Coat of arms of Mexico
|Coat of arms of Mexico
Escudo Nacional de México
Black and white version of the seal
|Armiger||United Mexican States|
|Adopted||16 September 1968
(latest version, by Francisco Eppens Helguera)
|Escutcheon||Atop a nopal pedestal, a Mexican golden eagle devouring a snake|
|Supporters||Oak and laurel leaves|
The current coat of arms of Mexico has been an important symbol of Mexican politics and culture for centuries. The coat of arms depicts a Mexican golden eagle perched on a prickly pear cactus devouring a snake. To the people of Tenochtitlan this would have strong religious connotations, but to the Europeans, it would come to symbolize the triumph of good over evil.
The Seal of the United Mexican States is the seal used by the government of Mexico in any official documents issued by the federal, state or municipal authorities. It is a modified version of the national coat of arms, with the addition of the full official name of the country Estados Unidos Mexicanos, in a semi-circular accommodation in the upper part of the seal. Current and past Mexican peso coinage have had the seal engraved on the obverse of all denominations.
Legend of Tenochtitlan
The coat of arms recalls the founding of Mexico City, then called Tenochtitlan. The legend of Tenochtitlan as shown in the original Mexica codices, paintings, and post-Cortesian codices do not include a snake. While the Fejérváry-Mayer codex depicts an eagle attacking a snake, other Mexica illustrations, such as the Codex Mendoza, show only an eagle; in the text of the Ramírez Codex, however, Huitzilopochtli asked the Tenochtitlan people to look for an eagle devouring a snake, perched on an prickly pear cactus. In the text by Chimalpahin Cuauhtlehuanitzin, the eagle is devouring something, but it is not mentioned what it is. Still other versions show the eagle clutching the Aztec symbol of war, the Atl-Tlachinolli glyph, or "burning water".
Moreover, the original meanings of the symbols were different in numerous aspects. The eagle was a representation of the sun god Huitzilopochtli, who was very important, as the Mexicas referred to themselves as the "People of the Sun". The cactus (Opuntia ficus-indica), full of its fruits, called "nochtli" in Nahuatl, represent the island of Tenochtitlan. To the Mexicas, the snake represented wisdom, and it had strong connotations with the god Quetzalcoatl. The story of the snake was derived from an incorrect translation of the Crónica mexicáyotl by Fernando Alvarado Tezozómoc. In the story, the Nahuatl text ihuan cohuatl izomocayan, "the snake hisses", was mistranslated as "the snake is torn". Based on this, Father Diego Durán reinterpreted the legend, so that the eagle represents all that is good and right, while the snake represents evil and sin. Despite its inaccuracy, the new legend was adopted because it conformed with European heraldic tradition. To the Europeans it would represent the struggle between good and evil. Although this interpretation does not conform to pre-Columbian traditions, it was an element that could be used by the first missionaries for the purposes of evangelism and the conversion of the native peoples.
In 1960, the Mexican ornithologist Rafael Martín del Campo identified the eagle in the pre-Hispanic codex as the Northern Caracara or "quebrantahuesos", a species common in Mexico (although the name "eagle" is taxonomically incorrect, as the Caracara is in the falcon family). The golden eagle is considered the official bird of Mexico. When Father Duran introduced the snake, it was originally an aquatic serpent. But in 1917, the serpent was portrayed as a rattlesnake, because it was more common than the aquatic varieties in pre-Hispanic illustrations. As a result of this, the design and color of the snake on the modern coat of arms do not correspond with those of any species of snake, and were inspired by the representations of Quetzalcoatl, a rattlesnake with quetzal feathers.
- The eagle, in a combative stance
- The snake, held by a talon and the beak of the eagle
- The nopal on which the eagle stands; The nopal bears some of its fruits (tunas)
- The pedestal, on which the nopal grows, immersed in the Aztec symbol for water
- Oak and Laurel leaves encircling the eagle cluster; tied together with a ribbon with the Mexican flag's colors
- The emblem has at least two abstraction levels. First, the pictographic representation of the name of the Aztec's capital city, Tenochtitlan, as tenoch is the word for the cactus fruit and titlan means "the place of." On another level, it represents one of the most important cosmological beliefs of the Aztec culture.
- The emblem shows an eagle devouring a serpent, which actually is in conflict with Mesoamerican belief. The eagle is a symbol of the sun and a representation of the victorious god Huitzilopochtli, in which form, according to legend, bowed to the arriving Aztecs. The snake is a symbol of the earth and, in certain pre Hispanic traditions, a representation of Quetzalcoatl; more specifically, in Aztec (Mexica) tradition, the snake is the representation of Coatlicue, the personification of earth and mother of Huitzilopochtli. In some codices, the eagle holds the glyph for war to represent the victorious Huitzilopochtli. This glyph, the Atl tlachinolli, which means "burning water", has a certain resemblance with a snake, and may plausibly be the origin of this confusion.
- With the water element, the attributed element of the moon, it recalls the mythology and rebirth of Huitzilopochtli, the god and hero of the Aztecs.
- The fruit of the Nopal cactus, called Tuna, represents the heart of Copil, the nephew of the god Huitzilopochtli. The god ordered the people to "build the city in the place of Copil's heart" (Ramírez Codex), where the cactus grew on his land. It also alludes to the human sacrifice customs of the Aztecs.
All Mexican states have a coat of arms; these are like flags which distinguish each of them. Also these coats of arms of Mexico's constituent states and the federal district are placed on a white background proportioned 4:7 as state flags, another report refers that these very same state coats of arms are used in the central panel of a Mexican Tricolor, mainly for tourist purposes. The following is a list of the coats of arms used in the United Mexican States;
|The coat of arms of Aguascalientes (help·info) has a fountain, a cauldron and coals which represent one of the main features of its territory, hot springs. The image of Our Lady of the Assumption, accompanied by two cherubs, represents the foundation of the city. The gold chain, which is incomplete and surrounded by lips, depicts freedom and the emergence of the independent state. The grapes and dam signify agriculture supported by state irrigation systems. The bee imprisoned within a wheel represents the ordered, constant and progressive labor of the inhabitants of Aguascalientes. The Latin Motto of the state is embedded on the edges of the coat and reads: "Bona Terra, Bona Gens, Aqua Clara, Clarum Coelum"
(Good Earth, Good People, Clear Water, Clear Sky). Around 1565, when the Spaniards first settled here, their attention was drawn by the presence of hot springs. For this reason, they called the settlement Villa de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción de las Aguas Calientes (Our Lady of the Assumption of the Hot Springs), a name that was eventually shortened to Aguascalientes (which means hot waters).
|The coat of arms of Baja California (help·info) represents the past, the present and the future of the state. The motto "Work and social justice" is one of the goals of this state. In the upper part is the Sun, symbol of light, the main element nature gave the world and an inexhaustible source of energy, heat and life. To the sides, two human figures, with their hands joined in the middle, project a beam of light, symbol of energy. The book the man is holding in his hand represents culture. The woman is holding a test tube, which stands for chemistry, a carpenter's square, representing engineering, and an allegory for medicine. Together, these stand for the joining of intellectual work and science.|
|The coat of arms of Baja California Sur (help·info) has a golden border that represents the riches contained in the subsoil. The navy blue area symbolizes justice, truth and loyalty; the silver fish depict the wealth of the ocean. The interior is divided into two sections; the red and gold background express union, wealth, value and daring. The silver shell symbolizes the fierce battle undertaken by Southern Californians in defense of their borders. The word California appeared for the first time in the novel The Exploits of Esplandián, by Spanish writer Garci Ordonez de Montalvo. This work tells of a fantastic island inhabited by women, where gold and pearls abounded, and which was governed by a queen named Calafia.|
|The coat of arms of Campeche is divided into four sections or quarters. The red background of the upper left and lower right quarters represents the bravery of Campecheans and contrasts with the silver towers. This silver color is the reflection of solidness and honor of its inhabitants, and the towers signify strength in the defense of their land. The other two quarters bear a sailing ship with a raised anchor, which signifies the importance of Campeche as a maritime port. The four quarters rest upon a blue background which represents the loyalty and noble sentiments of Campecheans. Finally, above the coat of arms there is a crown decorated with precious stones that symbolizes the nobility and grandeur of the state.|
|The coat of arms of Chiapas was created in 1535, at the request of the Spaniards who participated in the conquest of the state. It was initially the emblem of Ciudad Real, now known as San Cristóbal de las Casas. The coat of arms shows the place where the most difficult battles took place between the Conquistadors and Chiapanecan warriors. The lions, the castle and the crown represent the power and authority held by King Carlos V of Spain at this time. The name of Chiapas is taken from the ancient city of Chiapan, which in Náhuatl means the place where the chia (a species of sage) grows. This is an edible plant.|
|The coat of arms of Chihuahua (help·info) is shield-shaped, with a red border. Across the top is a depiction of the old aqueduct of Chihuahua. In the center section a head of a Spaniard (left) and an Amerindian (right) represents the mestizo, or blending of two peoples; the lower third depicts the Cathedral of Chihuahua. In 1533, Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca became the first Spaniard to cross Chihuahua; he described the region as a fantastic kingdom in the north of New Spain. In 1562, Francisco de Ibarra began an expedition to the lands now occupied by the states of Durango, Coahuila and Chihuahua. In line with Spanish tradition, the practice of giving the names of the places the conquistadors came from to newly discovered or founded settlements.|
|The coat of arms of Coahuila is divided into three parts. In the lower section is a river, some walnut trees and the sun rising over the trees. The river is Monclova River; the Spanish town known as San Francisco de Coahuila was founded on its banks. This town was later named Monclova, and, for many years, was the capital city of Coahuila. The sun means that the state emerged from the Mexican Revolution. In the left hand window is an oak tree and two wolves. This is a reference to Biscay, the Spanish province where many of the people who settled in northern Mexico, came from. In the right hand window there is a lion and a column, upon which a banner bears the words Plus Ultra. Plus ultra means further on or higher. New Extremadura and New Biscay came together to form a single state, Coahuila.|
|The coat of arms of Colima bears a hieroglyph in the form of an arm, which represents several Náhuatl words. For the state's early inhabitants, the arm situated in the center of the coat of arms represented the power of one person over all others. This authority essentially fell to the elders, who were greatly respected and obeyed. The coat of arms therefore symbolizes the strength of the people of Colima to improve their living conditions. The name Colima is very ancient. Tradition has it that it was taken from a warrior named Coliman, who governed these lands many years ago. He was a brave man who organized regional inhabitants in order to defend their land against the Conquistadors. The word Coliman is made up of two Náhuatl words; Colli, which means hill, volcano or grandfather; and Maitl, which means place, domain or government. Together, these words mean the place where the fire god, or the old god, has his domain.|
|The coat of arms of Durango has an oak tree with two wolves, representing Biscay, the home province of many of the Spanish settlers; the crown above the coat of arms represents the king of Spain. The state of Durango bore this name even before it became part of the United Mexican States. Let's look briefly at the history of its name. More than 470 years ago, the Spaniards conquered part of what is now the territory of Mexico; they gradually began to take control of new lands. One groups of Conquistadors, headed by Francisco Ibarra, took control of the region now forming the state of Durango. Francisco Ibarra was born in a place close to Villa Durango, in Biscay, Spain. In honor of his birthplace he decided to give his town the same name. In the Basque language, this name means beyond the water.|
|The coat of arms of the Mexican Federal District contains a picture of a golden castle that is surrounded by three stone bridges. There are two lions supporting the castle tower. Around the border of the shield are ten prickly pear cactus pads. The Federal District is the capital city of Mexico. It is the economic, industrial, and cultural center in the country, Mexico City is also the Federal District (Distrito Federal). The Federal District is coterminous with Mexico City; both are governed by a single institution and are constitutionally considered to be the same entity. This has not always been the case. The Federal District, created in 1824, was integrated by several municipalities, one of which was the municipality of Mexico City. Mexico City is located in the Valley of Mexico, also called the Valley of Anáhuac, a large valley in the Central Plateau of Mexico.|
|The coat of arms of Guanajuato is supported by a base of colored marble with gold decoration. The base is a shell held by two laurel branches bound with a blue ribbon. The shell linking with the coat of arms symbolizes a stable home, opening to welcome guests. The gold background signifies nobility and represents the wealth of precious metals found in the state. The laurels stand for victory, and the acanthus flowers signify loyalty. This crest originally represented the city of Guanajuato but was later adopted by the state.|
|The coat of arms of Guerrero features a headdress with eleven colored feathers in the upper section. The yellow diadem has a red band which symbolizes power. A cane or ácatl is finished off like an arrowhead and supported by an arc. The blue background represents the sky and water. The jaguar warrior holds a macuahuitl in his right hand, in a horizontal position, while in his left hand he has a shield decorated with red, green, yellow and purple frets. Nine feathers form a fan in the lower part of the shield. The shield is a Náhuatl symbol and means the cape of the lord wielding power. The spots on the jaguar skin worn by the warrior depict a series of stars representing Tezcatlipoca, Lord of the Night.|
|The coat of arms of Hidalgo is divided into two horizontal sections. The upper section shows Las Navajas Hill as a symbol of the pre-Hispanic land the Mexicans inherited. On the left, a bell represents the call to liberty made in 1810, while on the right is a Phrygian cap decorated with laurels, symbolizes Mexico's status as a free and independent nation. The lower section depicts the innumerable military actions that have forged the state and national territory. Lastly are the banners of the Virgin of Guadalupe, which represent the beginning of the revolution. The state of Hidalgo is named after the man who began Mexico's independence struggle, father Miguel Hidalgo y Costilla.|
|The coat of arms of Jalisco (help·info) has at the center is a dark blue shield with gold borders, accented with red x-shapes. Two golden lions face a tree in the center. Above the shield is a helmet with a red pennant flying from its top. The name Jalisco comes from the Náhuatl words xali, meaning sand, and ixco, which means surface. Together, these words mean "sandy surface". Like many other peoples, the inhabitants of Jalisco are characterized by the way they express themselves through fiestas, music, song, dance, handicrafts, family celebrations, and even food. The joy of Jaliscans is always present. Jalisco has large mountain ranges (sierras) including the Sierra Madre Occidental, with plateaus.|
|The coat of arms of Mexico is a shield surrounded by gold trim, and a red border with the words "Libertad Trabajo Cultura" (Spanish for "Freedom Work Culture"). In the upper left is a pyramid, representing the historic Aztec civilization; in the upper right, commemorating the Battle of Cross Mountain in the war for independence, two crosses rise above a green peak. A cannon is firing in front of the peak. The lower half of the shield features an open book with a pick and a spade, representing the rich ores found in the state. The yellow and brown rays in the background represent agriculture.|
|The coat of arms of Michoacán (help·info) has the fish at the top of the state coat of arms refers to Michoacán as the "place of fishermen." The picture of a man on horseback represents the general José María Morelos y Pavón (1765–1815), for whom the capital city of Morelia was named. The three crowns symbolize the history of the region as part of the Pur é pecha empire. The buildings pictured are meant to represent industry and culture. Blue is used to depict the sky and water.|
|The coat of arms of Morelos represents the ideals and aspirations of the Revolution. The green field in the center features a cornstalk, symbolizing the fertility of the land. The silver banner above the cornstalk contains the Spanish words for land and freedom. Around the border is a slogan from revolutionary leader with "The land will be returned to those who work it with their hands", this is a well-known phrase coined by Morelos revolutionary leader Emiliano Zapata (1879–1919). The state bears the name Morelos in honor of hero José María Morelos y Pavón, who fought for Mexico's Independence while it was still a colony under Spanish rule.|
|The coat of arms of Nayarit is made up of three sections. A corn stalk appears on the left, weapons appear on the right, and a mountain landscape lies across the lower section. In the center is a small shield surrounded by a white border with seven footprints, symbols of the seven tribes of the Nahuatl, or Aztecs. An illustration of the Eagle of Aztlan is in the center of the shield. Green, blue, and gold are used to represent the colors of the Nayarit landscape. During the government of Venustiano Carranza, it was proposed that this state be called Nayarit in honor of Nayar or Nayarit, the 16th century Cora governor who prevented the Spaniards from conquering and evangelizing the Cora and Huichol groups of the sierra region.|
|The coat of arms of Nuevo León is made up of four squares that form of a cross. Above, six bees represent the hard-working nature of local inhabitants. In the upper left section is the Sun next to La Silla Hill and, in the foreground, an orange. In the upper right-hand square is a crowned lion ready to attack. On the lower left-hand side is San Francisco convent and, on the right, five smoking chimneys, which represent state industry. Various indigenous weapons may also be seen; bows and arrows on the left, and on the right are Spanish arms with cannons, arquebuses and halberds. In the lower part of the coat of arms is the motto Sempre Ascendens, which means rising up in search of the best. In 1582, the King of Spain, Felipe II, granted Luis Carvajal y de la Cueva authorization to colonize these lands.|
|The coat of arms of Oaxaca has an eagle perched on a cactus with a snake in its beak forming the top of the symbol. The shield below contains an oval encircled by the motto "El Respeto Al Derecho Ajeno es La Paz", with symbols of the state's archeology. The name of the state comes from the Náhuatl (the language of the Aztecs) word Hauxyacac, which means "on the top of the guaje tree." The guaje tree is common throughout the state. Oaxaca's rugged terrain caused various groups to develop in relative isolation from one another, and ultimately resulted in cultural and linguistic diversity. The central Valley of Oaxaca was one of the most fertile areas of the Americas and allowed powerful and influential groups to emerge. The valley was first occupied by the Zapotec people, who were conquered by the Mixtecs in the 13th century.|
|The coat of arms of Puebla is a shield divided into four squares; one depicts a factory, representing progress; the hydroelectric dam represents Puebla's contribution to the supply of electricity; the rifle commemorates the Civil War that began on 20 November 1910; the human hand holding a plant with farm land in the background represents agriculture. The smaller shield in the center features a mountain landscape with a rising sun, marked 5 de Mayo 1862. (This is the date that the liberal Mexicans army and Americans allies defeated the French army and conservative Mexicans.) At the top of the shield is a native symbol for the sun. The snakes along the sides are symbols of the Toltec culture. Around the shield is the state motto: "unidos en el tiempo en el esfuerzo en la justicia y en la esperanza" ("United in time, in effort, in justice and in hope").|
|The coat of arms of Querétaro features a shield divided into three sections. A picture of the Sun with a human face is at the top of the shield, underneath the symbol of the cross. A horseman carrying a flag is pictured next to a picture of a tree. The flags that surround the shield are Mexican flags. The figure on top of the shield is the Mexican coat of arms. The word Querétaro dates back to pre-Hispanic times. Some of the people who arrived in the area now occupied by the state gave it different names based on its geographic features. The P'urhépecha of Michoacán called the spot now known as La Cañada Crettaro or Queréndaro, which means the place of the crags; they probably gave it this name because of the abundant pink stone. The Otomíes called it Mxei, which means the place where the ballgame is played. It was also called Ndamaxei, which means the great ballcourt; the Aztecs or Mexicas named it Tlaxco, which has the same meaning.|
|The coat of arms of Quintana Roo features a rising sun with seven rays depicts the first seven municipalities of Quintana Roo; the yellow Glyph of a marine shell represents the interior of the land and ocean. The five-pointed star symbolizes the rebirth of the sun in the east. The three triangles represent the wealth of the forests of Quintana Roo. The Maya wind glyph looks similar to the letter "T", and symbolizes hurricanes; Quintana Roo has often been affected by these tremendous winds. For the Maya people, the cardinal points are represented by different colors; red represents the east; yellow, the south; white, the north, and black, the west. Furthermore, green is their sacred color. The present name of the state dates from 1902, when the authorities of the Mexican Republic ordered that it be called Quintana Roo. It is named after Andrés Quintana Roo, an illustrious lawyer born in the city of Mérida in 1787. Andrés married Doña Leona Vicario, with whom he fought for the Independence.|
|The coat of arms of San Luis Potosí was created in 1656. It features the image of San Luis Rey standing upon the San Pedro Hill as well as the entrances to the mines. The emblem is graced by two colors, blue and yellow, which represent night and day. On the yellow background there are two silver bars, and two gold bars are on the blue background, which represent the state's mining wealth. The name San Luis Potosí dates from the period when the Spaniards arrived in the area; at the time, these lands were occupied by the Guachichiles. The area was first known as Valle de San Luis, which was later shortened to San Luis Rey. After large amounts of gold and silver were found in the area, Spaniards added Potosí to the name of the state, which was also used for the other rich mines in the New World.|
|The coat of arms of Sinaloa is an oval shield set on top of a solid rock base and crowned with a variation of the national emblem. There are five footprints in the border of the shield. Pictures inside the shield include an Aztec glyph, a fortress, an anchor and deer head and a torn rosary, symbols— clockwise from top left to bottom left— of Culiacán, El Fuerte, Mazatlán and Rosario. The name Sinaloa comes from Cáhita languages. It would be a combination of the words sina, meaning pitaya, and lobola, meaning rounded. Pitaya are cacti seen throughout the region.|
|The coat of arms of Sonora has the upper section divided into three triangles; in the center is an indigenous Yaqui tribesman performing the deer dance. The left-hand triangle represents mining, and on the right is a sheaf of wheat symbolizing agriculture. The lower area is divided into two squares; the left hand square represents livestock breeding, while the one on the right shows a shark, a symbol of the wealth of the state coastline. There are various explanations as to the origin of the word Sonora. One of these says that when the Spaniards arrived in the lands occupied by the Opata people, they built a chapel and painted an image of the Virgin Mary on a buffalo skin.|
|The coat of arms of Tabasco was created in 1598, for Felipe II, has four squares depicting castles, represents the Kingdom of Castilla (Spain); a shield and sword, represents the powerful Spanish; a crowned lion ready to attack, represents the Kingdom of León (Spain); and a native warrior. In the center, an oval features a representation of the Virgin Mary. There are various explanations of the origin of the word Tabasco. Some people say that it comes from the word tlapaco, which in the Aztec language means humid land. The Aztecs preferred to study the characteristics of a place before giving it a name. When the first Spaniards arrived in the area, they heard that the Indians called their leader Tabasco. The river now known as the Grijalva, was also called Tabasco. Other people, however, think that the name of the Indian leader was really Taabs-Coob, since his brother, who governed Champotó, was called Mooch-Coob.|
|The coat of arms of Tamaulipas represents the economic activities of the state. Cornstalks and animals represent agriculture and livestock. The boat and the dock that appear on the lower half of the coat of arms represent fishing and industry. Cerro de Bernal, a well-known natural peak, is also shown in the lower part of the shield. The smaller shield in the top section represents the family coat of arms of José Escandón y Helguera, Count of Sierra Gorda, who colonized the state. The name of the state of Tamaulipas comes from the Huastec word Tamaholipa. Tam means in or place of. Although those who have studied the meaning of this word have varying opinions, the most common definitions are the Place where people pray a lot and the Place of the high mountains.|
|The coat of arms of Tlaxcala has the red background represents courage; the castle symbolizes defensive greatness and power; the eagle with its open wings, on the banner, represents the spirit of vigilance; the border symbolizes protection and compensation; the green palms stand for victory, and the crowns are the symbol of royal authority. The letters I, K, and F and the crowns in the border represent Queen Isabel, King Karolus (Charles I), and King Ferdinand, all of Spain. The skull and crossbones at the bottom represent those who died in the Spanish conquest of Mexico. The name of Tlaxcala state is very old. According to some historians, this name comes from the ancient word texcalli, which means crag, and the ending, lan, which means place. Together, these words mean on the crag; this was probably the first place reached by the Tlaxcaltecas, on the top of a hill.|
|The coat of arms of Veracruz bears a red cross and the word Vera, which means true. The name Veracruz originated from these elements. The yellow tower with a green background symbolizes the Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz and the abundant surrounding vegetation. The white columns, the words plus ultra - which mean further beyond - and the use of blue, all indicate that, although situated on the other side of the ocean, this new land belonged to Spain. The coat of arms is decorated by a yellow band with thirteen blue stars, several spirals and two floral arrangements. The history of the name Veracruz dates when the Spanish explorer Hernán Cortés (1485–1547) landed at Chalchihuecan in Veracruz on April 22, 1519, which was Good Friday, the Friday before Easter. Good Friday is also known as Vera Cruz (True Cross). Cortés called the settlement Villa Rica de la Vera Cruz.|
|The coat of arms of Yucatán features a deer, representing the native Mayan people, leaping over a henequen agave, once an important crop in the region. Representing the shared Mayan and Spanish heritage of the state, the symbols at the top and bottom of the border are Mayan arches and the symbols on the left and right are Spanish bell towers. In ancient times, this land had other names. It seems likely that its real name may have been Mayab (Ma'ya'ab) which in the Maya language means the place of little water. The land received the name Yucatán from the Spaniards. When they asked what the land was called, the Mayas obviously did not understand them and replied uh yu uthaan. In Maya, this phrase means listen how they speak; since the Spaniards understood Yucatán, they decided to give the land this name.|
|The coat of arms of Zacatecas depicts the foundation of the city. In 1541, the Mixtón War was finally won by the Spaniards; this victory opened up the northern territories to them. Juan de Tolosa explored the area now known as Tlaltenango. Some of the local Indians showed him some shiny rocks, and Tolosa knew that they contained silver. He then traveled to the land of the Zacatecos, since the shiny rocks came from there. At La Bufa Hill, Tolosa began to search for this precious mineral. Although the initial silver deposits were not very rich, the Spaniards spent several days there and took various loads of ore to Nochistlán.|
- Flag of Mexico
- List of Mexican flags
- List of Mexican coat of arms
- Seal of the United Mexican States
- National symbols of Mexico
- Ancient Mexico, Editorial Milenio
- González Block, Miguel A. (2004). "El Iztaccuhtli y el Águila Mexicana: ¿Cuauhti o Águila Real?". Arqueología Mexicana. Retrieved 2009-01-18. (Iztaccuhtli should be iztaccuahtli and cuauhti should be cuauhtli.) This page shows the beginning of an article in Arqueología Mexicana XII: 70, pp. 60–65 (2004).
- Flags of the World by Byron McCandless, p. 368
- National Center for Municipal Development (CEDEMUN), 1998.
- Consejo Nacional para la Cultura y las Artes.
- Editorial de Tecnología Avanzada, S.A. de C.V. (EDITEC).
- Department of Public Education (SEP)
- Campeche. Historia y Geografía. Tercer grado, México, 1997
- Centro Nacional de Desarrollo Municipal, SEGOB.
- Comisión Nacional de los Libros de Texto Gratuitos.
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