Coal Valley Township is located in Rock Island County, Illinois. As of the 2010 census, its population was 4,408 and it contained 1,910 housing units.
Quad City International Airport is partially in Coal Valley Township.
According to the 2010 census, the township has a total area of 12.06 square miles (31.2 km2), of which 11.78 square miles (30.5 km2) (or 97.68%) is land and 0.28 square miles (0.73 km2) (or 2.32%) is water.
Coordinates: 41°26′00″N 90°28′32″W / 41.43333°N 90.47556°W / 41.43333; -90.47556