Co-articulated consonant

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
  (Redirected from Coarticulated consonant)
Jump to: navigation, search
IPA chart co-articulated consonants
Fricatives
ɕ
ʑ
ɧ
Approximants
ʍ
w
ɥ
ɫ
Stops
k͡p
ɡ͡b
ŋ͡m
Where symbols appear in pairs, left—right represent the voiceless—voiced consonants
This table contains phonetic symbols, which may not display correctly in some browsers. [Help]

IPA help • IPA key • Loudspeaker.svg audio help • chart • view

Co-articulated consonants or complex consonants are consonants produced with two simultaneous places of articulation. They may be divided into two classes: doubly articulated consonants with two primary places of articulation of the same manner (both stop, or both nasal, etc.), and consonants with secondary articulation, that is, a second articulation not of the same manner.

An example of a doubly articulated consonant is the voiceless labial-velar stop [k͡p], which is pronounced simultaneously at the velum (a [k]) and at the lips (a [p]). On the other hand, the voiceless labialized velar stop [kʷ] has only a single stop articulation, velar [k], with a simultaneous approximant-like rounding of the lips.

In practically all languages of the world that have doubly articulated consonants, these are either clicks or labial-velars. However, there is a large number of common secondary articulations. The most frequently encountered are labialization (such as [kʷ]), palatalization (such as the Russian "soft" consonants like [pʲ]), velarization (such as the English "dark" el [lˠ]), and pharyngealization (such as the Arabic emphatic consonants like [tˤ]).

As might be expected from the approximant-like nature of secondary articulation, it is not always easy to tell whether a co-articulated approximant consonant such as /w/ is doubly or secondarily articulated. In some English dialects, for example, /w/ is a labialized velar that could be transcribed as [ɰʷ], but the Japanese /w/ is closer to a true labial-velar, [ɰ͡β̞]. It is common usage to restrict the letter w to the former.

The glottis controls phonation, and works simultaneously with many consonants. It is not normally considered an articulator, and an ejective such as [kʼ], with simultaneous closure of the velum and glottis, is not normally considered to be a co-articulated consonant.

See also[edit]