Coal in Finland

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Coal in Finland is used as an energy source in Finland. However, since Finland has no domestic coal production, it must import all of it from other countries, primarily from Russia. Finland is a peat-producing nation. Peat is classified as coal by the IEA.[citation needed]

Coal[edit]

There is no coal mining or coal tar in Finland. Coal is imported. According to Finnwatch (27.9.2010) there are 13 coal power plants in Finland. The companies Pohjolan Voima, Fortum, Helsingin Energia and Rautaruukki consume coal most. According to the Finnwatch inquiry in 2010 none of the Finnish companies had yet a commitment to coal phase out. Energy companies stated following reductions in their future coal use: Helsingin Energia -40 % by 2020, Lahti Energia several tens of % by 2012 and Vantaan Energia -30 % by 2014.[1]

Peat[edit]

Peat is environmentally controversial and disputed domestic soil material. Peat balances the water levels and prevents floods. Peat soils can restore carbon and slow down the global warming.[citation needed] Undisturbed peat soil areas are rich in flora and fauna.

Vapo Oy is the major peat producer. In 1994 Vapo had 80% of markets in Finland. The 100% state ownership guaranteed public funding for Vapo. Vapo was state owned company until 2002. Metsäliitto bought one third in 2002 and 49,9% in 2004. The acquisition was studied by the Finnish competition authorities in 2001 based on dominant position in the peat business. The European Commission accepted the deal. In 2009 Metsäliitto sold its share with 165 million € to Etelä-Pohjanmaan Voima Oy (EPV Oy).[2] In practice, Vapo is owned by the state, EPV and the major plants using peat, in the way that EPV has the A series stocks.

Peat energy of Vapo is danger to the sustainability of bogs in Finland.[3]

Coal import[edit]

Finland imported 18.3 million tons of coal in 2007–2009. The share of coal by country of origin in 2007-2009 was: Russia 72.5%, the United States 7.3%, Canada 6.6%, Australia 5.9%, Poland 3.0%, South Africa 1.4%, Columbia 1.3%, and Indonesia 1.1%. The majority of Finnish coal is mined in the Kuznetsk Basin of the Kemerovo Oblast, Russia.[1]

Coal import in Finland[1]
2007 2008 2009
Russia 4,824,000 3,770,000 4,683,000
United States 355,000 532,000 443,000
Canada 529,000 393,000 293,000
Australia 559,000 292,000 223,000
Poland 270,000 88,000 189,000
South Africa - 254,000 -
Columbia 88,000 68,000 74,000
Indonesia - 194,000 13,000
Norway 17,000 46,000 7,000
Kazakhstan 13,000 33,000 19,000
Others 15,000 1,000 15,000
Total 6,670,000 5,671,000 5,959,000

Carbon Dioxide Emissions[edit]

Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuels: Coal[4]
mil. t CO2  % of fossil total
Fossil Hard coal Other coal Peat Coal total Peat Coal total
1990 53.0 12 3 6 20.1 10.6 37.9
2000 53.1 9 4 7 19.4 12.2 36.5
2004 64.3 16 4 9 28.7 14.5 44.6
2005 52.8 8 4 7 18.3 13.6 34.7
2006 64.1 15 4 10 28.9 15.3 45.1
2007 61.8 13 4 11 27.4 17.3 44.3
2008 53.7 9 3 9 20.7 15.8 38.5
Other coal: coke, blast furnace gas, coke oven gas, coal tar and other non specified coal

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c Coal from the East and the South, Responsibility in energy company coal purchases, FinnWatch 23.12.2010
  2. ^ Esa Ruuskanen and Vapo: Suosta voimaa ja lämpöä, Turve Suomen energiapolitiikassa (Power and heat from peat, Peat in Finnish energy policy), Vapo 2010 pages157-8, 108-9 (Finnish)
  3. ^ Laiha sopu uppositurvesuohon HS 25.6.2012 A2
  4. ^ Energy Statistics Yearbook 2009, Carbon Dioxide Emissions by Fuels Table 11.3.1, Statistics Finland 2010

See also[edit]