariot (2 Kings 9:20), or a Phaeton (from Greek Phaethon, son of Helios, who attempted to drive the chariot of the sun but managed to set the earth on fire). A postilion or postillion sometimes rode as a guide on the near horse of a pair or of one of the pairs attached to a coach, especially when there was no coachman. A guard on a horse-drawn coach was called a shooter.
Traveling by coach, or pleasure driving in a coach, as in a tally-ho, was called coaching. In driving a coach, the coachman used a coachwhip, usually provided with a long lash. Experienced coachmen never used the lash on their horses. They used the whip to flick the ear of the leader to give them the office to move on, or cracked it next to their heads to request increased speed. Coachmen and coach passengers might have worn a box coat, a heavy overcoat with or without shoulder capes, used by coachmen riding on the box seat exposed to all kinds of weather. A hammercloth, ornamented and often fringed, sometimes hung over the coachman's seat, especially on a ceremonial coach.
A coach horse or coacher is used or adapted for drawing a coach, as it is typically heavier and of more compact build than a road horse, and exhibits good style and action. Breeds include:
- Breton: heavy, French, for draft or meat
- German coach: large, rather coarse, heavy draft horse or harness horse; bay, brown or black in color
- Hanoverian: developed by crossing heavy cold-blooded German horses with Thoroughbreds
- Holstein: German, heavyweight, for riding and dressage, initially a carriage horse; bay, black or brown. Called also Holsteiner, Warmblut, Warmblood.
- Yorkshire Coach Horse: large, strong, bay or brown; dark legs, mane and tail; belongs to an English breed derived largely from the Cleveland Bay
Sometimes an extra horse, called a cockhorse, was led behind a coach so that it could be hitched before the regular team to assist in passing over steep or difficult terrain.
The Dalmatian is also known as a coach dog or carriage dog, because it was formerly used to run in attendance on a coach.
A coach house was a building for keeping a private carriage in and it often also included stabling for the horses and accommodation for coachman, groom or other servants; it was usually an outbuilding on an estate or adjacent to a large house. A coaching inn, also called coaching house, located along a route followed by horse-drawn coaches, served coach travelers and offered stabling for the horses of stagecoaches and a place to change horses.
- coach definition in CollinsDictionary.com. Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 11th Edition. Retrieved November 12, 2012.
- Definition "coach" in Merriam-Webster Dictionary.
- Definition of coach-and-four by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia. Free access.
- Turn out - Definition from the Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary.
- Definition of imperial by the Free Online Dictionary, Thesaurus and Encyclopedia. Free access.
- Oxford English Dictionary
- Box Coat. Probert Encyclopaedia.
- Hammercloth in Merriam-Webster Unabridged Dictionary (2000).
- Detailed information about specific breeds of horses: Carriage Horses in Britain. Georgian Index.
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- Belgian coach museum in Bree
- Coach - LoveToKnow 1911. 1911 Edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica.
- Coaches 1750 to 1900. History Learning Site.
- The Coaches: 'Travellers in Eighteenth-Century England'. Civilization defined and explained in plain English: Library of mainly eighteenth century authors by P.Atkinson.
- Coaching History. By Anne Woodley. Also Coaching Accidents, Coaching Anecdotes and A selection of Georgian Coaches
- Coachman Driven Vehicles. Carriage Museum Of America.
- H3875 Horse-drawn coach, mail and passenger coach, timber / metal / leather, made by Cobb and Co. Coach and Buggy Factory, Charleville, Queensland, Australia, 1890 - Powerhouse Museum Collection. Powerhouse Museum | Science + Design | Sydney Australia.
- The History of Coaching--Travelling in Old England--The First Coaches Introduced of The Mail-Coach System--Amateur Coachmen in the Olden Time--Early Coaching Parades--The Dangers of the Road--Highwaymen and Reckless Drivers. The New York Times, May 5, 1878, page 10.
- Col. Delancey Kane and "The Pelham Coach". Historic Pelham.
- Landscape Property|Regency|Georgian|history|lifestyle|house | Going By Coach. Jane Austen Centre Bath UK England.
- Some Coaching Costumes by Marie Weldon, The New York Times, Magazine Supplement, page SM4.