|— State —|
|Estado Libre y Soberano
de Coahuila de Zaragoza
|Anthem: Himno Coahuilense|
|Admission||May 7, 1824|
|• Governor||Ruben Moreira Valdez|
|• Senators||Guillermo Anaya
Ernesto Saro B.
Jesús María Ramón
|• Total||151,595 km2 (58,531 sq mi)|
|Highest elevation||3,710 m (12,170 ft)|
|• Density||19/km2 ( 49/sq mi)|
|• Density rank||26th|
|Time zone||CST (UTC−6)|
|• Summer (DST)||CDT (UTC−5)|
|Postal code||25 - 27|
|ISO 3166 code||MX-COA|
|HDI||0.7634 High Ranked 6th|
|GDP||US$ 21,556.31 mil[b]|
|Website||Official Web Site|
|^ a. Joined to the federation under the name of Coahuila y Texas also recognized as Coahuila y Tejas.
^ b. The state's GDP was 275,920,781 thousand of pesos in 2008, amount corresponding to 21,556,311.01 thousand of dollars, being a dollar worth 12.80 pesos (value of June 3, 2010).
Coahuila, formally Coahuila de Zaragoza (Spanish pronunciation: [koaˈwila ðe saɾaˈɣosa]), officially Free and Sovereign State of Coahuila de Zaragoza (Spanish: Estado Libre y Soberano de Coahuila de Zaragoza), is one of the 31 states which, along with the Federal District, compose the 32 Federal Entities of Mexico. The state is located in Northeastern Mexico.
Coahuila borders the Mexican states of Nuevo León to the east, Zacatecas and San Luis Potosí to the south, and Durango and Chihuahua to the west. To the north, Coahuila accounts for a 512 kilometres (318 mi) stretch of the Mexico-United States border, adjacent to the U.S. state of Texas along the course of the Rio Grande (Río Bravo del Norte). With an area of 151,563 square kilometres (58,519 sq mi), it is the nation's third-largest state. It comprises 38 municipalities (municipios). In 2010, Coahuila's population is 2,748,391 inhabitants.
The Spanish explored the north of Mexico some decades after their victory in the capital of the Aztecs. Such exploration was delayed because the northern climate was harsher and there was no gold. The first Spanish settlement in the region now called Coahuila was at Minas de la Trinidad in 1577. Saltillo was settled in 1586 to form part of the province of New Spain, Nueva Vizcaya of the vice-royalty. Later it became one of the first provinces of Nueva Extremadura to be explored by Europeans.
"Coahuila and Texas" was one of the constituent states of the newly independent United Mexican States under its 1824 Constitution, and included Texas, Coahuila, and Nuevo León. Later in the same year Nuevo León was detached, but Texas remained a part of the state until 1835, when it seceded to form the Republic of Texas. Monclova was the capital of the state from 1833 to 1835.
In 1840 Coahuila briefly became a member of the short lived Republic of the Rio Grande.
On April 4, 2004, the border city of Piedras Negras was flooded. More than 30 people died and more than 4000 lost their homes. In 2007 Coahuila became the first state in Mexico to offer civil unions (Pacto Civil de Solidaridad) to same-sex couples.
The Sierra Madre Oriental runs northwest to southeast through the State, and the higher elevations are home to the Sierra Madre Oriental pine-oak forests. The northernmost fingers of the Sierra Madre Oriental, the Sierra del Burro and the Sierra del Carmen, reach to the border with the United States at the Rio Grande.
East of the range, the land slopes gently toward the Rio Grande, and is drained by several rivers, including the Salado and its tributary, the Sabinas River. The Tamaulipan mezquital, a dry shrubland ecoregion, occupies the eastern portion of the State, and extends across the Rio Grande into southern Texas.
The portion of the State west of the Sierra Madre Oriental lies on the Mexican Plateau, and is part of the Chihuahuan Desert. The Bolsón de Mapimí is a large endorheic basin which covers much of the western portion of the State and extends into adjacent portions of Chihuahua, Durango, and Zacatecas. The Nazas River, which flows east from Durango, and the Aguanaval River, which flows north from Zacatecas, empty into lakes in the Bolsón. Torreón, the most populous city in the State, lies on the Nazas in the irrigated Laguna Region, the (Comarca Lagunera), which straddles the border of Coahuila and Durango.
Coahuila contains two biosphere reserves. Maderas del Carmen lies on the northern border of the State, and includes sections of the Chihuahuan desert and sky islands of pine-oak forest in the Sierra del Carmen. The springs, lakes, and wetlands of Cuatro Ciénegas lie west of Monclova on the west slope of the Sierra Madre.
Coahuila is largely arid or semi-arid, but the rivers of the State support extensive irrigated agriculture, particularly cotton. The Parras district in the southern part of the State produces wines and brandies. The pine-oak forests of the Sierra Madre produce timber.
Flora and Fauna
The last population census run across Mexico in the year 2010, reports Coahuila de Zaragoza as having 2,748,391 inhabitants, which, considering its size, means that the state has a very low density, in fact as low as only 15 persons per square kilometer.
Coahuila's population is mainly made up of people of Criollo (European) extraction along with mestizos. Less than 7,500 natives reside in Coahuila, or merely 0.3% of the total population. The rest of the population is composed of North American, Canadian, and Japanese communities.
The rest of the demographic particulars in the state are very similar to national averages, such as a high life expectancy (reaching 75 years of age) and a Catholic majority.
Institutions of higher learning in Coahuila, Mexico include:
- Instituto Tecnológico de Saltillo
- Universidad Autónoma Agraria Antonio Narro (UAAAN)
- Universidad Autónoma de Coahuila
About 95% of Mexico's coal reserves are found in Coahuila, which is the country's top mining state. Saltillo also has a growing automobile industry, hosting General Motors and Chrysler assembly plants.
As of 2005, Coahuila's economy represents 3.5% of Mexico's total gross domestic product or 22,874 million USD. Coahuila's economy has a strong focus on export oriented manufacturing (i.e. maquiladora / INMEX). As of 2005, 221,273 people are employed in the manufacturing sector. Foreign direct investment in Coahuila was 143.1 million USD for 2005. The average wage for an employee in Coahuila is approximately 190 pesos per day. On the other hand Coahuila is the Mexican state with the highest level of public debt in the nation.
- Ciudad Acuña
- Ciudad Frontera
- Ciudad Melchor Múzquiz
- Francisco I. Madero
- Nueva Rosita
- Parras de la Fuente
- Piedras Negras
- Ramos Arizpe
- San Pedro
List of governors
This list is incomplete
- José María Garza Galán (1886–1893)
- José María Múzquiz (1894)
- Miguel Cárdenas (1894–1909)
- Jesús de Valle (1909–1911)
- Venustiano Carranza (1911–1913)
- Gustavo Espinoza Mireles (1917–1920)
- Luis Gutiérrez Ortíz (1920–1921)
- Arnulfo González (1921–1923)
- Carlos Garza Castro (1923–1925)
- Manuel Pérez Treviño (1925–1929)
- Bruno Neira González (1929-1929)
- Nazario S. Ortiz Garza (1929–1933)
- Jesús Valdez Sánchez (1933–1937)
- Pedro Rodríguez Triana (1937–1941)
- Gabriel Cervera Riza (1941-1941)
- Benecio López Padilla (1941–1945)
- Ignacio Cepeda Dávila (1945–1947)
- Ricardo Ainslie Rivera (1947–1948)
- Paz Faz Risa (1948-1948)
- Raúl López Sánchez (1948–1951)
- Roman Cepeda Flores (1951–1957)
- Raúl Madero González (1957–1963)
- Braulio Fernández Aguirre (1963–1969)
- Eulalio Gutiérrez Treviño (1969–1975)
- Oscar Flores Tapia (1975–1981)
- Francisco José Madero González (1981-1981)
- José de las Fuentes Rodríguez (1981–1987)
- Eliseo Mendoza Berrueto (1987–1993)
- Rogelio Montemayor Seguy (1993–1999)
- Enrique Martínez y Martínez (1999–2005)
- Humberto Moreira Valdés (2005–2011) (Left)
- Jorge Torres López (2011-2011) (Humberto Moreira's substitute)
- Rubén Moreira Valdez (2011–2017)
- Venustiano Carranza - President of Mexico
- Luis Farell - Combat pilot and general
- Eulalio Gutiérrez - President of Mexico
- Joakim Soria - MLB closer
- Pablo Montero - Singer and actor
- Horacio Piña - MLB pitcher)
- Mario Domm - musician and lead singer of Mexican pop band Camila
- Sangre Chicana - Professional wrestler
- Dr. Wagner - Profesional Wrestler
- Dr. Wagner, Jr. - Professional wrestler
- Ari Telch - Actor
- Andrea Villarreal - Feminist and revolutionary
- Rosario Ybarra - Politician and senator
- Humberto Zurita - Actor, director and producer
- Francisco Indalecio Madero - President of Mexico November 1911 - February 1913
- Reading Wood Black - Founder of Uvalde, Texas spent American Civil War years in Coahuila.
- Susana Zabaleta - singer and actress
- "La diputación provincial y el federalismo mexicano" (in Spanish).
- "Senadores por Coahuila LXI Legislatura". Senado de la Republica. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- "Listado de Diputados por Grupo Parlamentario del Estado de Coahuila". Camara de Diputados. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- "Resumen". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved February 12, 2013.
- "Relieve". Cuentame INEGI. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- "ENOE". Retrieved August 24, 2012.
- "Coahuila.". 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2010.
- "Reporte: Jueves 3 de Junio del 2010. Cierre del peso mexicano.". www.pesomexicano.com.mx. Retrieved August 10, 2010.
- "Mexican state moves to allow same-sex unions", Advocate News, Gay.com, January 11, 2007
- "Censo de Población y Vivienda 2010". INEGI. Retrieved 2013-02-04.
- "Mexico: extended population list". GeoHive. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
- "México en cifras". INEGI. Retrieved 2011-07-29.
- Industrial Costs in Mexico - A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 90.
- Industrial Costs in Mexico - A Guide for Foreign Investors 2007. Mexico City: Bancomext. 2007. p. 92.
- Benjamin, Thomas, and William McNellie. Other Mexicos: Essays on Regional Mexican History, 1876-1911. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1984.